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Derfogail Delcassian, Susanne Sattler, Iain E Dunlop
Recent advances in biomaterials design offer the potential to actively control immune cell activation and behaviour. Many human diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, are partly mediated by inappropriate or insufficient activation of the immune system. T cells play a central role in the host immune response to these diseases, and so constitute a promising cell type for manipulation. In vivo, T cells are stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC), therefore to design immunoengineering biomaterials that control T cell behaviour, artificial interfaces that mimic the natural APC-T cell interaction are required...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Evan A Scott, Nicholas B Karabin, Punn Augsornworawat
The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Dysregulated immune responses are essential components of diverse inflammation-driven pathologies, including cancer, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Kleanthis Fytianos, Savvina Chortarea, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Fabian Blank, Christophe von Garnier, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Nanocarrier design combined with pulmonary drug delivery holds great promise for the treatment of respiratory tract disorders. In particular, targeting of dendritic cells that are key immune cells to enhance or suppress an immune response in the lung is a promising approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. Fluorescently encoded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated gold nanoparticles, functionalized with either negative (-COO(-)) or positive (-NH3(+)) surface charges, were functionalized with a DC-SIGN antibody on the particle surface, enabling binding to a dendritic cell surface receptor...
December 19, 2016: ACS Nano
Peng Tan, Lian He, Gang Han, Yubin Zhou
Microbial opsin-based optogenetic tools have been transformative for neuroscience. To extend optogenetic approaches to the immune system to remotely control immune responses with superior spatiotemporal precision, pioneering tools have recently been crafted to modulate lymphocyte trafficking, inflammasome activation, dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and antitumor immunity through the photoactivation of engineered chemokine receptors and calcium release-activated calcium channels. We highlight herein some conceptual design strategies for installing light sensitivities into the immune signaling network and, in parallel, we propose potential solutions for in vivo optogenetic applications in living organisms with near-infrared light-responsive upconversion nanomaterials...
March 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
Chao Wang, Yanqi Ye, Zhen Gu
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) based cancer immunotherapy has recently attracted considerable interest in the field of cancer therapy. The relevant immunotherapeutic agents do not directly attack the tumor, but boost the body's immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. In this commentary, recent efforts utilizing immunoengineering for local delivery of these immune checkpoint antibodies are introduced. Future opportunities and challenges in this research theme are also commented.
January 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Amr A Abdeen, Junmin Lee, Kristopher A Kilian
Rapid advances in biology have led to the establishment of new fields with tremendous translational potential including regenerative medicine and immunoengineering. One commonality to these fields is the need to extract cells for manipulation in vitro; however, results obtained in laboratory cell culture will often differ widely from observations made in vivo. To more closely emulate native cell biology in the laboratory, designer engineered environments have proved a successful methodology to decipher the properties of the extracellular matrix that govern cellular decision making...
May 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Laura Jeanbart, Melody A Swartz
Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient...
November 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Randall A Meyer, Jordan J Green
Nanofabrication and biomedical applications of polymeric nanoparticles have become important areas of research. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated for their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Although polymeric nanoconstructs have traditionally been fabricated as isotropic spheres, anisotropic, nonspherical nanoparticles have gained interest in the biomaterials community owing to their unique interactions with biological systems. Polymeric nanoparticles with different forms of anisotropy have been manufactured using a variety of novel methods in recent years...
March 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Michael S Goldberg
Although cancer immunotherapy can lead to durable outcomes, the percentage of patients who respond to this disruptive approach remains modest to date. Encouragingly, nanotechnology can enhance the efficacy of immunostimulatory small molecules and biologics by altering their co-localization, biodistribution, and release kinetics.
April 9, 2015: Cell
Randall A Meyer, Joel C Sunshine, Karlo Perica, Alyssa K Kosmides, Kent Aje, Jonathan P Schneck, Jordan J Green
Nonspherical ellipsoidal nanodimensional artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) are fabricated by J. J. Green and co-workers and on page 1519 they are shown to have superior T-Cell activation and pharmacokinetic properties compared to equivalent spherical nanodimensional aAPCs. Shown on the cover are transmission electron microscopy images of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles interacting with a computer generated T-Cell membrane as nano aAPCs. Due to their larger radius of curvature, ellipsoidal nano aAPCs are more effective at biomimicry of natural APCs for antigen-specific T-Cell activation...
April 2015: Small
Randall A Meyer, Randall S Meyer, Jordan J Green
Anisotropic polymeric particles are of growing interest for biomaterials applications due to their unique properties. These include the ability for these particles to evade nonspecific cellular uptake and to have enhanced targeted cellular uptake and interaction. One of the most widely used methods for generating anisotropic polymeric particles is the thin film stretching procedure. Despite its theoretical simplicity, this procedure, as it has been implemented to date, can be difficult due to the inconsistent nature of the manual operation of machinery used to stretch the film...
August 2015: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Alberto Purwada, Krishnendu Roy, Ankur Singh
Controlled modulation of immune response, especially the balance between immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive responses, is critical for a variety of clinical applications, including immunotherapies against cancer and infectious diseases, treatment of autoimmune disorders, transplant surgeries, regenerative medicine, prosthetic implants, etc. Our ability to precisely modify both innate and adaptive immune responses could provide new therapeutic directions in a variety of diseases. In the context of vaccines and immunotherapies, the interplay between antigen-presenting cells (e...
April 2014: Acta Biomaterialia
Scott R Burrows, John J Miles
T-cell receptor (TCR) therapy has arrived as a realistic treatment option for many human diseases. TCR gene therapy allows for the mass redirection of T-cells against a defined antigen while high affinity TCR engineering allows for the creation of a new class of soluble drugs. However, deciding which TCR blueprint to take forward for gene therapy or engineering is difficult. More than one quintillion TCR combinations can be generated by somatic recombination and we are only now beginning to appreciate that not all are functionally equal...
2013: Frontiers in Immunology
Melody A Swartz, Sachiko Hirosue, Jeffrey A Hubbell
As the science of immunology grows increasingly mechanistic, motivation for developing quantitative, design-based engineering approaches has also evolved, both for therapeutic interventions and for elucidating immunological pathways in human disease. This has seeded the nascent field of "immunoengineering," which seeks to apply engineering analyses and design approaches to problems in translational immunology. For example, cell engineers are creating ways to tailor and use immune cells as living therapeutics; protein engineers are devising new methods of rapid antibody discovery; biomaterials scientists are guiding vaccine delivery and immune-cell activation with novel constructs; and systems immunologists are deciphering the evolution and maintenance of T and B cell receptor repertoires, which could help guide vaccine design...
August 22, 2012: Science Translational Medicine
T D Wendel
Immunoengineering is a term coined to represent the mostly future ability to use or target the immune system's natural components, with emphasis on the regulatory components, to up or down regulate the immune system's attack against specific proteins associated with an unwanted pathology or immune occurrence. It will constitute manipulating parts of the immune system, mostly those specific for the disease associated antigen(s) and generally of a regulatory nature, in various immunological locale or the whole body compartment, to achieve a disease free state for the patient...
March 2003: Medical Hypotheses
S Kent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1977: Geriatrics
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