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Cancer AND phytochemicals

Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Aneeza Razzaq, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Urtica belongs to the family Urticaceae. The plants of this genus are known as nettles or, quite often, as stinging nettles. These plants can be easily identified by the presence of stinging hairs. Urtica species have previously been used for various medicinal purposes. The history for the use of these plants for medicinal purposes starts from the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC). Medicinally, the genus Urtica has been used to treat several disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, diarrhea, sprains, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, flu, cough, fever, and ulcers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yan-Hui Fu, Yan-Lei Ma, Gui Yan, Qing Wen, Shi Hu, Zhi-Hua Jiang, Jin-Ying Tang, Yan-Ping Liu
A phytochemical investigation on the stems and leaves of Clausena emarginata led to the isolation of a previously undescribed carbazole alkaloid, clausemargine A (1), together with 11 known analogues (2-12). The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the known compounds were identified by comparisons with data reported in the literature. All known compounds (2-12) were isolated from C. emarginata for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their their antiproliferative activities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro...
May 17, 2018: Natural Product Research
Samira Eghbaliferiz, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Abolfazl Shakeri, Judit Hohmann, Javad Asili
A phytochemical investigation of the root extracts of Salvia tebesana Bunge led to the isolation of two new diterpenoids, tebesinone A (1) and tebesinone B (2), along with two known compounds, aegyptinone A (3) and aegyptinone B (4). The structures were established by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The cytotoxic activities of the crude extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, B16F10, PC-3 and C26 human cancer cell lines, in which compounds 2 and 3 showed significant cytotoxic activities (IC50 2...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
David Achaintre, Audrey Gicquiau, Liang Li, Sabina Rinaldi, Augustin Scalbert
Polyphenols constitute one of the most complex classes of phytochemicals in the human diet and have been suggested to play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is still needed to better understand their role in disease prevention. To do so, robust methods for the accurate measurement of these molecules in large series of samples are needed. We report here the development of a highly-sensitive method based on differential isotope labelling with 13 C- and 12 C-dansyl chloride for the analysis of 38 structurally diverse polyphenols in 50 μL plasma by tandem mass spectrometry with limits of quantification varying between 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bridg'ette B Israel, Syreeta L Tilghman, Kitani Parker-Lemieux, Florastina Payton-Stewart
Females with early-stage metastatic, estrogen-dependent breast cancer are generally treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, or with more targeted approaches such as aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) or anti-estrogens (tamoxifen). Despite widespread successful usage of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer, resistance, tumor relapse and metastasis remain the principal causes of mortality for patients with breast cancer. While numerous groups have made major contributions toward an improved understanding of resistance mechanisms, the currently insufficient grasp of the most critical pathways involved in resistance is evident in the inability to adequately treat and drastically improve patient outcomes in females with hormone-refractory breast cancer, including triple negative breast cancer...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Allison Knickle, Wasundara Fernando, Anna L Greenshields, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe, David W Hoskin
Myricetin is a dietary phytochemical with anticancer activity; however, the effect of myricetin on breast cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we show that myricetin inhibited the growth of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells but was less inhibitory for normal cells. The effect of myricetin was comparable to epigallocatechin gallate and doxorubicin, and greater than resveratrol and cisplatin. Myricetin-treated TNBC cells showed evidence of early and late apoptosis/necrosis, which was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, mitochondrial membrane destabilization and cytochrome c release, and double-strand DNA breaks...
May 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qiao Zhang, Yunliang Zheng, Xingjiang Hu, Xiaolong Hu, Wenwen Lv, Duo Lv, Jinjin Chen, Minglan Wu, Qichao Song, Jianzhong Shentu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL USAGES: Fructus Alpiniae oxyphyllae (A. oxyphylla) is an important medicinal plant that is used not only as an edible fruit, but also as an important traditional medicine for benefiting cognitive performance and alleviating a wide spectrum of diseases. Such as; warming kidney, securing essence and arresting polyuria, as well as warming the spleen and stopping diarrhea and saliva. AIMS: The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological research of A...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J B Minari, C A Okelola, N C Ugochukwu
Objective: To analyze K-ras gene from induced pancreatic cancer rats administered with Momordica charantia and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts. Methods: Twenty-five (25) adult rats weighing between 90-120 g were divided into 5 groups namely RA, RB, RC, NC and PC, each group had 5 rats. The PC which served as the control was fed with normal fish meal and water ad libitum; the NC which is the negative control received 20 mg/ml/week of Nitrosamines only while other groups received different concentrations of aqueous extract of both M ...
April 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
P Annécie Benatrehina, Li Pan, C Benjamin Naman, Jie Li, A Douglas Kinghorn
In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases...
April 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Chu Thi Thanh Huyen, Bui Thi Thuy Luyen, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Ha Van Oanh, Ta Manh Hung, Hui-Jun Li, Ping Li
This study was designed to search for novel anti-cancer compounds from natural plants. The 70% ethanolic extract from the rizhomes of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) was found to possess significant in vitro anti-proliferative effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A phytochemical investigation using assay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of C. dahurica resulted in the isolation of one new phenolic amide glycoside 3 , two new lignan glycosides 4 and 7 , one new 9,19-cycloartane triterpenoid glycoside 6 , and thirteen known constituents 1 , 2 , 5 , and 8 ⁻ 17 ...
