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Group a streptococcus

Sean J Buckley, Peter Timms, Mark R Davies, David J McMillan
Bacteria respond to environmental changes through the co-ordinated regulation of gene expression, often mediated by two-component regulatory systems (TCS). Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a bacterium which infects multiple human body sites and causes multiple diseases, possesses up to 14 TCS. In this study we examined genetic variation in the coding sequences and non-coding DNA upstream of these TCS as a method for evaluating relationships between different GAS emm-types, and potential associations with GAS disease...
2018: PloS One
Grace F Gomez, Ruijie Huang, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of violet-blue light on the metabolic activity of early Streptococcus mutans biofilm, reincubated at 0, 2, and 6 h after 5 min of violet-blue light treatment. S. mutans UA159 biofilm cells were cultured for 12 to 16 h in microtiter plates with Tryptic Soy broth (TSB) or TSB with 1% sucrose (TSBS) and irradiated with violet-blue light for 5 min. After irradiation, the plates were reincubated at 37°C for 0, 2, or 6 h in 5% CO2 . Colorimetric tetrazolium salt reduction assay was used to investigate bacterial metabolic activity...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
François Blanquart, Sonja Lehtinen, Marc Lipsitch, Christophe Fraser
The evolution of antibiotic resistance in opportunistic pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae , Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health problem, as infection with resistant strains leads to prolonged hospital stay and increased risk of death. Here, we develop a new model of the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a commensal bacterial population adapting to a heterogeneous host population composed of untreated and treated hosts, and structured in different host classes with different antibiotic use...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Laura E Norton, Brian R Lee, Lory Harte, Keith Mann, Jason G Newland, R Alan Grimes, Angela L Myers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute pharyngitis is a common diagnosis in ambulatory pediatrics. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guideline for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis recommends strict criteria for GAS testing to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment of children who are colonized with group A Streptococcus . We sought to improve adherence to the IDSA guideline for testing and treatment of GAS pharyngitis in a large community pediatrics practice...
June 20, 2018: Pediatrics
Pâmela O Ornellas, Leonardo S Antunes, Paula C Motta, Caroline Mendonça, Helvécio Póvoa, Karla Fontes, Natalia Iorio, Lívia A A Antunes
This study aimed to evaluate the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct for minimally invasive treatment (partial removal of carious tissue - PRCT) of deciduous carious tissue evaluating its efficacy in reducing microorganisms. For that, a clinical study was design including children with deciduous molars with active deep caries lesions (DCL). PRCT was performed and remaining dentin was treated with 100 μg/mL methylene blue solution (5 min) and than irradiated with a low power laser emitting red light (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660nm; 100mW; 300 J/cm²; 90s; 9J)...
June 20, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
T Furuta, S Baba, M Yamade, T Uotani, T Kagami, T Suzuki, S Tani, Y Hamaya, M Iwaizumi, S Osawa, K Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Although autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is generally considered relatively rare, we frequently encounter AIG among patients at to our hospital who have experienced at least two episodes of Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. AIMS: We investigated the incidence of AIG in consecutive patients who consulted our department for H. pylori eradication with reference to eradication history. METHODS: A total of 404 consecutive patients who visited the H...
June 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Marie-Julie Allard, Marie-Elsa Brochu, Julie D Bergeron, Guillaume Sébire
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one the most common bacterium responsible of maternal infections during pregnancy. Offspring in utero-exposed to GBS-induced placental inflammation displayed sex-specific forebrain injuries. Sex differences have been reported in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Hence, we hypothesized that female rats in utero-exposed to GBS may present sex-specific neurobehavioral impairments. Lewis rats were injected intraperitoneally every 12 h from gestational day (G) 19 to G22 with either saline (controls) or inactivated serotype Ia GBS (109 CFU)...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Amit K Kishore, Andy Vail, Adam R Jeans, Angel Chamorro, Mario Di Napoli, Lalit Kalra, Peter Langhorne, Christine Roffe, Willeke Westendorp, Paul J Nederkoorn, Javier Garau, Diederik van de Beek, Joan Montaner, Mark Woodhead, Andreas Meisel, Craig J Smith
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying the causal pathogens of pneumonia complicating stroke is challenging, and antibiotics used are often broad spectrum, without recourse to the microbiological cause. We aimed to review existing literature to identify organisms responsible for pneumonia complicating stroke, before developing a consensus-based approach to antibiotic treatment. METHODS: A systematic literature review of multiple electronic databases using predefined search criteria was undertaken, in accordance with Cochrane and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidance...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Víctor Silva, Alicia Marcoleta, Viviana Silva, Dángelo Flores, Teresa Aparicio, Isabel Aburto, Cecilia Latrach, Naldy Febré
BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. AIM: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. METHODS: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
M Eliana Maldonado, Mirta Acuña, Ana M Álvarez, Carmen L Avilés, Verónica de la Maza, Carmen Salgado, Juan Tordecilla, Mónica Varas, Marcela Venegas, Milena Villarroel, Marcela Zubieta, M Elena Santolaya
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms isolated from blood cultures (BC) in patients with febrile neutropenia (NF) vary over time, requiring systematic monitoring to guide appropriate empirical therapy. AIM: To identify microorganisms isolated from BC and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with cancer and high risk NF. METHOD: Prospective, multicenter study. The analysis included episodes of high-risk FN with positive BC in children under 18 years of age treated in five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, 2012-2015...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Andreia Bolzan de Paula, Jesus Roberto Taparelli, Roberta Caroline Bruschi Alonso, Lúcia Helena Innocentini-Mei, Regina M Puppin-Rontani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antibacterial activity, bacterial viability, cytotoxicity, and mechanical/physical properties of a novel methacrylate triclosan-derivative monomer (TM) incorporated in dental resin composite. METHODS: TM was synthesized by esterification and, after characterization by FT-IR, was added to an experimental composite. Samples were divided into two groups according to TM presence, i.e., C1 (control) and C2 (C1 + 14.4% TM). Microbiological properties: Specimens (C1 and C2) were prepared and placed on bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Kazuyuki Sogawa, Mika Kobayashi, Jun Suzuki, Akihiro Sanda, Yoshio Kodera, Masafumi Fukuyama
 Group A streptococcus is a bacterium that resides in the throat and skin and causes respiratory infection and occasionally glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Streptolysin O (SLO) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) binds to the cell membrane, particularly to that of white and red blood cells, and is toxic to the cells and tissue. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of water-soluble polyphenols in olives (Olea europaea) against SLO-induced hemolysis. Hydroxytyrosol inhibited SLO-induced hemolytic activity, and the amount required for 50% inhibition of hemolysis was 1...
