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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691444/adaptive-response-of-neonatal-sepsis-derived-group-b-streptococcus-to-bilirubin
#1
Richard Hansen, Sophie Gibson, Eduardo De Paiva Alves, Mark Goddard, Andrew MacLaren, Anne Marie Karcher, Susan Berry, Elaina S R Collie-Duguid, Emad El-Omar, Mike Munro, Georgina L Hold
Hyperbilirubinemia is so common in newborns as to be termed physiological. The most common bacteria involved in early-onset neonatal sepsis are Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly called Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Whilst previous studies show bilirubin has antioxidant properties and is beneficial in endotoxic shock, little thought has been given to whether bilirubin might have antibacterial properties. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic and proteomic assessment of GBS cultured in the presence/absence of bilirubin...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689653/streptococcus-pneumoniae-distribution-of-serotypes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-patients-with-cancer
#2
Araceli Soto-Noguerón, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, María Elena Velázquez-Meza, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles
OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing infectious diseases in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors and their antimicrobial susceptibility before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive pneumococcal isolates from hospitalized patients from the SIREVA-network were serotyped using the Quellung reaction and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the broth microdilution method...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689421/immune-system-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti, Federico Mucci, Leonardo F Fontenelle
BACKGROUND: Recently, much attention has been devoted to the possible alterations of the immune system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the relationships between OCD and immune system. METHODS: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed with specific keywords. RESULTS: In the childhood, much emphasis has been given to the relationship between group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection and the development of a group of clinical syndromes characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms known as "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" (PANDAS)...
April 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686793/invasive-group-b-streptococcus-multiloculated-perinephric-abscesses-treated-with-percutaneous-drainage
#4
J Isaac Peña-Garcia, Sana Shaikh, Alexandre Lacasse
Group B streptococcus infections (GBSI) are commonly associated with neonates and pregnant women, but may also affect nonpregnant adults. Among its spectrum of manifestations, perinephric abscess (PA) is exceedingly rare. Comorbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and immunosuppression increase the risk of GBSI. We describe a 61-year-old Vietnamese man with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis, who presented with acute encephalopathy following subacute, progressive abdominal pain. He was afebrile and hemodynamically stable...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686667/-streptococcus-agalactiae-non-pilus-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-involvement-in-colonization-and-pathogenesis-and-potential-as-vaccine-candidates
#5
REVIEW
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685990/the-two-component-signaling-system-vrasr-ss-is-critical-for-multidrug-resistance-and-full-virulence-in-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#6
Xiaojun Zhong, Yue Zhang, Yinchu Zhu, Wenyang Dong, Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Shipra Roy, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Streptococcus suis has received increasing attention for its involvement in severe human infections worldwide, as well as in multidrug resistance. Two-component signaling systems (TCSSs) play important roles in bacterial adaptation to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified a novel TCSS encoded in S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), designated as VraSRSS , which is involved in bacterial pathogenicity and susceptibility to antimicrobials. Our data demonstrated that the yvqFSS gene located upstream of vraSRSS shared the same promoter with the TCSS genes, which was directly regulated by VraSRSS as showed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#7
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685273/silage-review-recent-advances-and-future-uses-of-silage-additives
#8
REVIEW
R E Muck, E M G Nadeau, T A McAllister, F E Contreras-Govea, M C Santos, L Kung
Additives have been available for enhancing silage preservation for decades. This review covers research studies published since 2000 that have investigated the efficacy of silage additives. The review has been divided into 6 categories of additives: homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB), obligate heterofermentative LAB, combination inoculants containing obligate heterofermentative LAB plus homofermentative LAB, other inoculants, chemicals, and enzymes. The homofermentative LAB rapidly decrease pH and increase lactic acid relative to other fermentation products, although a meta-analysis indicated no reduction in pH in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane silages relative to untreated silages...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685049/influence-of-subinhibitory-antibiotic-concentration-on-streptococcus-pyogenes-adherence-and-biofilm-production
#9
Aleksandra Šmitran, Dragana Vuković, Nataša Opavski, Ina Gajić, Jelena Marinković, Ljiljana Božić, Irena Živanović, Dušan Kekić, Sunčica Popović, Lazar Ranin
In this study, the focus was on the effects of sub-MICs of the antibiotics on adherence, hydrophobicity, and biofilm formation by two groups of Streptococcus pyogenes strains, which were responsible for different clinical cases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of sub-MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and clindamycin on adherence, surface hydrophobicity, and biofilm biomass in two selected collections of group A streptococcus (GAS): strains isolated from carriers (CA) and strains isolated from patients with tonsillopharyngitis (TPh)...
