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Cancer AND phytochemicals

Yue Guo, Renyi Wu, John M Gaspar, Davit Sargsyan, Zheng-Yuan Su, Chengyue Zhang, Linbo Gao, David Cheng, Wenji Li, Chao Wang, Ran Yin, Mingzhu Fang, Michael P Verzi, Ronald P Hart, Ah-Ng Kong
Inflammation is highly associated with colon carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could play an important role in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, shows promising effects in suppressing colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM-DSS mice. However, the potential epigenetic mechanisms of curcumin in colon cancer remain unknown. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in suppressing colon cancer in an 18-week AOM-DSS colon cancer mouse model was confirmed...
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Ileana-Andreea Ratiu, Hossam Al-Suod, Magdalena Ligor, Tomasz Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, amongst the most important are the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, flavoring and coloring agents. In this study we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
V C Graça, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Ricardo C Calhelha, P F Santos, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Geranium molle L., commonly known as Dove's-foot Crane's-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family. Contrary to many other Geranium species, the bioactivity and the phytochemical composition of G. molle seem not to have attracted attention until a recent study from our group regarding the bioactivity of several aqueous and organic extracts of the plant. In particular, we assessed the cytotoxic activity of these extracts against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and a non-tumor porcine liver primary cell line, inspired by an ethnopharmacological report describing the traditional use of this medicinal plant in some regions of Northeast Portugal for the treatment of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
Fan-Cheng Meng, Zheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Qi Yin, Li-Gen Lin, Ruibing Wang, Qing-Wen Zhang
Background: Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao or C. teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae) and is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various diseases including bacillary dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, empyrosis, pertussis, and other illnesses. Methods: A literature survey was conducted via SciFinder, ScieneDirect, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley databases...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Javed Iqbal, Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Riffat Batool, Tariq Mahmood, Barkat Ali, Ali Talha Khalil, Sobia Kanwal, Sayed Afzal Shah, Riaz Ahmad
Breast cancer (BC) is a devastating disease in female around the world causing significant health care burden in both developed and developing countries. In many cases BC has shown resistance to chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy. Development of new, cost effective, affordable treatment method is the need of hour. Chemical compounds isolated from plants are often biologically active and is attracting the attention of scientific community. Different in vitro and in vivo studies have shown a potential role in reducing the risk of cancer metastasis...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xianjuan Kou, Biao Li, Julia B Olayanju, Justin M Drake, Ning Chen
Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Michael M Menger, Matthias W Laschke
The pharmacological targeting of microcirculatory dysregulations is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of numerous pathological conditions, such as cancer, thrombosis and inflammation. A promising candidate for this purpose is indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical compound of cruciferous vegetables. As summarized in this review, I3C affects multiple molecular and cellular processes within the microcirculation due to its pleiotropic action profile. These include angiogenesis, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thrombus formation and microvascular leakage...
March 12, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Samantha L Martin, Kendra J Royston, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortalities in the United States, only exceeded by heart disease. Current cancer treatments include chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiation. Due to the often harsh effects of current cancer therapies, investigators are focusing their efforts on cancer prevention mediated by dietary phytochemicals. Since the discovery that cancer can be initiated by and progress through both genetic and epigenetic pathways, there has been a significant surge in studies on epigenetic effects mediated by nutritive compounds...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Faaiza Shahid, Zeba Farooqui, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II], CP) is most widely prescribed in chemotherapy and efficaciously treats diverse human cancers, with remission rates >90% in testicular cancers. However, clinical use of CP is associated with numerous untoward side effects, in particular, at the gastrointestinal level that reduces the therapeutic efficacy of CP and often results in withdrawal of its clinical usage in long term cancer chemotherapy. Substantial strides have been made to identify effective protective strategies against CP-induced nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and ototoxicity...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Rasedee Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sun Young Kim, Jai-Eok Park, Eun Ok Kim, Sue Ji Lim, Eui Jeong Nam, Ji Ho Yun, GyHye Yoo, Sang-Rok Oh, Hyoung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho
A plant factory is a closed cultivation system that provides a consistent and modified environment for plant growth. We speculated that treatment of kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in a plant factory with NaCl, Na2 SeO3 , or both would increase the bioactive phytochemical levels including glucosinolates (GLSs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), the key molecules in cancer prevention. The kale was harvested and analysed after treatment with NaCl and Na2 SeO3 alone or in combination for 1 or 2 weeks. Exposure to NaCl alone but not Na2 SeO3 increased plant root growth...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina Cheimonidi, Pinelopi Samara, Panagiotis Polychronopoulos, Eleni N Tsakiri, Theodora Nikou, Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Theodore Sakellaropoulos, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Emmanuel Mikros, Issidora Papassideri, Aikaterini Argyropoulou, Maria Halabalaki, Leonidas G Alexopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Ourania E Tsitsilonis, Nektarios N Aligiannis, Ioannis P Trougakos
Natural products are characterized by extreme structural diversity and thus they offer a unique source for the identification of novel anti-tumor agents. Herein, we report that the herbal substance acteoside being isolated by advanced phytochemical methods from Lippia citriodora leaves showed enhanced cytotoxicity against metastatic tumor cells; acted in synergy with various cytotoxic agents and it sensitized chemoresistant cancer cells. Acteoside was not toxic in physiological cellular contexts, while it increased oxidative load, affected the activity of proteostatic modules and suppressed matrix metalloproteinases in tumor cell lines...
