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preterm baby

Megan Lydon, Monica Longwe, Dyson Likomwa, Victoria Lwesha, Lydia Chimtembo, Pamela Donohue, Tanya Guenther, Bina Valsangar
Background: Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Debby P Utama, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in medical technology, the incidence of preterm birth remains high. The use of antenatal corticosteroid administered transplacentally, by intramuscular injection to women at risk of preterm birth, has reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and increased the survival rates of preterm infants. However, this intervention also comes with its own risks and side effects. Animal studies and early studies in pregnant women at risk of preterm birth have reported the use of an alternative route of administration, by direct intramuscular injection of corticosteroid into the fetus under ultrasound guidance, in an attempt to minimise the side-effect profile...
June 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Priyadarshani Galappatthy, Chiranthi Kongala Liyanage, Marianne Nishani Lucas, Dilini T L M Jayasekara, Sachith Aloka Abhayaratna, Chamari Weeraratne, Kusum De Abrew, Padma Sriyani Gunaratne, Ranjani Gamage, Chandrika N Wijeyaratne
BACKGROUND: Management of epilepsy during pregnancy in a resource-limited setting (RLS) is challenging. This study aimed to assess obstetric outcomes and effects on babies of women with epilepsy (WWE) exposed to Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) compared to non-exposed controls in a RLS. METHODS: Pregnant WWE were recruited from antenatal and neurology clinics of a tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Patients were reviewed in each trimester and post-partum. Medication adherence, adverse effects, seizure control and carbamazepine blood levels were monitored...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
P Naidoo, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS intensify inflammation during pregnancy and linked with adverse birth outcomes (ABOs). MicroRNA (miRNA)-146a plays a crucial role in regulating inflammation in the NF-κB pathway. The G/C rs2910164 dampens miRNA-146a activity and linked with inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated whether HIV/AIDS and NOx exposure throughout pregnancy further intensifies ABO in Black South African women genotyped for the rs2910164...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Frank H Bloomfield
As increasing numbers of babies born preterm survive into adulthood, it is becoming clear that, in addition to the well-described risks of neurodevelopmental sequelae, there also are increased risks for non-communicable diseases, including diabetes. Epidemiological studies indicate that risks are increased even for birth at late preterm and early term gestations and for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, factors related to preterm birth likely affect development of the fetal and neonatal beta-cell in addition to effects on peripheral insulin sensitivity...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
M R C van Minde, S M Hulst, H Raat, E A P Steegers, M L A de Kroon
BACKGROUND: Children born in families with non-medical risk factors, such as deprivation, have higher odds of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) or being born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile). In addition, growing up they are at risk for growth and developmental problems. Preventive Child Healthcare (PCHC) monitors growth and development of babies and children. Early identification of children at risk could result in early interventions to prevent growth and developmental problems in later life...
June 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Michael A Belfort
Premature preterm rupture of the membranes (PPROM) complicates fetal surgery in 23% of open neural tube defect repairs.(Moldenhauer et al. Fetal Diagn Ther 2015) PPROM increases the risk of contractions and delivery as well as the risk of inflammation/infection for both mother and baby. Identification of those patients at risk for PPROM following fetal surgery would clearly be useful. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 7, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Sarah J Kotecha, John Lowe, Sailesh Kotecha
Being born very preterm is associated with later deficits in lung function and an increased rate of respiratory symptoms compared with term-born children. The rates of early respiratory infections are higher in very preterm-born subjects, which may independently lead to deficits in lung function in later life. As with very preterm-born children, deficits in lung function, increased respiratory symptoms and an increased risk of respiratory infections in early life are observed in late -preterm-born children...
June 2018: Breathe
Stephen Wandro, Stephanie Osborne, Claudia Enriquez, Christine Bixby, Antonio Arrieta, Katrine Whiteson
The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Xiaomei Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Bin Zhang, Aifen Zhou, Tongzhang Zheng, Zheng Huang, Xinyun Pan, Wenyu Liu, Hongxiu Liu, Yangqian Jiang, Xiaojie Sun, Chen Hu, Yuling Xing, Wei Xia, Shunqing Xu
Prior studies have suggested the reproductive effects of nickel; however, few epidemiological studies have investigated the associations of maternal exposure to nickel with preterm delivery. To investigate prenatal exposure to nickel as a risk factor for preterm delivery (< 37 weeks) in a large birth cohort. A total of 7291 pregnant women participated in the study were recruited between September 2012 and October 2014 in the longitudinal Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC) in Wuhan, China. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was employed to examine levels of nickel in urine from pregnant women collected before labor...
February 2018: Chemosphere
Fabiola Castorena-Torres, Mario René Alcorta-García, Víctor Javier Lara-Díaz
Both transient tachypnea of the newborn and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome have been associated with changes in gene expression of aquaporine-5 (AQP5) and the β subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (β-ENaC) in the respiratory epithelium. Gastric aspirate (GA) obtained immediately after birth could represent a new source for gene expression analysis for these respiratory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility of estimating AQP5 and β-ENaC gene expression in exfoliated respiratory epithelial cells from the GA of term neonates, and to compare the values with those found in scraped nasal epithelial cells, previously validated as a surrogate for distal lung epithelium in terms of ionic channel activity...