April 24, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684541/antimicrobial-activity-of-nanoemulsion-on-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#10
Rajapandiyan Krishnamoorthy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periyasamy, Abdulraheem R Adisa, Mohammed A Al-Shuniaber, Mustafa A Gassem, Ali A Alshatwi
The appearance of drug-resistant (DR) bacteria in the community is a crucial development, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and antibiotic use. Natural oil nanoemulsions (NEs) have potential for antimicrobial applications. In the present study, we determined the antimicrobial activity of an NE against DR bacterial pathogens in vitro. The NE comprised Cleome viscosa essential oil, Tween 80 nonionic surfactant, and water. We found that an NE with a droplet size of 7 nm and an oil:surfactant (v/v) ratio of 1:3 was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), DR Streptococcus pyogenes, and DR extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682545/curcumin-as-a-promising-antibacterial-agent-effects-on-metabolism-and-biofilm-formation-in-s-mutans
#11
Bingchun Li, Xinlong Li, Huancai Lin, Yan Zhou
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been proved to be the main aetiological factor in dental caries. Curcumin, a natural product, has been shown to exhibit therapeutic antibacterial activity, suggesting that curcumin may be of clinical interest. The objective of this study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of curcumin on metabolism and biofilm formation in S. mutans using a vitro biofilm model in an artificial oral environment. S. mutans biofilms were treated with varying concentrations of curcumin. The biofilm metabolism and biofilm biomass were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the crystal violet assay...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682128/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-chemically-synthesized-divalent-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine
#12
Yongxiang Wu, Suhua Li, Yanting Luo, Yunyue Zhao, Jiarui Wang, Ruimin Dong, Xujing Xie, Jieming Zhu, Jinlai Liu
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections and poststreptococcal sequelae remain a health problem worldwide, which necessitates searching for an effective vaccine, while no licensed GAS vaccine is available. We have developed a divalent peptide vaccine composed of 84 amino acids to cover the main GAS serotypes (M1 and M12 streptococci) in China, and herein, we aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with the vaccine...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681440/community-pharmacist-directed-point-of-care-group-a-streptococcus-testing-evaluation-of-a-canadian-program
#13
John Papastergiou, Chantal Rene Trieu, Deborah Saltmarche, Artemis Diamantouros
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pyogenes is an aerobic, gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide variety of infections including common pharyngitis. Novel rapid antigen detection tests allow for diagnosis of group A Streptococcus (GAS) at the point of care. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects and feasibility of community pharmacist-directed GAS testing. SETTING: A retrospective analysis of aggregate billing data was conducted using descriptive statistics to evaluate the acceptance and feasibility of a community pharmacist-directed Streptococcus testing program at Shoppers Drug Mart pharmacies in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Nova Scotia...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679527/effects-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-varnish-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#14
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678329/antibacterial-photocatalytic-activity-of-different-crystalline-tio-2-phases-in-oral-multispecies-biofilm
#15
Heloisa N Pantaroto, Antonio P Ricomini-Filho, Martinna M Bertolini, José H D Silva, Nilton F Azevedo Neto, Cortino Sukotjo, Elidiane C Rangel, Valentim A R Barão
OBJECTIVE: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) incorporation in biomaterials is a promising technology due to its photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. However, the antibacterial potential of different TiO2 crystalline structures on a multispecies oral biofilm remains unknown. We hypothesized that the different crystalline TiO2 phases present different photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Three crystalline TiO2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on commercially pure titanium (cpTi), in order to obtain four groups: (1) machined cpTi (control); (2) A-TiO2 (anatase); (3) M-TiO2 (mixture of anatase and rutile); (4) R-TiO2 (rutile)...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675045/paediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-group-a-beta-haemolytic-streptococcal-infection-an-indication-for-tonsillectomy-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Amarkumar Dhirajlal Rajgor, Navid Akhtar Hakim, Sanah Ali, Adnan Darr
Background. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) is the acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms following group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. The aetiology remains elusive. However, with group A streptococcus being the most common bacterial cause of tonsillitis, surgical intervention in the form of tonsillectomy has often been considered as a potential therapy. Methods. A MEDLINE® search was undertaken using keywords "PANDAS" or "paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" combined with "tonsillectomy"...
