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pathophysiology of burn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054645/characterization-of-a-model-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-in-vivo-elicited-by-continuous-infusion-of-endotoxin
#1
D Kiers, R M Koch, L Hamers, J Gerretsen, E J M Thijs, L van Ede, N P Riksen, M Kox, P Pickkers
Investigating the systemic inflammatory response in patients with critical illness such as sepsis, trauma and burns is complicated due to uncertainties about the onset, duration and severity of the insult. Therefore, in vivo models of inflammation are essential to study the pathophysiology and to evaluate immunomodulatory therapies. Intravenous bolus administration of endotoxin to healthy volunteers is a well-established model of a short-lived systemic inflammatory response, characterized by increased plasma cytokine levels, flu-like symptoms and fever...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050031/editorial-moving-away-from-focussing-on-gastric-pathophysiology-in-functional-dyspepsia-new-insights-and-therapeutic-implications
#2
Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a prevalent syndrome that affects up to one in six Americans, although misdiagnosis as gastroesophageal reflux disease may be common. Early satiety, postprandial fullness, and epigastric pain or burning are the cardinal symptoms. Traditionally, FD has been blamed on gastric dysfunction and much research effort has focussed on unlocking the gastric pathophysiology. New research suggests gastric dysfunction has only a minor role in the pathogenesis in many cases, and the focus has begun to shift to evaluation of duodenal feedback and subtle inflammation including duodenal eosinophilia...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041752/burns-and-long-term-infectious-disease-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#3
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Fiona M Wood, James H Boyd, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027250/important-developments-in-burn-care
#4
Kevin J Zuo, Abelardo Medina, Edward E Tredget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Explain the epidemiology of severe burn injury in the context of socioeconomic status, gender, age, and burn cause. 2. Describe challenges with burn depth evaluation and novel methods of adjunctive assessment. 3. Summarize the survival and functional outcomes of severe burn injury. 4. State strategies of fluid resuscitation, endpoints to guide fluid titration, and sequelae of overresuscitation. 5. Recognize preventative measures of sepsis...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025120/comparative-systems-toxicology-analysis-of-cigarette-smoke-and-aerosol-from-a-candidate-modified-risk-tobacco-product-in-organotypic-human-gingival-epithelial-cultures-a-3-day-repeated-exposure-study
#5
Filippo Zanetti, Bjoern Titz, Alain Sewer, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Elena Scotti, Walter K Schlage, Carole Mathis, Patrice Leroy, Shoaib Majeed, Laura Ortega Torres, Brian R Keppler, Elamin Ashraf, Keyur Trivedi, Emmanuel Guedj, Florian Martin, Stefan Frentzel, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2...
December 23, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013226/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation
#6
Benjamin M Boral, Dennis J Williams, Leonard I Boral
OBJECTIVES: To provide a review of the definition, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). METHODS: A case scenario and a review of the literature related to the pertinent facts concerning DIC are provided. RESULTS: DIC is a systemic pathophysiologic process and not a single disease entity, resulting from an overwhelming activation of coagulation that consumes platelets and coagulation factors and causes microvascular fibrin thrombi, which can result in multiorgan dysfunction syndrome from tissue ischemia...
