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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098201/fiber-laser-based-ultrasound-sensor-for-photoacoustic-imaging
#1
Yizhi Liang, Long Jin, Lidai Wang, Xue Bai, Linghao Cheng, Bai-Ou Guan
Photoacoustic imaging, especially for intravascular and endoscopic applications, requires ultrasound probes with miniature size and high sensitivity. In this paper, we present a new photoacoustic sensor based on a small-sized fiber laser. Incident ultrasound waves exert pressures on the optical fiber laser and induce harmonic vibrations of the fiber, which is detected by the frequency shift of the beating signal between the two orthogonal polarization modes in the fiber laser. This ultrasound sensor presents a noise-equivalent pressure of 40 Pa over a 50-MHz bandwidth...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096061/connexin37-deficiency-alters-organic-bone-matrix-cortical-bone-geometry-and-increases-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#2
Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Jay R Kadakia, Emily G Atkinson, Joseph M Wallace, Lilian I Plotkin, Rejane D Reginato
Deletion of connexin (Cx) 37 in mice leads to increased cancellous bone mass due to defective osteoclast differentiation. Paradoxically; however, Cx37-deficient mice exhibit reduced cortical thickness accompanied by higher bone strength, suggesting a contribution of Cx37 to bone matrix composition. Thus, we investigated whether global deletion of Cx37 alters the composition of organic bone extracellular matrix. Five-month-old Cx37(-/-) mice exhibited increased marrow cavity area, and periosteal and endocortical bone surface resulting in higher total area in tibia compared to Cx37(+/+) control mice...
January 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095870/comparison-of-compressive-forces-caused-by-various-cannulated-cancellous-screws-used-in-arthroscopic-ankle-arthrodesis
#3
Satoshi Kamijo, Tsukasa Kumai, Shogo Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Mano, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND: When performing arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis, internal fixation is performed using bone screws after appropriate preparation. However, optimal characteristics of bone screws have not been examined in terms of pressure force. Objective comparisons of bone-screw performance may provide information on procedures for arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. The study objectives were to determine whether it was possible to measure compressive force changes using the newly developed device and to infer all screw characteristics from measurement results when used in actual surgeries...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094895/a-simple-2d-composite-image-analysis-technique-for-the-crystal-growth-study-of-l-ascorbic-acid
#4
Krishan Kumar, Virender Kumar, Jatin Lal, Harmeet Kaur, Jasbir Singh
This work was destined for 2D crystal growth studies of l-ascorbic acid using the composite image analysis technique. Growth experiments on the l-ascorbic acid crystals were carried out by standard (optical) microscopy, laser diffraction analysis, and composite image analysis. For image analysis, the growth of l-ascorbic acid crystals was captured as digital 2D RGB images, which were then processed to composite images. After processing, the crystal boundaries emerged as white lines against the black (cancelled) background...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094026/nanoporous-hydroxyapatite-sodium-titanate-bilayer-on-titanium-implants-for-improved-osteointegration
#5
A Carradò, F Perrin-Schmitt, Q V Le, M Giraudel, C Fischer, G Koenig, L Jacomine, L Behr, A Chalom, L Fiette, A Morlet, G Pourroy
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to improve the strength and quality of the titanium-hydroxyapatite interface in order to prevent long-term failure of the implanted devices originating from coating delamination and to test it in an in-vivo model. METHODS: Ti disks and dental commercial implants were etched in Kroll solution. Thermochemical treatments of the acid-etched titanium were combined with sol-gel hydroxyapatite (HA) coating processes to obtain a nanoporous hydroxyapatite/sodium titanate bilayer...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092543/a-robust-wrap-reduction-algorithm-for-fringe-projection-profilometry-and-applications-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Miguel Arevalillo-Herraez, Maximo Cobos, Miguel Garcia Pineda
In this paper, we present an effective algorithm to reduce the number of wraps in a two-dimensional (2-D) phase signal provided as input. The technique is based on an accurate estimate of the fundamental frequency of a 2-D complex signal with the phase given by the input, and the removal of a dependent additive term from the phase map. Unlike existing methods based on the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), the frequency is computed by using noise-robust estimates that are not restricted to integer values. Then, to deal with the problem of a non-integer shift in the frequency domain, an equivalent operation is carried out on the original phase signal...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091721/influence-of-tooth-dimension-on-the-initial-mobility-based-on-plaster-casts-and-x-ray-images-a-numerical-study
#7