2018: Biocontrol Science
C Sartori, V Perreten, I Ivanovic, M C Härdi-Landerer, H U Graber
In Switzerland, sanitation programs of dairy herds infected with the contagious mastitis pathogen Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) have been established for several years. In recent years, Streptococcus uberis and non-aureus staphylococci have emerged as the bacteria most frequently isolated from bovine milk samples. The latter cause subclinical mastitis, and some species are more persistent or pathogenic than others. The present study aimed to investigate the developments in the intramammary colonization spectrum of 5 dairy herds undergoing a sanitation program for Staph...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Abbas Keshtkar, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly reduced the rate of invasive pneumococcal diseases through the use of vaccine serotypes, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major public health hazard. Serotype-independent vaccines that are economically viable species of common protein antigens such as whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) are needed. Considering the ongoing debate about the effectiveness of WCVs, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine the efficacy of WCVs against colonization in mice...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
C Pérez-Monter, I Escalona-Nandez, A Estanes-Hernández, L G Noriega-López, A Torre-Delgadillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The intestinal microbiota is significantly altered in cirrhotic patients, but the composition of the intestinal microbiota in Mexican patients with the pathology has not been reported. The present study is an attempt to determine the type of intestinal microbiota in healthy subjects and in patients of Mexican mestizo origin that present with cirrhosis of the liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biochemical liver function parameters (ALT, AST, GGT, BIL-T, etc...
June 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Zhiyun Chen, Rahul Raghavan, Fengxia Qi, Justin Merritt, Jens Kreth
RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease in Group A streptococcus (GAS) and other Gram-positive bacteria. Our previous study showed that RNase Y was involved in mRNA degradation and processing in GAS. We hypothesized that mRNA processing regulated the expression of important GAS virulence factors via altering their mRNA stabilities and that RNase Y mediated at least some of the mRNA-processing events. The aims of this study were to (1) identify mRNAs that were processed by RNase Y and (2) confirm the mRNA-processing events...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Suhas Kharche, Asmita Patil, Shrikrishna Joshi, Vijay Yewale, Jones Lionel Kumar Daniel, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pyogenes , belonging to group A streptococcus (GAS), causes over 600 million infections annually being a predominant human pathogen. Lack of genomic data on GAS from India is one limitation to understand its virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. The genome of GAS isolates from clinical samples collected at Navi Mumbai, India was sequenced and annotated. Sequencing was performed on Ion Torrent PGM platform. The size of annotated S. pyogenes genomes ranged from ~1.69 to ~1.85 Mb with coverage of 38× to 189×...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Ekamjeet Randhawa, John Woytanowski, Kedesha Sibliss, Ian Sheffer
Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacteria, also known as group A streptococci, that causes a range of infections. The most common presentation is acute pharyngitis; however, it is also implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, and less commonly bacteremia, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Group A streptococci infections of the central nervous system are exceedingly rare in the antibiotic era. The mechanism of infection is typically contiguous spread from existing infection or via direct inoculation...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Ping Wang
Cryptococcus neoformans and related species are encapsulated basidiomycetous fungi that cause meningoencephalitis in individuals with immune deficiency. This pathogen has a tractable genetic system; however, gene disruption via electroporation remains difficult, while biolistic transformation is often limited by lack of multiple genetic markers and the high initial cost of equipment. The approach using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has become the technology of choice for gene editing in many organisms due to its simplicity, efficiency, and versatility...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
G Salvadori, R Junges, H A Åmdal, T Chen, D A Morrison, F C Petersen
BACKGROUND: In streptococci of the mitis group, competence for natural transformation is a transient physiological state triggered by competence stimulating peptides (CSPs). Although low transformation yields and the absence of a widespread functional competence system have been reported for Streptococcus mitis, recent studies revealed that, at least for some strains, high efficiencies can be achieved following optimization protocols. To gain a deeper insight into competence in this species, we used RNA-seq, to map the global CSP response of two transformable strains: the type strain NCTC12261T and SK321...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
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