December 24, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958284/pathophysiological-abnormalities-in-functional-dyspepsia-subgroups-according-to-the-rome-iii-criteria
#7
H Vanheel, F Carbone, L Valvekens, M Simren, H Tornblom, T Vanuytsel, L Van Oudenhove, J Tack
OBJECTIVES: The Rome III criteria proposed to subdivide functional dyspepsia (FD) into a postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) group, characterized by the presence of postprandial fullness and/or early satiety, and an epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) group, characterized by the presence of epigastric pain and/or epigastric burning. It has been suggested that different pathophysiological mechanisms underlie the symptom presentations in these subgroups that might determine treatment choices...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936199/circulating-microvesicles-are-elevated-acutely-following-major-burns-injury-and-associated-with-clinical-severity
#8
Kieran P O'Dea, John R Porter, Nikhil Tirlapur, Umar Katbeh, Suveer Singh, Jonathan M Handy, Masao Takata
Microvesicles are cell-derived signaling particles emerging as important mediators and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, but their production in severe burn injury patients has not been described. In this pilot investigation, we measured circulating microvesicle levels following severe burns, with severe sepsis patients as a comparator group. We hypothesized that levels of circulating vascular cell-derived microvesicles are elevated acutely following burns injury, mirroring clinical severity due to the early onset and prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in these patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931647/hemodynamic-coherence-in-patients-with-burns
#9
REVIEW
Sabri Soussi, Matthieu Legrand
Burn shock is characterized by profound hemodynamic alterations mainly associated with rapid loss of intravascular volume related to severe capillary leak. Thus, fluid resuscitation conventionally based on macrocirculatory targets is considered as a corner stone of initial management of patients with burns. Nonetheless, traditional markers such as blood pressure, urinary output, and cardiac output are helpful but do not sufficiently reflect the adequacy of perfusion and oxygenation at the microcirculatory level...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928524/review-of-medicinal-remedies-on-hand-eczema-based-on-iranian-traditional-medicine-a-narrative-review-article
#10
REVIEW
Parvin Mansouri, Aleme Khademi, Daryoush Pahlevan, Zahra Memariani, Jale Aliasl, Laila Shirbeigii
BACKGROUND: Hand Eczema (HE) is a dermatological disorder with frequent relapses and multiple causes such as atopic, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The management is complex because of the wide range of different pathogenesis. Efficacy of some of available treatments is not well established and it can affect patients' quality of life significantly. METHODS: Reports on HE such as diagnosis, pathophysiology, pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy that described in medieval Iranian medicine, were gathered and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM)...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865667/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-prevalence-aetiology-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Claire McDonald, Kristian Winge, David J Burn
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), effecting 27-85% of patients with PD. Irritative symptoms predominate and urodynamic studies confirm high prevalence of detrusor overactivity in PD. LUTS are present early in PD and are more common in PD than in age matched controls. The assessment of LUTS in PD is complicated by coexisting bradykinesia and cognitive impairment. Although LUTS become more troublesome as PD progresses it remains unclear if LUTS severity correlates with motor symptoms and/or duration of PD...
November 1, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863270/fluid-resuscitation-mediates-the-association-between-inhalational-burn-injury-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-major-burn-population
#12
Avinash B Kumar, William Andrews, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Scott Dennis, Jonathan Wanderer, Blair Summitt
BACKGROUND: It is known that acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are independent risk factors for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) through complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Our specific aim is to evaluate the risk factors for AKI postburn injury and whether inhalation thermal injury is an independent risk factor for developing AKI in the major burn population. METHODS: This is an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary burn intensive care unit between 2011 and 2013...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843971/cold-burn-injuries-in-the-uk-the-11-year-experience-of-a-tertiary-burns-centre
#13
Metin Nizamoglu, Alethea Tan, Tobias Vickers, Nicholas Segaren, David Barnes, Peter Dziewulski
BACKGROUND: Guidance for the management of thermal injuries has evolved with improved understanding of burn pathophysiology. Guidance for the management of cold burn injuries is not widely available. The management of these burns differs from the standard management of thermal injuries. This study aimed to review the etiology and management of all cold burns presenting to a large regional burn centre in the UK and to provide a simplified management pathway for cold burns. METHODS: An 11-year retrospective  analysis (1 January 2003-31 December 2014)  of all cold injuries presenting to a regional burns centre in the UK was conducted...