May 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amrita Devi Khwairakpam, Devivasha Bordoloi, Krishan Kumar Thakur, Javadi Monisha, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Srishti Mishra, Alan P Kumar, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The intake of fruits has proven to reduce the risk and incidence of cancer worldwide and plays a crucial role in cancer prevention. Pomegranate (Punica granatum), which belongs to the Punicaceae family, is one such plant that contains beneficial nutrients as well as many bioactive components and important phytochemicals that can be attributed to cancer-related therapeutic purposes. Pomegranate possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, and anti-metastatic properties, and induces apoptosis...
May 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
E S Scarpa, M Mari, E Antonini, F Palma, P Ninfali
Avenanthramides (AVNs) are natural polyphenols obtained from oat sprouts and can also be chemically synthetized. The aim of the present study was to assess the anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of individual synthetized AVNs (s-2c, s-2p, s-2f) and a natural AVN mixture (n-MIX) on CaCo-2 and Hep3B cancer cells. In CaCo-2, the AVN s-2c was found to be the most cytotoxic followed by the n-MIX. In Hep3B cells, a marked cytotoxic effect was found but no significant difference was observed between the synthesized AVNs and the n-MIX...
May 4, 2018: Food & Function
Md Sadikuj Jaman, Md Abu Sayeed
Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are currently available treatment options for breast cancer therapy. However, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are often associated with side effects and multidrug resistance, recurrence, and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Recently, dietary phytochemicals have emerged as advantageous agents for the prevention and therapy of cancer due to their safe nature...
May 3, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Ozgur Ozer, Nazli Boke Sarikahya, Ayse Nalbantsoy, Suheyla Kirmizigul
Phytochemical investigations of the aerial parts of the plant Cephalaria taurica Szabó. (Caprifoliaceae) have resulted in the isolation of nine oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, of which two still remain undescribed. The structures of tauricosides A and B were characterized based on NMR analysis, HRESIMS spectrometry, and chemical evaluations. The saponins tauricosides A and B have been rarely reported in the literature due to the presence of eight sugar moieties, and this is also the first report of saponins containing eight sugar moieties in the Caprifoliaceae family...
April 30, 2018: Phytochemistry
Hae-Yong Seok, N Sanoj Rejinold, Kamali Manickavasagam Lekshmi, Kondareddy Cherukula, In Kyu Park, Yeu-Chun Kim
In this study, we developed novel hyaluronic acid cross-linked zein nanogels (HA-Zein NGs) to deliver the potential anticancer agent curcumin (CRC), a naturally occurring phytochemical drug in cancer cells. In vitro studies showed that they are highly compatible with the tested cell lines. They showed CD44 specific uptake in CT26 cell line more than by the CD44 receptor pre-inhibited CT26 cells. The CRC encapsulated HA-Zein NGs (HA-Zein-CRC NGs) found to exert a specific toxicity against CT26 sparing healthy normal fibroblast cells in vitro...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Preeti Rawat, Anil Kumar, Tryambak Deo Singh, Mahesh Pal
Background: Streblus asper , family Moraceae is well-known important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. In Ayurveda, stem bark of S. asper is recommended against elephantiasis for which there is still no any other effective medicine in the modern system of medicine. Objectives: In the present work, methanol extract (SAM) and its fractions of S. asper leave tested for in vitro anticancer activity against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A-549, Hep-G2, and K-562) which claims its folklore importance in cancer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification of extracts was also performed...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Bikash Manandhar, Keshav Raj Paudel, Biraj Sharma, Rajendra Karki
Aegle marmelos Linn. (Rutaceae), commonly known as "bael" in Nepal and India, is a valuable medicinal plant and is considered sacred by the Hindus. It is used to cure several diseases in the Indian traditional medicine system of Ayurveda and has had similar uses among many ethnic communities residing in Indian subcontinent for over 5000 years. Its leaves, bark, stem, fruits and seeds have been used for various medicinal purposes. Bael fruits are especially effective in the treatment of chronic diarrhea, dysentery and peptic ulcers, while they are also useful as a laxative and cure for respiratory infections...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Nadire Özenver, Mohamed Saeed, Lütfiye Ömur Demirezer, Thomas Efferth
As a leading cause of global mortality, cancer frequently cannot be cured due to the development of drug resistance. Therefore, novel drugs are required. Naturally occurring anthraquinones are mostly present in Rumex and Rhamnus species and are of interest because of their structural similarity to anthracyclines as well established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we focused on the structural elucidation of phytochemicals from R. acetosella as well as the investigation of cytotoxicity and modes of action of the main anthraquinone aglycons (emodin, Aloe-emodin, physcion, rhein)...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
Alfredo Briones-Herrera, Dianelena Eugenio-Pérez, Jazmin Gabriela Reyes-Ocampo, Susana Rivera-Mancía, José Pedraza-Chaverri
In this paper, we review recent evidence about the beneficial effects of sulforaphane (SFN), which is the most studied member of isothiocyanates, on both in vivo and in vitro models of different diseases, mainly diabetes and cancer. The role of SFN on oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolism is discussed, with emphasis on those nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-mediated mechanisms. In the case of the anti-inflammatory effects of SFN, the point of convergence seems to be the downregulation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), with the consequent amelioration of other pathogenic processes such as hypertrophy and fibrosis...
April 27, 2018: Food & Function
Jong-Eun Kim, Ki Won Lee
Skin is a protective organ and the largest of the human body. Due to its pivotal role in aesthetic appearance, skin health has a significant impact on quality of life. Chronic inflammation of the skin often marks the beginning of various skin diseases. Immune-mediated responses serve to protect the body from external insults and require succinct control, and can lead to ongoing cellular damage and various skin conditions if left unchecked. Studies have shown that phytochemicals can alter processes involved in skin inflammation and alleviate the effects of aging, cancer, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and vitiligo...
April 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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