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Group a streptococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045629/signs-and-symptoms-of-group-a-versus-non-group-a-strep-throat-a-meta-analysis
#1
Thuy N Thai, Ariella P Dale, Mark H Ebell
Introduction: Both non-Group A streptococcal (non-GAS) pharyngitis and Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis are commonly found in patients with sore throat. It is not known whether or not they present with similar signs and symptoms compared to patients with non-streptococcal pharyngitis. Methods: MEDLINE was searched for prospective studies that reported throat culture for both GAS and non-GAS as a reference standard, and reported at least one sign, symptom, or the Centor score...
October 13, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043423/preliminary-report-from-the-world-health-organisation-chest-radiography-in-epidemiological-studies-project
#2
REVIEW
Nasreen Mahomed, Nicholas Fancourt, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Aliu Akano, Thomas Cherian, Olivia G Cohen, David Greenberg, Stephen Lacey, Neera Kohli, Henrique M Lederman, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Eric D McCollum, Kate Park, Jose Luis Ribo-Aristizabal, Naor Bar-Zeev, Katherine L O'Brien, Kim Mulholland
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043347/zinc-ing-it-out-zinc-homeostasis-mechanisms-and-their-impact-on-the-pathogenesis-of-human-pathogen-group-a-streptococcus
#3
REVIEW
Nishanth Makthal, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Group A Streptococccus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Zinc is an essential trace element required for GAS growth, however, zinc can be toxic at excess concentrations. The bacterial strategies to maintain zinc sufficiency without incurring zinc toxicity play a crucial role in host-GAS interactions and have a significant impact on GAS pathogenesis. The host deploys nutritional immune mechanisms to retard GAS growth by causing either zinc deprivation or zinc poisoning...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042984/bmi1-and-brg1-drive-myocardial-repair-by-regulating-cardiac-stem-cell-function-in-acute-rheumatic-heart-disease
#4
Pingxi Xiao, Kai Zhang, Zhiwen Tao, Niannian Liu, Bangshun Ge, Min Xu, Xinzheng Lu
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs due to the accumulation of complications associated with rheumatic fever, and it results in high morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases of RHD are diagnosed in the chronic stages, when treatment options are limited. A small reservoir of cardiac stem cells is responsible for maintaining cardiac homeostasis and repairing tissue damage. Understanding the role of cardiac stem cells and the various proteins responsible for their functions in different pathological stages of RHD is an important area of investigation...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042860/toll-like-receptor-8-is-a-major-sensor-of-group-b-streptococcus-but-not-escherichia-coli-in-human-primary-monocytes-and-macrophages
#5
Birgitta Ehrnström, Kai Sandvold Beckwith, Mariia Yurchenko, Siv Helen Moen, June Frengen Kojen, Germana Lentini, Giuseppe Teti, Jan Kristian Damås, Terje Espevik, Jørgen Stenvik
TLR8 is the major endosomal sensor of degraded RNA in human monocytes and macrophages. It has been implicated in the sensing of viruses and more recently also bacteria. We previously identified a TLR8-IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) signaling pathway that mediates IFNβ and interleukin-12 (IL-12) induction by Staphylococcus aureus and is antagonized by TLR2. The relative importance of TLR8 for the sensing of various bacterial species is however still unclear. We here compared the role of TLR8 and IRF5 for the sensing of Group B Streptococcus (GBS), S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040443/a-dysbiosis-index-to-assess-microbial-changes-in-fecal-samples-of-dogs-with-chronic-inflammatory-enteropathy
#6
M K AlShawaqfeh, B Wajid, Y Minamoto, M Markel, J A Lidbury, J M Steiner, E Serpedin, J S Suchodolski
Recent studies have identified various bacterial groups that are altered in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CE) compared to healthy dogs. The study aim was to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to confirm these findings in a larger number of dogs, and to build a mathematical algorithm to report these microbiota changes as a dysbiosis index (DI). Fecal DNA from 95 healthy dogs and 106 dogs with histologically confirmed CE was analyzed. Samples were grouped into a training set and a validation set...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037949/antibacterial-activities-of-viriditoxin-congeners-and-synthetic-analogues-against-fish-pathogens
#7
Tae Hwan Noh, Liu Sen, Jongki Hong, Joon-Hee Lee, Hyung Ryong Moon, Jee H Jung
Viriditoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the inner tissues of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Viriditoxin exhibits antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus parauberis, which are major pathogens of aqua cultured fish. Viriditoxin induced abnormal cell morphologies in the fish pathogens S. iniae and S. parauberis, presumably by inhibiting FtsZ polymerization as was previously observed in Escherichia coli. Synthetic analogues of viriditoxin, designed based on docking simulation results to FtsZ of Staphylococcus aureus, were prepared and compared with viriditoxin for antibacterial activity...