2016: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835852/active-antioxidants-in-ex-vivo-examination-of-burn-wound-healing-by-means-of-ir-and-raman-spectroscopies-preliminary-comparative-research
#14
Anna Pielesz, Dorota Biniaś, Ewa Sarna, Rafał Bobiński, Marek Kawecki, Justyna Glik, Agnieszka Klama-Baryła, Diana Kitala, Wojciech Łabuś, Jadwiga Paluch, Małgorzata Kraut
Being a complex traumatic event, burn injury also affects other organ systems apart from the skin. Wounds undergo various pathological changes which are accompanied by alterations in the molecular environment. Information about molecules may be obtained with the use of Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and when combined, both methods are a powerful tool for providing material characterization. Alterations in the molecular environment may lead to identifying objective markers of acute wound healing...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823733/microablative-fractional-co2-laser-therapy-and-the-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause-an-observational-study
#15
Eleni Pitsouni, Themos Grigoriadis, Angeliki Tsiveleka, Dimitris Zacharakis, Stefano Salvatore, Stavros Athanasiou
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effect of the Microablative Fractional CO2 Laser (CO2-laser) therapy on vaginal pathophysiology and the symptoms of the Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM). METHODS: Postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of GSM underwent three sessions of CO2-laser therapy at monthly intervals. Participants were evaluated at baseline and 4 weeks after the last treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were Vaginal Maturation Value (VMV) and Vaginal Health Index Score (VHIS)...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765087/-wound-healing-is-still-a-game-of-blind-men-and-an-elephant
#16
C M Han
The wound healing includes non-healing and overhealing of the wounds. The results of wound healing are well known by people such as non-healing of the diabetic ulcer or hypertrophic scar after deep burn. In this issue, three papers involve in wound healing, one about autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells injected into wound or scar of rabbit ear, one about severe hypoxia and hypoalbuminemia inducing human hypertrophic scar derived fibroblast apoptosis in vitro, and another about the dysfunction of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway contributing to the pathophysiological characteristics of diabetic skin and non-healing wound...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733369/the-relationship-between-urinary-renin-angiotensin-system-markers-renal-and-vascular-function-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
Kevin D Burns, Yuliya Lytvyn, Farid H Mahmud, Denis Daneman, Livia Deda, David B Dunger, John E Deanfield, R Neil Dalton, Yesmino Elia, Ronnie Har, Julie A D Van, Timothy J Bradley, Cameron Slorach, Wei Hui, Fengxia Xiao, Joseph Zimpelmann, Luc Mertens, Rahim Moineddin, Heather N Reich, Etienne B Sochett, James W Scholey, David Z I Cherney
AIMS: The relationship between the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and cardiorenal pathophysiology is unclear. Our aims were to assess (1) levels of urinary RAAS components and (2) the association between RAAS components and HbA1c, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood pressure in otherwise healthy adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TID) vs. healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Urinary angiotensinogen and ACE2 levels, activity of ACE and ACE2, blood pressure (BP), HbA1c, ACR and eGFR were measured in 65 HC and 194 T1D from the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718082/concentration-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-positively-correlates-with-symptoms-in-functional-dyspepsia
#18
Fumio Tanaka, Kazunari Tominaga, Yoshiko Fujikawa, Yasuaki Nagami, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Toshio Watanabe, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
BACKGROUND: In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), mild duodenal inflammation correlates with increased mucosal permeability. Enteric glial cells can produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to repair disrupted epithelial barrier function. AIMS: We examined the role of duodenal GDNF in FD pathophysiology and its association with dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies taken from FD patients and control subjects were used for analysis...
October 7, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707500/pathophysiology-research-challenges-and-clinical-management-of-smoke-inhalation-injury
#19
REVIEW
Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Basil A Pruitt, Oscar Suman, Ronald Mlcak, Steven E Wolf, Hiroyuki Sakurai, David N Herndon
Smoke inhalation injury is a serious medical problem that increases morbidity and mortality after severe burns. However, relatively little attention has been paid to this devastating condition, and the bulk of research is limited to preclinical basic science studies. Moreover, no worldwide consensus criteria exist for its diagnosis, severity grading, and prognosis. Therapeutic approaches are highly variable depending on the country and burn centre or hospital. In this Series paper, we discuss understanding of the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, the best evidence-based treatments, and challenges and future directions in diagnostics and management...
October 1, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707498/the-metabolic-stress-response-to-burn-trauma-current-understanding-and-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Craig Porter, Ronald G Tompkins, Celeste C Finnerty, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman, David N Herndon
Major burns provoke a profound stress response, which is unrivalled in terms of its magnitude and duration. Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological stress response to severe burn trauma persists for several years after injury. Thus, there is a pressing need for novel strategies that mitigate this response and restore normal metabolic function in patients with burns. This is the first in a Series of three papers about the care of people with burns. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of the stress response to burn trauma, with a focus on hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and stress-induced diabetes...
October 1, 2016: Lancet
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