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Cancer AND complementary

M C Carrera Gómez, M C Estrada Blan
High breast density and its relationship to the risk of breast cancer has become a hot topic in the medical literature and in the lay press, especially in the United States, where it has brought about changes in the legal framework that require radiologists to inform clinicians and patients about breast density. Radiologists, who are mainly responsible for this information, need to know the scientific evidence and controversies regarding this subject. The discussion is centered on the real importance of the risk, the limitation that not having standardized methods of measurement represents, and the possible application of complementary screening techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or tomosynthesis) for which clear recommendations have yet to be established...
October 14, 2016: Radiología
Elham Ajorlou, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
PURPOSE: The dawn of the state-of-the-art methods of cancer treatments, nano-based delivery systems, has dispensed with the mainstream chemotherapy for being inadequate in yielding productive results and the numerous reported side effects. The popularity of this complementary approach in the course of the last two decades has been primarily attributed to its capacity to elevate the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs as well as removing the impassable delivery barriers in solid tumors with the minimal damage to the normal tissues...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Juan Xu, ZiShan Wang, Shengli Li, Juan Chen, Jinwen Zhang, Chunjie Jiang, Zheng Zhao, Jing Li, Yongsheng Li, Xia Li
Although systematic genomic studies have identified a broad spectrum of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are involved in breast cancer, our understanding of the epigenetic dysregulation of those ncRNAs remains limited. Here, we systematically analysed the epigenetic alterations of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in two breast cancer subtypes (luminal and basal). Widespread epigenetic alterations of miRNAs and lncRNAs were observed in both cancer subtypes. In contrast to protein-coding genes, the majority of epigenetically dysregulated ncRNAs were shared between subtypes, but a subset of transcriptomic and corresponding epigenetic changes occurred in a subtype-specific manner...
October 14, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Kosei Nakajima, Lance K Heilbrun, Victor Hogan, Daryn Smith, Elisabeth Heath, Avraham Raz
Galectin-3 (Gal-3), an oncogenic pro-inflammatory protein, has been suggested as a possible complementary diagnostic candidate to prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test for prostate cancer patients. The presence of the proteins in the circulation (biomarkers) may elicit an intrinsic humoral immune reaction by generating autoantibodies, which consequently could alter the detection levels. Here, we report the associations of the two prostate cancer biomarkers, Gal-3 and PSA in patients at different clinical states of prostate cancer while taking into account the autoantibody levels...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
A Collarino, R A Valdés Olmos, A F van der Hoeven, L M Pereira Arias-Bouda
PURPOSE: This review aims to discuss the methodological aspects of dedicated molecular breast imaging (MBI) using (99m)Tc-sestamibi as radiotracer to guide biopsy of occult or unclear breast lesions on mammography (MG) and ultrasound (US) that are suspicious on MBI (BI-RADS criteria 4 and 5), including its advantages, limitations and future clinical applications. METHODS: Literature search was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE database and "(99m)Tc-sestamibi", "biopsy" and "breast cancer" as keywords...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Meng Chen, Nathaniel Rothman, Yuanqing Ye, Jian Gu, Paul A Scheet, Maosheng Huang, David W Chang, Colin P Dinney, Debra T Silverman, Jonine D Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Xifeng Wu
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to identify individual regions associated with cancer risk, but only explain a small fraction of the inherited variability. Alternative approach analyzing genetic variants within biological pathways has been proposed to discover networks of susceptibility genes with additional effects. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) may complement and expand traditional GWAS analysis to identify novel genes and pathways associated with bladder cancer risk. We selected three GSEA methods: Gen-Gen, Aligator, and the SNP Ratio Test to evaluate cellular signaling pathways involved in bladder cancer susceptibility in a Texas GWAS population...
July 2016: Genes & Cancer
Rico D Bense, Christos Sotiriou, Martine J Piccart-Gebhart, John B A G Haanen, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Carolien P Schröder, Rudolf S N Fehrmann
BACKGROUND: Not all breast cancer patients benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, resulting in considerable undertreatment or overtreatment. New insights into the role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells suggest that their composition, as well as their functionality, might serve as a biomarker to enable optimal patient selection for current systemic therapies and upcoming treatment options such as immunotherapy. METHODS: We performed several complementary unbiased in silico analyses on gene expression profiles of 7270 unrelated tumor samples of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients with known clinical follow-up...
January 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Melanie P Caserta, Candice Bolan, M Jennings Clingan
The purpose of this pictorial review is to describe the normal appearance of the endometrium and to provide radiologists with an overview of endometrial pathology utilizing case examples. The normal appearance of the endometrium varies by age, menstrual phase, and hormonal status with differing degrees of acceptable endometrial thickness. Endometrial pathology most often manifests as either focal or diffuse endometrial thickening, and patients frequently present with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Endovaginal ultrasound (US) is the first-line modality for imaging the endometrium...
October 12, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Chloe Matovina, Andrew C Birkeland, Suzanna Zick, Andrew G Shuman
OBJECTIVE: Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, has become increasingly popular among patients with head and neck cancer. Despite its increasing prevalence, many patients feel uncomfortable discussing such therapies with their physicians, and many physicians are unaware and underequipped to evaluate or discuss their use with patients. The aim of this article is to use recent data to outline the decision making inherent to integrative medicine utilization among patients with head and neck cancer, to discuss the ethical implications inherent to balancing integrative and conventional approaches to treatment, and to highlight available resources to enhance head and neck cancer providers' understanding of integrative medicine...