Martin Hartmann, Cornelius Dirk, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Anna Konermann, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
AIMS: The goal was to determine the influence of different geometric parameters of the tooth on the initial tooth mobility and the position of the center of resistance employing numerical models based on scaled X-ray images and plaster casts. METHODS: The dimensions of tooth 21 were measured in 21 patients, using radiographs and dental casts. Length and mesiodistal width of the tooth were obtained from the X-ray image and the orovestibular diameter from the plaster cast...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089797/distal-femoral-hemiepiphysiodesis-using-screw-and-non-absorbable-filament-for-the-treatment-of-idiopatic-genu-valgum-preliminary-results-of-12-knees
#8
Gino Martínez Soto, Sebastián Drago Pérez, Carolina Avilés Espinoza, Angélica Ibañez León, Felipe Hodgson Ovalle, Constanza Ramírez Mac-Lean
INTRODUCTION: Different techniques for gradual correction of angular deformities of lower limbs exist. Screws and nonabsorbable filament has been described as an effective alternative for transitory hemiepiphysiodesis in New Zealand rabbits. HYPOTHESIS: Hemiepiphysiodesis using screws and non-absorbable filament is effective in pediatric population, for correction of genu valgum. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation, 12 knees in 6 patients younger than 15 years (3 female), operated because of genu valgum...
January 9, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087899/increasing-dietary-nitrate-has-no-effect-on-cancellous-bone-loss-or-fecal-microbiome-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Melissa N Conley, Cooper Roberts, Thomas J Sharpton, Urszula T Iwaniec, Norman Hord
Studies suggest diets rich in fruit and vegetables reduce bone loss, although the specific compounds responsible are unknown. Substrates for endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production, including organic nitrates and dietary nitrate, may support NO production in age-related conditions, including osteoporosis. We investigated the capability of dietary nitrate to improve NO bioavailability, reduce bone turnover and loss. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley rats [30 ovariectomized (OVX) and 10 sham-operated (sham)] were randomized into 3 groups: (1) vehicle (water) control, (2) low-dose nitrate (LDN, 0...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087215/surgical-outcome-of-posterior-ankle-impingement-syndrome-with-concomitant-ankle-disorders-treated-simultaneously-in-patient-engaged-in-athletic-activity
#10
Wataru Miyamoto, Shinya Miki, Hirotaka Kawano, Masato Takao
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether simultaneous surgery for posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) and concomitant ankle disorders, such as anterior ankle impingement syndrome (AAIS), lateral ankle instability (LAI), and osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT), allows for early return to athletic activity. METHODS: Ninety-seven patients who engaged in athletic activity (mean age 27 [range 18-43] years) and were treated by a hindfoot endoscopic approach for PAIS alone or simultaneously for PAIS and concomitant ankle disorders were included in this study...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086800/relevance-of-fxr-p62-sqstm1-pathway-for-survival-and-protection-of-mouse-hepatocytes-and-liver-especially-with-steatosis
#11
Sanae Haga, Yimin, Michitaka Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Liver injury and regeneration involve complicated processes and are affected by various physio-pathological conditions. Surgically, severe liver injury after surgical resection often leads to fatal liver failure, especially with some underlying pathological conditions such as steatosis. Therefore, protection from the injury of hepatocytes and liver is a serious concern in various clinical settings. METHODS: We studied the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on cell survival and steatosis in mouse hepatocytes (AML12 mouse liver cells) and investigated their molecular mechanisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081093/balanced-detection-for-self-mixing-interferometry
#12
Kun Li, Federico Cavedo, Alessandro Pesatori, Changming Zhao, Michele Norgia
We propose a new detection scheme for self-mixing interferometry using two photodiodes for implementing a differential acquisition. The method is based on the phase opposition of the self-mixing signal measured between the two laser diode facet outputs. The subtraction of the two outputs implements a sort of balanced detection that improves the signal quality, and allows canceling of unwanted signals due to laser modulation and disturbances on laser supply and transimpedance amplifier. Experimental results demonstrate the benefits of differential acquisition in a system for both absolute distance and displacement-vibration measurement...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079969/molecular-polygons-probe-the-role-of-intramolecular-strain-in-the-photophysics-of-%C3%AF-conjugated-chromophores
#13
Philipp Wilhelm, Jan Vogelsang, Georgiy Poluektov, Nina Schönfelder, Tristan J Keller, Stefan-Sven Jester, Sigurd Höger, John M Lupton
