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pathophysiology of burn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314935/a-disease-with-a-sweet-tooth-exploring-the-warburg-effect-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Anna Atlante, Lidia de Bari, Antonella Bobba, Giuseppina Amadoro
After more than 80 years from the revolutionary discoveries of Otto Warburg, who observed high glucose dependency, with increased glycolysis and lactate production regardless of oxygen availability in most cancer cells, the 'Warburg effect' returns to the fore in neuronal cells affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Indeed, it seems that, in the mild phase of AD, neuronal cells "prefer" to use the energetically inefficient method of burning glucose by glycolysis, as in cancer, proving to become resistant to β-amyloid (Aβ)-dependent apoptosis...
March 17, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292986/arginine-is-a-critical-substrate-for-the-pathogenesis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-burn-wound-infections
#2
Jake Everett, Keith Turner, Qiuxian Cai, Vernita Gordon, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra Rumbaugh
Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289356/management-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#3
G S Abu-Sittah, F M Chahine, H Janom
Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population...
December 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271013/ultrahigh-resolution-oct-imaging-of-the-human-cornea
#4
René M Werkmeister, Sabina Sapeta, Doreen Schmidl, Gerhard Garhöfer, Gerald Schmidinger, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Gerold C Aschinger, Isabella Baumgartner, Niklas Pircher, Florian Schwarzhans, Anca Pantalon, Harminder Dua, Leopold Schmetterer
We present imaging of corneal pathologies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) with high resolution. To this end, an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT (UHR-OCT) system based on a broad bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser is employed. With a central wavelength of 800 nm, the imaging device allows to acquire OCT data at the central, paracentral and peripheral cornea as well as the limbal region with 1.2 µm x 20 µm (axial x lateral) resolution at a rate of 140 000 A-scans/s. Structures of the anterior segment of the eye, not accessible with commercial OCT systems, are visualized...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260266/burns-dressings
#5
Helen E Douglas, Fiona Wood
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression...
March 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248835/specific-etiologies-associated-with-the-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-in-children-part-2
#6
Jeffrey S Upperman, John C Bucuvalas, Felicia N Williams, Bruce A Cairns, Charles S Cox, Allan Doctor, Robert F Tamburro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a number of conditions and therapies associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented as part of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Multiple Organ Dysfunction Workshop (March 26-27, 2015). In addition, the relationship between burn injuries and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is also included although it was not discussed at the workshop. DATA SOURCES: Literature review, research data, and expert opinion...
March 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198133/left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy-in-advanced-heart-failure-patient-selection-and-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Finn Gustafsson, Joseph G Rogers
Despite improvements in pharmacological therapy and pacing, prognosis in advanced heart failure (HF) remains poor, with a 1-year mortality of 25-50%. While heart transplantation provides excellent survival and quality of life for eligible patients, only a few can be offered this treatment due to shortage of donor organs. Implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology has improved considerably, and the currently used continuous flow devices may last >10 years in a patient. LVADs are being used increasingly both as bridge-to-transplantation and as destination therapy...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#8
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190442/neurologic-complications-of-acute-environmental-injuries
#9
I R F da Silva, J A Frontera
Environmental injuries can result in serious neurologic morbidity. This chapter reviews neurologic complications of thermal burns, smoke inhalation, lightning strikes, electric injury, near drowning, decompression illness, as well as heat stroke and accidental hypothermia. Knowing the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of such injuries is essential to proper management of primary and secondary medical complications. This chapter highlights the most frequently encountered neurologic injuries secondary to common environmental hazards, divided into the topics: injuries related to fire, electricity, water, and the extremes of temperature...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164653/blast-burn-combined-injury-followed-by-immediate-seawater-immersion-induces-hemodynamic-changes-and-metabolic-acidosis-an-experimental-study-in-a-canine-model
#10
Yi Hu, Qingxiang Mao, Shaobing Ye, Ji Peng, Xiaoqin Gan, Xian Chen, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: Severe burn-blast combined injury often causes systematic dysfunction related to blood coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis. However, studies of burn-blast combined injury followed by immersion in seawater are rarely reported. METHODS: A canine burn-blast combined injury model was established including blast injury caused by explosion immediately followed by burning with gelatinized gasoline flames. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups: burn-blast injury (BB group); burn-blast injury followed by seawater immersion for four hours (BBI group); only immersed in seawater (I group); and sham treatment with no injury or immersion (S group)...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158149/a-systematic-review-on-the-prevalence-etiology-and-pathophysiology-of-intrinsic-pain-in-dermal-scar-tissue
#11
Eveline Bijlard, Lisa Uiterwaal, Casimir A E Kouwenberg, Marc A M Mureau, Steven E R Hovius, Frank J P M Huygen
