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Jiancheng Yang, Xiaofeng Meng, Dandan Dong, Yanru Xue, Xin Chen, Shenghang Wang, Ying Shen, Gejing Zhang, Peng Shang
During deep-space exploration missions, astronauts will be exposed to abnormal space environments including microgravity and hypomagnetic field (HyMF) that is 10,000 times weaker than geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that microgravity in space can induce bone loss; however, it is ill-defined whether HyMF involved in this process. Herein, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of HyMF and microgravity on bone loss. A mouse model of hindlimb suspension (HLU) was adopted to simulate microgravity-induced bone loss, that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field of <300 nanotesla (nT) generated by a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber...
June 18, 2018: Bone
Chuan Chen, Tongdan Xue, Peng Fan, Linlin Meng, Jingjing Wei, Duqiang Luo
Fumosorinone (Fumos) isolated from entomogenous fungi Isaria fumosorosea exhibited selective inhibition of Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 inhibitor (Shp2) in our previous study. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Fumos on cell cycle arrest, tumor cell migration and the in vitro antiproliferative activity of Fumos alone or in combination with the commonly used cytotoxic drugs 5-fluoracil (5-FU) and p38 inhibitor SB203580. Fumos exhibited cytotoxicity against selected human cancel lines, including HeLa, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Manon Sterba, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Hubert Labelle, William C Warner, Carl-Éric Aubin
PURPOSE: To study the risks of spondylolysis due to extrinsic loading conditions related to sports activities and intrinsic spino-pelvic postural parameters [pelvic incidence (PI) and sacral slope (SS)]. METHODS: A comprehensive osseo-disco-ligamentous L4-S1 finite element model was built for three cases with spondylolysis representing three different spino-pelvic angular configurations (SS = 32°, 47°, 59° and PI = 49°, 58°, 72°, respectively). After simulating the standing posture, 16 dynamic loading conditions were computationally tested for each configuration by combining four sport-related loads (compression, sagittal and lateral bending and axial torque)...
June 20, 2018: European Spine Journal
Nobuhito Taniki, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Po-Sung Chu, Yohei Mikami, Takeru Amiya, Toshiaki Teratani, Takahiro Suzuki, Tomoya Tsukimi, Shinji Fukuda, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Takanori Kanai
The gut-liver axis is of clinical importance as a potential therapeutic target in a wide range of liver diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying interactions between microbial products and immune responses in the liver remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-10-producing macrophages contribute to immune tolerance in the inflamed liver under intestinal barrier disruption in a murine tandem model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis and concanavalin A (Con A) hepatitis. Intestinal barrier disruption protected mice from subsequent liver injury, and the severity of colitis directly affected susceptibility to such injury...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Joshua Shubert, Muyinatu A Lediju Bell
It is well known that there are structural differences between cortical and cancellous bone. However, spinal surgeons currently have no reliable method to non-invasively determine these differences in real-time when choosing the optimal starting point and trajectory to insert pedicle screws and avoid surgical complications associated with breached or weakened bone. This paper explores 3D photoacoustic imaging of a human vertebra to noninvasively differentiate cortical from cancellous bone for this surgical task...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Méyomo Gaelle Wendeu-Foyet, Virginie Bayon, Sylvie Cénée, Brigitte Trétarre, Xavier Rébillard, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Olivier Cussenot, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Brice Faraut, Soumaya Ben Khedher, Damien Léger, Florence Menegaux
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of night work in prostate cancer based on data from the EPICAP Study. METHODS: EPICAP is a French population-based case-control study including 818 incident prostate cancer cases and 875 frequency-matched controls that have been interviewed face to face on several potential risk factors including lifetime occupational history. Detailed information on work schedules for each job (permanent or rotating night work, duration, total number of nights, length of the shift, number of consecutive nights) as well as sleep duration and chronotype, was gathered...
June 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
C F Ye, Y M Pan, H Zhou
The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Genistein (Gen) on the regulation of bone metabolism of phytoestrogens from cellular and epidemiological perspectives. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with different concentrations of Gen, and the cell-proliferation rate was detected by an MTT colorimetric assay. The effect of the VDR receptor blocker ZK159222 on the Gen effect was then observed; after adding Gen to MC3T3-E1 cells, we detected the expression of VDR protein via Western blotting...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Irene Sintini, William S Burton, Paul Sade, Jason M Chavarria, Peter J Laz
Morphological variability in the shoulder influences the joint biomechanics and is an important consideration in arthroplasty and implant design. The objectives of this study were to quantify cortical and cancellous proximal humeral morphology and to assess whether shape variation was influenced by gender and ethnicity, with the overarching goal of informing implant design and treatment. A statistical shape model of the proximal humeral cortical and cancellous regions was developed for a training set of 84 subjects of both genders and different ethnicities...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Joyce P M Krekels, Paul W M Verhezen, Yvonne M C Henskens
Platelet aggregation can be measured using optical aggregation (light transmission aggregometry, LTA) as well as by impedance (Multiplate analyzer). The LTA (the gold standard method) can be influenced by many preanalytical variables. Several guidelines differ in recommendations for the duration patients should refrain from smoking, coffee, fatty meals, and physical exercise prior to blood collection for performing platelet function tests. In this pilot study, the influence of smoking, coffee, high-fat meal, or physical exercise on platelet aggregation was investigated to improve patient friendliness and laboratory logistics in platelet function diagnostics...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Limary M Cancel, Katherin Arias, Marom Bikson, John M Tarbell
We investigated the effects of direct current stimulation (DCS) on fluid and solute transport across endothelial cell (EC) monolayers in vitro. Our motivation was transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that has been investigated for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, to enhance neurorehabilitation, and to change cognition in healthy subjects. The mechanisms underlying this diversity of applications remain under investigation. To address the possible role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) changes during tDCS, we applied direct current to cultured EC monolayers in a specially designed chamber that generated spatially uniform direct current...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kang Qi, Xiangdong Li, Yongjian Geng, Hehe Cui, Chen Jin, Peihe Wang, Yue Li, Yuejin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial barrier function in the onset and Tongxinluo (TXL) protection of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and TXL can induce the secretion of Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation. We intend to demonstrate whether TXL can attenuate myocardial I/R injury in diabetes, characterized with microvascular endothelial barrier disruption, by induction of Angptl4-mediated protection of endothelial barrier integrity...