π-Conjugated segments, chromophores, are the electronically active units of polymer materials used in organic electronics. To elucidate the effect of the bending of these linear moieties on elementary electronic properties, such as luminescence color and radiative rate, we introduce a series of molecular polygons. The π-system in these molecules becomes so distorted in bichromophores (digons) that these absorb and emit light of arbitrary polarization: any part of the chain absorbs and emits radiation with equal probability...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079892/hif-2%C3%AE-and-oct4-have-synergistic-effects-on-survival-and-myocardial-repair-of-very-small-embryonic-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-infarcted-hearts
#14
Shaoheng Zhang, Lan Zhao, Jiahong Wang, Nannan Chen, Jian Yan, Xin Pan
Poor cell survival and limited functional benefits have restricted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) efficacy for treating myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. The transcription factor HIF-2α is an essential regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, which can interact with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transcription factor Oct4 and modulate its signaling. Here, we obtained very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) from MI patients, which possessed the very small embryonic-like stem cells' (VSELs) morphology as well as ESCs' pluripotency...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077394/metal-backed-versus-all-polyethylene-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-proximal-tibial-strain-in-an-experimentally-validated-finite-element-model
#15
C E H Scott, M J Eaton, R W Nutton, F A Wade, S L Evans, P Pankaj
OBJECTIVES: Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076402/non-orthogonal-random-access-in-mimo-cognitive-radio-networks-beamforming-power-allocation-and-opportunistic-transmission
#16
Huifa Lin, Won-Yong Shin
We study secondary random access in multi-input multi-output cognitive radio networks, where a slotted ALOHA-type protocol and successive interference cancellation are used. We first introduce three types of transmit beamforming performed by secondary users, where multiple antennas are used to suppress the interference at the primary base station and/or to increase the received signal power at the secondary base station. Then, we show a simple decentralized power allocation along with the equivalent single-antenna conversion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076363/effects-of-loading-duration-and-short-rest-insertion-on-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-adaptation-in-the-mouse-tibia
#17
Haisheng Yang, Rachel E Embry, Russell P Main
The skeleton's osteogenic response to mechanical loading can be affected by loading duration and rest insertion during a series of loading events. Prior animal loading studies have shown that the cortical bone response saturates quickly and short rest insertions between load cycles can enhance cortical bone formation. However, it remains unknown how loading duration and short rest insertion affect load-induced osteogenesis in the mouse tibial compressive loading model, and particularly in cancellous bone. To address this issue, we applied cyclic loading (-9 N peak load; 4 Hz) to the tibiae of three groups of 16 week-old female C57BL/6 mice for two weeks, with a different number of continuous load cycles applied daily to each group (36, 216 and 1200)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076353/a-topological-criterion-for-filtering-information-in-complex-brain-networks
#18
Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Vito Latora, Mario Chavez
In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections...
January 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076291/individual-construction-of-freeform-fabricated-polycaprolactone-scaffolds-for-osteogenesis
#19
Lu Liu, Guixin Shi, Ying Cui, Hui Li, Zhengchao Li, Qiangcheng Zeng, Yong Guo
The construction of engineered bone mostly focuses on simulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) for proper biological activity. However, the complexity of architecture and the variability of the mechanical properties of natural bones are related to individual differences in age, nutritional state, mechanical loading and disease status. Defect substitutions should be normed with the host natural bone, balancing architectural and mechanical adaption, as well as biological activity. Using a freeform fabrication (FFF) method, we prepared polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with different architectures...
January 11, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074591/variations-in-crestal-cortical-bone-thickness-at-dental-implant-sites-in-different-regions-of-the-jawbone
#20
Yi-Chun Ko, Heng-Li Huang, Yen-Wen Shen, Jyun-Yi Cai, Lih-Jyh Fuh, Jui-Ting Hsu
BACKGROUND: Dental implants have become reliable and predictable tools for treating missing teeth. The survival rate of dental implants is markedly influenced by the host bone quality and quantity of the jawbone. A better host bone provides higher initial stability of the dental implant, resulting in better osseointegration and a higher success rate. Host bone quality and quantity are determined by the crestal cortical bone thickness and inner cancellous bone density. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the crestal cortical bone thickness at dental implant sites in different regions of the jawbone through the use of dental cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
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