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pathophysiology of burn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522185/orofacial-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-functional-mri
#1
Yeon-Hee Lee, Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Soo-Kyung Kang, Q-Schick Auh, Jyung-Pyo Hong, Yang-Hyun Chun
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated...
March 14, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448295/the-role-of-mitochondrial-stress-in-muscle-wasting-following-severe-burn-trauma
#2
John O Ogunbileje, David N Herndon, Andrew J Murton, Craig Porter
Increased resting metabolic rate (hypermetabolism) and skeletal muscle wasting are hallmarks of the pathophysiological stress response to severe burn trauma. However, whether these two responses occur independently in burn patients or are in fact related remains unclear. In light of recent evidence demonstrating that increased proteolysis in skeletal muscle of burned patients is accompanied by mitochondrial hypermetabolism, oxidative stress, and protein damage; in this article, we discuss the evidence for a role for the mitochondrion in skeletal muscle wasting following severe burn trauma...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444167/electrical-cardiac-injuries-current-concepts-and-management
#3
Victor Waldmann, Kumar Narayanan, Nicolas Combes, Daniel Jost, Xavier Jouven, Eloi Marijon
Electrical injuries are a commonly encountered hazard in both the home and workplace. However, clinicians are often uncomfortable when faced with the patient who presents with an electric shock due to sparse literature and lack of systematic recommendations on this topic. Electrical injuries can range from minor skin burns to life threatening internal organ damage. A thorough clinical assessment to ascertain the path of current through the body and possible internal injury is essential. The main concern in an apparently stable individual after an electric shock is the potential for delayed occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias which will require monitoring in the intensive care setting...
April 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438489/laryngopharyngeal-reflux-and-voice-disorders-a-multifactorial-model-of-etiology-and-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Jerome R Lechien, Sven Saussez, Bernard Harmegnies, Camille Finck, James A Burns
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to shed light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of hoarseness related to laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched for the terms reflux, laryngopharyngeal, laryngitis, voice, and hoarseness. Experimental and clinical studies providing substantial information about the occurrence of voice disorders, laryngeal histologic changes, or any pathophysiological processes related to LPRD were included by two independent investigators...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431991/molecular-mechanisms-of-trauma-induced-acute-kidney-injury-inflammatory-and-metabolic-insights-from-animal-models
#5
David M Burmeister, Belinda I Gómez, Michael A Dubick
Trauma-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), such as after hemorrhagic shock (HS) or burn, remains a significant problem in the intensive care unit and is associated with increased mortality. The pathophysiology that drives AKI post-trauma is multi factorial, and includes both inflammatory and metabolic alterations. Identifying the systemic profile that contributes to AKI is crucial not only for early diagnosis, but also for identifying treatments that improve kidney function and maintaining long-term patient health...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427131/-recognizing-prevention-and-treatment-of-burn-sepsis-with-the-concept-of-holistic-integrative-medicine
#6
J N Huan
Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410931/a-model-of-recovery-from-inhalation-injury-and-cutaneous-burn-in-ambulatory-swine
#7
David M Burmeister, Matthew K McIntyre, Brendan Beely, Bryan Jordan, Kerfoot P Walker, James K Aden, Andriy Batchinsky, Kevin K Chung, Leopoldo C Cancio, Robert J Christy
Inhalation injury commonly accompanies thermal injury, increasing the likelihood of mortality and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Large animal models have given important insight into the pathophysiology of this injury; however recapitulating late MOD has remained difficult. The current report describes experiments using a smoke inhalation and burn model, with follow-up of ambulatory swine for 14days with bronchoscopy, CT scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)/blood collection. Clinically, animals cleared airway damage in the first several days after-injury...
April 11, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394042/metabolic-profiling-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Florence Burté, David Houghton, Hannah Lowes, Angela Pyle, Sarah Nesbitt, Alison Yarnall, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, David J Burn, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Gavin Hudson
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment is important to enable prompt treatment and improve patient welfare, yet no standard diagnostic test is available. Metabolomics is a powerful tool used to elucidate disease mechanisms and identify potential biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to use metabolic profiling to understand the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease and to identify potential disease biomarkers...
April 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381558/gain-of-function-mutation-of-a-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-7-associated-with-peripheral-pain-and-impaired-limb-development
#9
Brian S Tanaka, Phuong T Nguyen, Eray Yihui Zhou, Yong Yang, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Stephen G Waxman
Dominant mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 cause inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), a debilitating pain disorder characterized by severe burning pain and redness of the distal extremities. NaV1.7 is preferentially expressed within peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons. Here, we describe a novel NaV1.7 mutation in an 11-year old male with under-development of the limbs, recurrent attacks of burning pain with erythema and swelling in his feet and hands. Frequency and duration of the episodes gradually increased with age and relief by cooling became less effective...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371612/current-experimental-models-of-burns
#10
Miao Qu, Mahtab Nourbakhsh
Burn injuries have a consistently high rate of mortality and morbidity and will remain a major health problem because burn injuries can result in repeat admissions for reconstruction and rehabilitation. Thus, addressing the pathophysiology of burns is crucial to improve both therapeutic interventions and patient care. A number of experimental burn models have been employed to study the systemic response of the whole organism and the more detailed cellular and molecular pathways affected by burns. However, an in-depth understanding and the useful application of experimental models are essential for effectively translating laboratory outcomes to clinical treatments...