March 1, 2018: Redox Biology
Eirini Sarrou, Lefki-Pavlina Giassafaki, Domenico Masuero, Daniele Perenzoni, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Maria Irakli, Paschalina Chatzopoulou, Stefan Martens
Hypericum perforatum is known as an important medicinal plant, used for the treatment of several diseases, while its pharmacological properties are attributed to the presence of a wide range of secondary metabolites. Due to the great chemotypic variability of Hypericum species in the nature, and the demand for standardized herbal products, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on different parts (herba, leaf, flowers) from wild collected and cultivated populations, using advanced chromatographic tools...
February 27, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hongyu Chen, Rui Hai Liu
Cancer is a severe health problem that significantly undermines life span and quality. Dietary approach helps provide preventive, non-toxic and economical strategies against cancer. Increased intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains are linked to reduced risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The anti-cancer activities of plant-based foods are related to the actions of phytochemicals. One potential mechanism of action of anti-cancer phytochemicals is that they regulate cellular signal transduction pathways and hence affects cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation, apoptosis and invasion...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rafiq A Rather, Madhulika Bhagat
Cancer is a genetic disease characterized by unregulated growth and dissemination of malignantly transformed neoplastic cells. The process of cancer development goes through several stages of biochemical and genetic alterations in a target cell. Several dietary alkaloids have been found to inhibit the molecular events and signaling pathways associated with various stages of cancer development and therefore are useful in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer chemoprevention has long been recognized as an important prophylactic strategy to reduce the burden of cancer on health care system...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Sumbul Khalid, Aamir Ahmad
Genomic and proteomic studies have helped improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) of cancer development and progression. Mutations, overexpressed oncogenes, inactivated/downregulated tumor suppressors, loss of apoptosis, and dysregulated signal transduction cascades are some of the well-studied areas of research. Resveratrol has gained considerable attention in the last two decades because of its pleiotropic anticancer activities. In this review, we have summarized the regulation of WNT, SHH (sonic hedgehog)/GLI (glioma-associated oncogene homolog), TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor beta 1)/SMAD, NOTCH, TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription), and microRNAs by resveratrol in different cancers...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhejie Chen, Chen Zhang, Fei Gao, Qiang Fu, Chaomei Fu, Yao He, Jinming Zhang
Chuanxiong Rhizome (called Chuanxiong, CX in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, is an extremely common traditional edible-medicinal herb. As a widely used ethnomedicine in Asia including China, Japan and Korea, CX possesses ideal therapeutic effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and is also used as a major ingredient in soups for regular consumption to benefit health. Based on the traditional perception, amounts of investigations on different aspects have been done for CX in the past decades...
February 24, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaoying Hou, Hongzhi Du, Rui Yang, Jing Qi, Yue Huang, Shuyun Feng, Yao Wu, Sensen Lin, Zhixin Liu, Ai-Qun Jia, Shengtao Yuan, Li Sun
Chemotherapy is the preferred and most common treatment for cancer in clinical practice. An increasing number of researchers all over the world are focusing on natural medicines to find new antitumor drugs, and several reports have shown that Camellia nitidissima (C. nitidissima) Chi could reduce blood-lipid, decrease blood pressure, resist oxidation, prevent carcinogenesis and inhibit tumors. Therefore, the pharmacodynamics of the chemical constituents in C. nitidissima need to be investigated further. In the present study, 16 chemical constituents were isolated from the leaves of C...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sin Young Choi, Hae Jin Kee, Li Jin, Yuhee Ryu, Simei Sun, Gwi Ran Kim, Myung Ho Jeong
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9)...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
D Arumai Selvan, D Mahendiran, R Senthil Kumar, A Kalilur Rahiman
Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved using aqueous garlic, green tea and turmeric extracts, and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of rich amount of biochemicals in these extracts, which serve as reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into AgNPs. FT IR spectroscopy confirmed the role of biomolecules in the bioreduction and efficient stabilization of AgNPs. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed a band around 450 nm characteristics of AgNPs...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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