October 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037552/the-impact-of-prenatal-group-b-streptococcus-screening-as-a-national-health-policy-in-taiwan
#8
Fung-Wei Chang, Chun-I Lee, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Her-Young Su, Yung-Liang Liu, Cheng-Yu Chen
OBJECTIVE: There was no national data on group B streptococcus (GBS) infections in Taiwan. Until 2012, when prenatal GBS screening was introduced to obstetric practices as a national health policy aimed at reducing neonatal GBS infections. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of this national health policy on the incidence of maternal GBS colonization and neonatal GBS infection rate. Relatedly, the clinical characteristics of neonatal GBS infection were investigated to determine the correlations between the incidence of maternal GBS colonization and the neonatal GBS infection rate...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036682/perinatal-risk-factors-for-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-after-initiation-of-risk-based-maternal-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-case-control-study
#9
Sridhar Santhanam, Sumita Arun, Grace Rebekah, Nithya J Ponmudi, Jolly Chandran, Ruby Jose, Atanu Kumar Jana
Objectives: To identify the perinatal risk factors for early-onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) sepsis in neonates after inception of a risk-based maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy in 2004. Design: Case control study. Methods: All newborn with early onset GBS sepsis (born between 2004 and 2013) were deemed to be "cases" and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Results: More than three per vaginal (PV) examinations [odds ratio (OR) 8...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034376/exploring-the-pregnant-guinea-pig-as-a-model-for-group-b-streptococcus-intrauterine-infection
#10
Maria I Harrell, Kellie Burnside, Christopher Whidbey, Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost...
September 2017: J Infect Dis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032514/surface-roughness-and-bacterial-adhesion-on-root-dentin-treated-with-diode-laser-and-conventional-desensitizing-agents
#11
Maiza S Cury, Camilla B Silva, Ruchele D Nogueira, Michelle G D Campos, Regina G Palma-Dibb, Vinicius R Geraldo-Martins
The treatments for dentin hypersensitivity (DH) may change the surface roughness of the root dentin, which can lead to biofilm accumulation, increasing the risk of root caries. The aim was to compare the surface roughness of root dentin after different treatments of DH and the biofilm formation on those surfaces. After initial surface roughness (Sa) assessment, 50 bovine root fragments received the following treatments (n = 10): G 1-no treatment; G2-5% sodium fluoride varnish; G3-professional application of a desensitizing dentifrice; G4-toothbrushing with a desensitizing dentifrice; and G5-diode laser application (908 nm; 1...
October 14, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031429/outbreak-of-group-a-streptococcus-emm94-0-affecting-people-who-inject-drugs-in-southwest-england-april-2017
#12
Rachel M Kwiatkowska, Petra Manley, Ben Sims, Theresa Lamagni, Derren Ready, Juliana Coelho, Layth Alsaffar, Charles R Beck, Fiona Neely
We report an outbreak of invasive and noninvasive group A Streptococcus during April 2017 among people who inject drugs in southwest England. To date we have identified 14 cases linked to a specific town, all confirmed as group A Streptococcus emm94.0, a strain type not previously reported in the area. We have yet to identify a source for this ongoing outbreak. Actions described here may help reduce the burden of infection in vulnerable populations.
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029763/serotype-virulence-profile-antimicrobial-resistance-and-macrolide-resistance-determinants-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-in-pregnant-women-and-neonates-in-catalonia-spain
#13
Yuly López, Elena Parra, Virginio Cepas, Isabel Sanfeliú, Teresa Juncosa, Antonia Andreu, Mariona Xercavins, Josefa Pérez, Sergi Sanz, Andrea Vergara, Jordi Bosch, Sara Maria Soto
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococci (GBS), is the main aetiological agent of early neonatal sepsis in developed countries. This microorganism belongs to the gastrointestinal tract microbiota wherefrom it can colonize the vagina and be vertically transmitted to the child either before or at birth, and subsequently cause infection in the newborn. Approximately, 50% of newborns born to women with GBS become colonized, with 1-2% developing early neonatal infection if no preventive intervention is performed...