2018: International Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674703/difference-in-virulence-and-composition-of-a-cariogenic-biofilm-according-to-substratum-direction
#17
Minh-Huy Dang, Ji-Eun Jung, Hyeon-Mi Choi, Jae-Gyu Jeon
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in composition and virulence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms according to substratum direction. S. mutans biofilms (46-h-old) were formed on three different saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) disc direction groups: downward (discs placed in the direction of gravity), vertical (discs placed parallel to gravity direction), and upward (discs placed opposite to gravity). The 46-h-old biofilms on sHA discs in the upward direction showed the highest biofilm accumulation, colony forming unit (CFU) count, and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) amount, followed by those in the vertical and downward directions...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671499/poststreptococcal-illness-recognition-and-management
#18
David L Maness, Michael Martin, Gregg Mitchell
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can cause several postinfectious, nonsuppurative immune- mediated diseases including acute rheumatic fever, poststreptococcal reactive arthritis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Except for sporadic outbreaks, poststreptococcal autoimmune syndromes occur most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Children younger than three years are rarely affected by group A streptococcus pharyngitis or rheumatic fever, and usually do not require testing...
April 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671175/characterisation-of-bone-and-joint-infections-due-to-group-b-streptococcus-serotype-iii-sequence-type-283
#19
Sean W Ong, Timothy Barkham, Win Mar Kyaw, Hanley J Ho, Monica Chan
In 2015, an epidemic of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype III sequence type 283 (ST283) disease was reported in Singapore, associated with consumption of raw freshwater fish. In this study, we further characterise the characteristics of bone and joint infections associated with ST283 GBS in adults and the differences between ST283 and non-ST283 manifestations. A retrospective study of 54 inpatients with invasive GBS disease involving bones and/or joints from 2010 to 2015 was performed. Archived isolates were identified as GBS serotype III and ST283 positive using PCR methods...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669883/impact-of-long-term-erythromycin-therapy-on-the-oropharyngeal-microbiome-and-resistance-gene-reservoir-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#20
Jocelyn M Choo, Guy C J Abell, Rachel Thomson, Lucy Morgan, Grant Waterer, David L Gordon, Steven L Taylor, Lex E X Leong, Steve L Wesselingh, Lucy D Burr, Geraint B Rogers
Long-term macrolide therapy reduces rates of pulmonary exacerbation in bronchiectasis. However, little is known about the potential for macrolide therapy to alter the composition and function of the oropharyngeal commensal microbiota or to increase the carriage of transmissible antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the effect of long-term erythromycin on oropharyngeal microbiota composition and the carriage of transmissible macrolide resistance genes in 84 adults with bronchiectasis, enrolled in the Bronchiectasis and Low-dose Erythromycin Study (BLESS) 48-week placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily erythromycin ethylsuccinate (400 mg)...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
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