April 2018: Heliyon
A Santamaria, A Alibrandi, A Di Benedetto, B Pintaudi, F Corrado, F Facchinetti, R D'Anna
BACKGROUND: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that; begins or it is first recognized during pregnancy. Insulin sensitizing substances as Myo-inositol have been considered for the prevention of GDM and related complications. OBJECTIVE: Since previous studies failed to show a clear reduction of GDM complications, the aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and metabolic outcomes in women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus supplemented with myo-inositol since first trimester...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
K Winkler, C Contini, B König, B Krumrey, G Pütz, S Zschiedrich, U Pecks, D Stavropoulou, H Prömpeler, M Kunze, F Markfeld-Erol
OBJECTIVE: Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is thought to be causative in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) and specific removal of sFlt-1 via dextran sulfate cellulose (DSC)-apheresis was suggested as cure to allow prolongation of pregnancy in preterm PE. However, in addition a deranged lipoprotein metabolism may impact endothelial and placental function in PE. Lipoprotein-apheresis by heparin-mediated extracorporeal LDL-precipitation (H.E.L.P.) was previously applied and has been shown to alleviate symptoms in PE...
April 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Liona C Poon, H David McIntyre, Jonathan A Hyett, Eduardo Borges da Fonseca, Moshe Hod
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has identified non communicable maternal diseases (NCDs) as a new focus area. NCDs and exposures as related to pregnancy complications and later impairment of maternal and offspring health will form the basis for action in the forthcoming years. This paper summarizes recent advances, centered on the use of first-trimester testing, as a window of opportunity to predict and prevent many pregnancy complications; and for potential future prevention of NCDs in mother and offspring...
May 28, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jie Hu, Wei Xia, Xinyun Pan, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang, Aifen Zhou, Stephen L Buka, Bryan A Bassig, Wenyu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Yang Peng, Jun Li, Chuncao Zhang, Hongxiu Liu, Minmin Jiang, Youjie Wang, Jianduan Zhang, Zheng Huang, Dan Zheng, Kunchong Shi, Zhengmin Qian, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Vanadium, an important pollutant produced from anthropogenic activities, has been suggested to be embryotoxic and fetotoxic in animal studies. However, little is known about its effects on humans. We aimed to assess the association of prenatal exposure to vanadium with the risk of adverse birth outcomes in babies born to women in China. METHODS: For this population-based cohort study, the Healthy Baby Cohort, women were recruited from three cities in Hubei Province, China...
September 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
Lema Desalegn Hailu, Deresse Legesse Kebede
Background: Low birth weight is the leading cause of infant and child mortality and contributes to several poor health outcomes. Proper knowledge of risk factors of low birth weight is important for identifying those mothers at risk and thereby for planning and taking appropriate actions. This study investigates factors predicting occurrence of low birth weight among deliveries at Debreberhan Referral Hospital. Methods: Facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted among deliveries that took place at Debreberhan Referral Hospital...
2018: BioMed Research International
Manuel R G Carrapato, Teresa Andrade, Teresa Caldeira
Small preterms often have low blood pressure readings in the first few days of life. However, what is hypotension in preterms? Should there be an aggressive approach to its management? What are the immediate and long-term side effects of powerful medications? Alternatively, could be accepted a low blood pressure instead? Our data show that, despite extremely low gestational age (ELGA) / extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates, almost half of these tiny babies have neither low mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings nor clinical signs of impaired perfusion...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Cristian Viorel Poalelungi, Liana Ples, Decebal Hudita, Iuliana Ceausu
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the historical risk factors associated with preterm birth, and the potential benefit of correct prenatal care for prevention. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in 2011-12 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, and comprised women who gave birth at the hospital during the study period. The pregnancy was considered clinically cared if a pregnant woman underwent the following exams: first trimester ultrasound, maternal serum tests, screening tests, second trimester ultrasound, and amniocentesis if deemed necessary...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Chandra Prakash Rath, Mary Thomas, Drew Sullivan, Martin Kluckow
AIM: To compare thyroid function tests in preterm neonates (<30 weeks and >48 hour old) exposed to iodine-based contrast with controls and ascertain the certainty of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip position. METHODS: Infants requiring a PICC were randomised to receive 0.3 mL of iodine-containing contrast or normal saline. The primary outcome was the difference in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels on day 14 post PICC insertion and on day 28 of life...
May 28, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Didier Tshamala, Anita Pelecanos, Mark W Davies
AIM: To determine the proportion of very preterm infants who were exclusively fed breast milk at the time of discharge home, before and after the availability of pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM). METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study with historical comparison, comparing two cohorts (<32 weeks gestational age or very low birthweight) before and after the availability of donor human milk. The main explanatory variable was the PDHM cohort: pre-PDHM or post-PDHM...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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