October 11, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Helene M Langevin, Patricia Keely, Jun Mao, Lisa M Hodge, Robert Schleip, Gary Deng, Boris Hinz, Melody A Swartz, Beverley A de Valois, Suzanna Zick, Thomas Findley
Complementary and integrative treatments, such as massage, acupuncture, and yoga, are used by increasing numbers of cancer patients to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life. In addition, such treatments may have other important and currently overlooked benefits by reducing tissue stiffness and improving mobility. Recent advances in cancer biology are underscoring the importance of connective tissue in the local tumor environment. Inflammation and fibrosis are well-recognized contributors to cancer, and connective tissue stiffness is emerging as a driving factor in tumor growth...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research
Yao Wang, Ping Huang, Minxi Hu, Wei Huang, Xinyuan Zhu, Deyue Yan
The distinct and complementary biochemical mechanisms of folic acid analog methotrexate (MTX) and cytidine analog gemcitabine (GEM) make their synergistic combination effectively. Unfortunately, such a combination faces severe pharmacokinetic problems and several transportation barriers. To overcome these problems, a new strategy of amphiphilic small molecule prodrug (ASMP) is developed to improve their synergistic combination effect. The ASMP was prepared by the amidation of the hydrophilic GEM with the hydrophobic MTX at a fixed ratio...
October 10, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Seema Singh, Pravin Jha, Vandana Singh, Kislay Sinha, Sahid Hussain, Manoj K Singh, Prolay Das
Non-targeted photosensitizers lack selectivity that undermines the potential use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, we report the DNA mediated assembly of a ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD)-photosensitizer (PS)-Mucin 1(MUC1) aptamer conjugate for targeting the MUC1 cancer biomarker and simultaneous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), was conjugated to a single stranded DNA and self-assembled to a complementary strand that was conjugated to a QD and harboring a MUC1 aptamer sequence...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Juan C Rodriguez, Germán A González, Cristóbal Fresno, Andrea S Llera, Elmer A Fernández
Transcriptome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating key biological processes and functions. The first step usually consists of identifying candidate genes; to find out which pathways are affected by those genes, however, functional analysis (FA) is mandatory. The most frequently used strategies for this purpose are Gene Set and Singular Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and SEA) over Gene Ontology. Several statistical methods have been developed and compared in terms of computational efficiency and/or statistical appropriateness...
September 24, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Malay Patra, Kristof Zarschler, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, Holger Stephan, Gilles Gasser
Tumour pretargeting is a promising strategy for cancer diagnosis and therapy allowing for the rational use of long circulating, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for both non-invasive cancer radioimmunodetection (RID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). In contrast to conventional RID/RIT where the radionuclides and oncotropic vector molecules are delivered as presynthesised radioimmunoconjugates, the pretargeting approach is a multistep procedure that temporarily separates targeting of certain tumour-associated antigens from delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic radionuclides...
September 27, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Kyun Ha Kim, Chang-Woo Han, Seong Hoon Yoon, Yun Seong Kim, Jong-In Kim, Myungsoo Joo, Jun-Yong Choi
Lung cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, and chemotherapy is a routine regimen for the treatment of patients with lung cancer, despite undesirable effects such as drug resistance and chemotoxicity. Here, given a possible antitumor effect of the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS), we tested whether FGS enhances the effectiveness of cis-diammine dichloridoplatinum (II) (CDDP), a chemotherapeutic drug. We found that CDDP, when administered with FGS, significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which were associated with the increase of p21 and decreases of cyclin D1 and CDK4...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Rachel Meadows, Timethia Bonner, Megha Dobhal, Sujana Borra, Jordan A Killion, Raheem Paxton
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have indicated that the relationship between physical activity and quality of life is not directed but mediated through various pathways. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of cancer-related fatigue, disability, and functional status as potential mediators in African-American breast cancer survivors. METHODS: African-American breast cancer survivors (N = 135, mean age = 63) aged 55 years and older participated in a web-based survey consisting of measures assessing physical activity, functional status, cancer-related fatigue, disability, quality of life, and sociodemographic and medical characteristics...
October 5, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Vanessa Pierroz, Riccardo Rubbiani, Christian Gentili, Malay Patra, Cristina Mari, Gilles Gasser, Stefano Ferrari
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65...
August 16, 2016: Chemical Science
Peter Kuhn, Anders Carlsson, Madelyn S Luttgen, Kevin Keomanee Dizon, Patricia Troncoso, Paul Corn, Anand Kolatkar, James B Hicks, Christopher Logothetis, Amado J Zurita
PURPOSE: Recent studies demonstrate that prostate cancer clones from different metastatic sites are dynamically represented in the blood of patients over time, suggesting that the paired evaluation of tumor cells in circulation and bone marrow, the primary target for prostate cancer metastasis, may provide complementary information. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We adapted our single-cell high-content liquid biopsy platform to bone marrow aspirates (BMA), to concurrently identify and characterize prostate cancer cells in patients' blood and bone and thus discern features associated to tumorigenicity and dynamics of metastatic progression...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Tahereh Marvdashti, Lian Duan, Sumaira Z Aasi, Jean Y Tang, Audrey K Ellerbee Bowden
We report the first fully automated detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most commonly occurring type of skin cancer, in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Our proposed automated procedure entails building a machine-learning based classifier by extracting image features from the two complementary image contrasts offered by PS-OCT, intensity and phase retardation (PR), and selecting a subset of features that yields a classifier with the highest accuracy. Our classifier achieved 95...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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