2018: PloS One
Sara Jahfari, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Anne G E Collins, Tomas Knapen, Lourens J Waldorp, Michael J Frank
Why are we so slow in choosing the lesser of 2 evils? We considered whether such slowing relates to uncertainty about the value of these options, which arises from the tendency to avoid them during learning, and whether such slowing relates to frontosubthalamic inhibitory control mechanisms. In total, 49 participants performed a reinforcement-learning task and a stop-signal task while fMRI was recorded. A reinforcement-learning model was used to quantify learning strategies. Individual differences in lose-lose slowing related to information uncertainty due to sampling, and independently, to less efficient response inhibition in the stop-signal task...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Maryam Odabaee, Mostafa Odabaee, Matthew Pelekanos, Gerhard Leinenga, Jürgen Götz
Ultrasound is increasingly being recognized as a neuromodulatory and therapeutic tool, inducing a broad range of bio-effects in the tissue of experimental animals and humans. To achieve these effects in a predictable manner in the human brain, the thick cancellous skull presents a problem, causing attenuation. In order to overcome this challenge, as a first step, the acoustic properties of a set of simple bone-modeling resin samples that displayed an increasing geometrical complexity (increasing step sizes) were analyzed...
June 1, 2018: Ultrasonics
E C N Sy, A Melot, L Troude, M Al-Falasi, H Brunel, P-H Roche
Endovascular embolization is an essential therapeutic approach in the multidisciplinary management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). However, it rarely occludes the AVM in its entirety. It is often combined with surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery. The aim of embolization is to reduce the size of the nidus and the intra-nidal flow in order to facilitate the microsurgical or the radiosurgical procedure. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with a right frontal hemorrhagic AVM treated with complete embolization in a single session...
June 13, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
Peter Bigler, Julien Furrer
Long-Range Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation (LR-HSQC) experiments may be applied as an alternative to Heteronuclear Multiple-Bond correlation (HMBC) experiments for detecting long-range correlations, but has never enjoyed popularity for that purpose. To the best of our knowledge, the exact reasons have not yet been fully established. For both experiments it is widely accepted that the evolution of proton-proton homonuclear couplings JHH' during the polarization transfer delays Δ leads to significant losses, and that the intensity of the observable coherence is zero when JHH' matches the condition Δ = 0...
June 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Mikkel Jensen, Niels Møller Israelsen, Michael Maria, Thomas Feuchter, Adrian Podoleanu, Ole Bang
In ultra-high resolution (UHR-) optical coherence tomography (OCT) group velocity dispersion (GVD) must be corrected for in order to approach the theoretical resolution limit. One approach promises not only compensation, but complete annihilation of even order dispersion effects, and that at all sample depths. This approach has hitherto been demonstrated with an experimentally demanding 'balanced detection' configuration based on using two detectors. We demonstrate intensity correlation (IC) OCT using a conventional spectral domain (SD) UHR-OCT system with a single detector...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Fang, Jining Wu, Jing Luo, Ping Wen, Mingxia Xiong, Jinlong Cao, Xiaolan Chen, Junwei Yang
BACKGROUND: The patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) usually had reduced bone mineral density, which might lead to a substantial increase in osteoporosis, fracture and mortality. Although surgical intervention is effective in reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in suitable candidates refractory to medical therapy, the effect of surgery on bone mass changes still requires further evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of BMD changes after total parathyroidectomy (PTX) without autotransplantation and its associated factors...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Tatsuya Ishiyama, Shinnosuke Shirai, Tomoaki Okumura, Akihiro Morita
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of KCl, NaCl, and CaCl2 solution/dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine lipid interfaces were performed to analyze heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectra in relation to the interfacial water structure. The present MD simulation well reproduces the experimental spectra and elucidates a specific cation effect on the interfacial structure. The K+ , Na+ , and Ca2+ cation species penetrate in the lipid layer more than the anions in this order, due to the electrostatic interaction with negative polar groups of lipid, and the electric double layer between the cations and anions cancels the intrinsic orientation of water at the water/lipid interface...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Frédéric Basso, Olivia Petit, Sophie Le Bellu, Saadi Lahlou, Aïda Cancel, Jean-Luc Anton
Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating...
June 12, 2018: Appetite
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