BACKGROUND: Scars can cause pain, even without symptoms of underlying nerve damage. A lack of knowledge on intrinsic scar pain hampers effective treatment of these complaints. OBJECTIVE: Aggregate current knowledge on the prevalence, etiology, and pathophysiology of intrinsic pain in dermal scars. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: University Medical Center. METHODS: We searched the Embase, Medline, Cochrane central, CINAHL, Web-of-Science, and Pubmed databases with search terms: scar, skin, pain, and etiology/pathology, adding all synonyms of these terms...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152319/evaluation-of-plasma-oxidative-stress-with-or-without-antioxidant-supplementation-in-superficial-partial-thickness-burn-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Edoardo Raposio, Michele P Grieco, Edoardo Caleffi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of pathophysiological alterations observed during burn injury. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether a specific oral antioxidant supplementation could in any way influence free radical blood values in patients affected by superficial partial thickness burns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma oxidants and plasma antioxidant capacity were analysed in 20 superficial partial thickness burn patients for a 2-week period; patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which was supported with a specifically designed oral antioxidant formula (Squalene 100 mg, Vitamin C 30 mg, Coenzyme Q10 10 mg, Zinc 5 mg, Beta Carotene 3...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149247/blast-pulmonaire-primaire-chez-le-br%C3%A3-l%C3%A3-a-propos-d%C3%A2-un-cas-et-revue-de-la-litt%C3%A3-rature
#13
S Siah, A Emane, M Bertin-Maghit
Blasts can cause specific lesions requiring specialized care. After an explosion, primary blast injury (due to the shock wave), secondary blast injury (due to shrapnel) or tertiary blast injury (due to the victim being displaced by the blast) can occur. Secondary and tertiary blasts are much more frequent than primary blasts and can lead to polytrauma. Burns occur in 5% of cases and are termed quaternary blast lesions, which include lesions not due to the above-mentioned mechanisms. Care of secondary and tertiary blasts does not differ to that for any polytrauma...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134657/burning-pain-axonal-dysfunction-in-erythromelalgia
#14
Michelle A Farrar, Ming-Jen Lee, James Howells, P Ian Andrews, Cindy S-Y Lin
Erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare neurovascular disorder characterized by intermittent severe burning pain, erythema and warmth in the extremities upon heat stimuli. To investigate the underlying pathophysiology, peripheral axonal excitability studies were performed and changes with heating and therapy explored. Multiple excitability indices (stimulus-response curve, strength-duration time constant (SDTC), threshold electrotonus and recovery cycle) were investigated in 23(9 EMSCN9A+, 14 EMSCN9A-) genetically characterized EM patients stimulating median motor and sensory axons at the wrist...
January 24, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088864/integrated-high-throughput-multiomics-platform-enables-data-driven-construction-of-cellular-responses-and-reveals-global-drug-mechanisms-of-action
#15
Jeremy L Norris, Melissa A Farrow, Danielle B Gutierrez, Lauren D Palmer, Nicole Muszynski, Stacy D Sherrod, James C Pino, Jamie L Allen, Jeffrey M Spraggins, Alex L R Lubbock, Ashley Jordan, William Burns, James C Poland, Carrie Romer, M Lisa Manier, Yuan-Wei Nei, Boone M Prentice, Kristie L Rose, Salisha Hill, Raf Van de Plas, Tina Tsui, Nathaniel M Braman, M Ray Keller, Stacey A Rutherford, Nichole Lobdell, Carlos F Lopez, D Borden Lacy, John A McLean, John P Wikswo, Eric P Skaar, Richard M Caprioli
An understanding of how cells respond to perturbation is essential for biological applications; however, most approaches for profiling cellular response are limited in scope to pre-established targets. Global analysis of molecular mechanism will advance our understanding of the complex networks constituting cellular perturbation and lead to advancements in areas, such as infectious disease pathogenesis, developmental biology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, and toxicology. We have developed a high-throughput multiomics platform for comprehensive, de novo characterization of cellular mechanisms of action...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054645/characterization-of-a-model-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-in-vivo-elicited-by-continuous-infusion-of-endotoxin
#16
D Kiers, R M Koch, L Hamers, J Gerretsen, E J M Thijs, L van Ede, N P Riksen, M Kox, P Pickkers
Investigating the systemic inflammatory response in patients with critical illness such as sepsis, trauma and burns is complicated due to uncertainties about the onset, duration and severity of the insult. Therefore, in vivo models of inflammation are essential to study the pathophysiology and to evaluate immunomodulatory therapies. Intravenous bolus administration of endotoxin to healthy volunteers is a well-established model of a short-lived systemic inflammatory response, characterized by increased plasma cytokine levels, flu-like symptoms and fever...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050031/editorial-moving-away-from-focussing-on-gastric-pathophysiology-in-functional-dyspepsia-new-insights-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a prevalent syndrome that affects up to one in six Americans, although misdiagnosis as gastroesophageal reflux disease may be common. Early satiety, postprandial fullness, and epigastric pain or burning are the cardinal symptoms. Traditionally, FD has been blamed on gastric dysfunction and much research effort has focussed on unlocking the gastric pathophysiology. New research suggests gastric dysfunction has only a minor role in the pathogenesis in many cases, and the focus has begun to shift to evaluation of duodenal feedback and subtle inflammation including duodenal eosinophilia...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041752/burns-and-long-term-infectious-disease-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#18
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Fiona M Wood, James H Boyd, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027250/important-developments-in-burn-care
#19
Kevin J Zuo, Abelardo Medina, Edward E Tredget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Explain the epidemiology of severe burn injury in the context of socioeconomic status, gender, age, and burn cause. 2. Describe challenges with burn depth evaluation and novel methods of adjunctive assessment. 3. Summarize the survival and functional outcomes of severe burn injury. 4. State strategies of fluid resuscitation, endpoints to guide fluid titration, and sequelae of overresuscitation. 5. Recognize preventative measures of sepsis...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025120/comparative-systems-toxicology-analysis-of-cigarette-smoke-and-aerosol-from-a-candidate-modified-risk-tobacco-product-in-organotypic-human-gingival-epithelial-cultures-a-3-day-repeated-exposure-study
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Filippo Zanetti, Bjoern Titz, Alain Sewer, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Elena Scotti, Walter K Schlage, Carole Mathis, Patrice Leroy, Shoaib Majeed, Laura Ortega Torres, Brian R Keppler, Ashraf Elamin, Keyur Trivedi, Emmanuel Guedj, Florian Martin, Stefan Frentzel, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2...
March 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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