February 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368916/topical-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-of-burned-hands-functional-outcomes
#11
Denis Ehrl, Paul I Heidekrueger, P Niclas Broer, Holger C Erne
Extensive partial- and full-thickness burns, especially of the hands, continue to pose a surgical challenge. With improved knowledge regarding fluid balance, burn pathophysiology, and lately also given the introduction of topical negative pressure wound (TNPW) therapy, treatment regimes have changed in many burn centers. The authors evaluated the results regarding long-term outcomes of patients with partial- and full-thickness burns of the hands treated with TNPW. Over a period of 72 months, 51 patients with 80 hand burns received TNPW treatment...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368347/the-role-of-th-17-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-modulating-the-systemic-inflammatory-response-to-severe-burn-injury
#12
REVIEW
Albert Kim, Thomas Lang, Meilang Xue, Aruna Wijewardana, Chris Jackson, John Vandervord
Burns are a global public health problem, accounting for an estimated 265,000 deaths annually. Inflammation is essential in supplying the growth factors, cytokines and chemokines needed to recruit T-cells and myeloid cells to the site of a burn injury for wound healing. However, major burns generate a marked pathophysiological inflammatory response through a widespread release of abundant pro-inflammatory mediators that predispose patients to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis and multi-organ failure...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314935/a-disease-with-a-sweet-tooth-exploring-the-warburg-effect-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Anna Atlante, Lidia de Bari, Antonella Bobba, Giuseppina Amadoro
After more than 80 years from the revolutionary discoveries of Otto Warburg, who observed high glucose dependency, with increased glycolysis and lactate production regardless of oxygen availability in most cancer cells, the 'Warburg effect' returns to the fore in neuronal cells affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Indeed, it seems that, in the mild phase of AD, neuronal cells "prefer" to use the energetically inefficient method of burning glucose by glycolysis, as in cancer, proving to become resistant to β-amyloid (Aβ)-dependent apoptosis...
June 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292986/arginine-is-a-critical-substrate-for-the-pathogenesis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-burn-wound-infections
#14
Jake Everett, Keith Turner, Qiuxian Cai, Vernita Gordon, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra Rumbaugh
Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289356/management-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#15
G S Abu-Sittah, F M Chahine, H Janom
Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population...
December 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271013/ultrahigh-resolution-oct-imaging-of-the-human-cornea
#16
René M Werkmeister, Sabina Sapeta, Doreen Schmidl, Gerhard Garhöfer, Gerald Schmidinger, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Gerold C Aschinger, Isabella Baumgartner, Niklas Pircher, Florian Schwarzhans, Anca Pantalon, Harminder Dua, Leopold Schmetterer
We present imaging of corneal pathologies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) with high resolution. To this end, an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT (UHR-OCT) system based on a broad bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser is employed. With a central wavelength of 800 nm, the imaging device allows to acquire OCT data at the central, paracentral and peripheral cornea as well as the limbal region with 1.2 µm x 20 µm (axial x lateral) resolution at a rate of 140 000 A-scans/s. Structures of the anterior segment of the eye, not accessible with commercial OCT systems, are visualized...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260266/burns-dressings
#17
Helen E Douglas, Fiona Wood
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression...
March 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248835/specific-etiologies-associated-with-the-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-in-children-part-2
#18
Jeffrey S Upperman, John C Bucuvalas, Felicia N Williams, Bruce A Cairns, Charles S Cox, Allan Doctor, Robert F Tamburro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a number of conditions and therapies associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented as part of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Multiple Organ Dysfunction Workshop (March 26-27, 2015). In addition, the relationship between burn injuries and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is also included although it was not discussed at the workshop. DATA SOURCES: Literature review, research data, and expert opinion...
March 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198133/left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy-in-advanced-heart-failure-patient-selection-and-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Finn Gustafsson, Joseph G Rogers
Despite improvements in pharmacological therapy and pacing, prognosis in advanced heart failure (HF) remains poor, with a 1-year mortality of 25-50%. While heart transplantation provides excellent survival and quality of life for eligible patients, only a few can be offered this treatment due to shortage of donor organs. Implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology has improved considerably, and the currently used continuous flow devices may last >10 years in a patient. LVADs are being used increasingly both as bridge-to-transplantation and as destination therapy...
May 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#20
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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