October 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029143/genome-wide-analysis-of-genetic-risk-factors-for-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-aboriginal-australians-provides-support-for-pathogenic-molecular-mimicry
#14
Lesley-Ann Gray, Heather A D'Antoine, Steven Y C Tong, Melita McKinnon, Dawn Bessarab, Ngaire Brown, Bo Reményi, Andrew Steer, Genevieve Syn, Jenefer M Blackwell, Michael Inouye, Jonathan R Carapetis
Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) following Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections is heritable and prevalent in Indigenous populations. Molecular mimicry between human and GAS proteins triggers pro-inflammatory cardiac valve-reactive T-cells. Methods: Genome-wide genetic analysis was undertaken in 1263 Aboriginal Australians (398 RHD cases; 865 controls). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChips. Direct typing and imputation was used to fine-map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029127/antibody-kinetics-and-response-to-routine-vaccinations-in-infants-born-to-women-who-received-an-investigational-trivalent-group-b-streptococcus-polysaccharide-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-during-pregnancy
#15
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Clare L Cutland, Lisa Jose, Niresha Govender, Frederick Wittke, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Sherryl Baker, Peter M Dull, Vas Narasimhan, Karen Slobod
Background: Maternal vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) might provide protection against invasive GBS disease in infants. We investigated the kinetics of transplacentally transferred GBS serotype-specific capsular antibodies in the infants and their immune response to diphtheria toxoid and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods: This phase 1b/2, observer-blind, single-center study (NCT01193920) enrolled infants born to women previously randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either GBS vaccine at dosages of 0...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027028/determination-of-avidity-of-igg-against-protein-antigens-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-assay-development-and-preliminary-application-in-clinical-settings
#16
D C Andrade, I C Borges, N Ekström, T Jartti, T Puhakka, A Barral, H Kayhty, O Ruuskanen, C M Nascimento-Carvalho
The measurement of antibody levels is a common test for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in research. However, the quality of antibody response, reflected by avidity, has not been adequately evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the role of avidity of IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins in etiologic diagnosis. Eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N) were used to develop a multiplex bead-based avidity immunoassay. The assay was tested for effects of the chaotropic agent, multiplexing, and repeatability...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024714/antibacterial-effect-and-bond-strength-of-a-modified-dental-adhesive-containing-the-peptide-nisin
#17
Meixuan Su, Shunyi Yao, Lisha Gu, Zihua Huang, Sui Mai
This study attempted to incorporate the antibacterial peptide nisin into an etch-and-rinse dental adhesive to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the modified adhesive against Streptococcus mutans and the bond strength. Single Bond 2 was used as a negative control, and nisin was incorporated at 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v). The antibacterial activity against S. mutans was evaluated using the film contact test, the agar diffusion test, XTT assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the modified dental adhesive was also evaluated...
October 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024079/the-preadolescent-acne-microbiome-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-investigating-characterization-and-effects-of-acne-therapy
#18
Carrie C Coughlin, Shane M Swink, Joseph Horwinski, Georgia Sfyroera, Julia Bugayev, Elizabeth A Grice, Albert C Yan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acne, a common pediatric disease, tends to be more comedonal in preadolescents, whereas older individuals are more likely to have inflammatory lesions in addition to comedones. Thus the microbiome of preadolescents may be different. In this pilot study we aimed to characterize the preadolescent acne microbiome, compare the microbiome in preadolescents with and without acne, and investigate changes in the microbiome after topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid in a small cohort of preadolescents...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021957/whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing-of-indian-strains-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#19
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Sridhar Santhanam, Valsan Philip Verghese, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Charles Livingston
Group B streptococcus is known as a leading cause of neonatal infections in developing countries. The present study describes the whole genome shotgun sequences of four Group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates. Molecular data on clonality is lacking for GBS in India. The present genome report will add important information on the scarce genome data of GBS and will help in deriving comparative genome studies of GBS isolates at global level. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers NHPL00000000 - NHPO00000000...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021255/the-molecular-mechanism-of-n-acetylglucosamine-side-chain-attachment-to-the-lancefield-group-a-carbohydrate-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#20
Jeffrey S Rush, Rebecca J Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M van Sorge, Andrew J Morris, Konstantin V Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova
In many Lactobacillales species (i.e. lactic acid bacteria), peptidoglycan is decorated by polyrhamnose polysaccharides that are critical for cell envelope integrity and cell shape and also represent key antigenic determinants. Despite the biological importance of these polysaccharides, their biosynthetic pathways have received limited attention. The important human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, synthesizes a key antigenic surface polymer-the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC is covalently attached to peptidoglycan and consists of a polyrhamnose polymer, with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains, which is an essential virulence determinant...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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