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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647591/chitosan-based-nanocomposites-for-the-repair-of-bone-defects
#1
L Keller, A Regiel-Futyra, M Gimeno, S Eap, G Mendoza, V Andreu, Q Wagner, A Kyzioł, V Sebastian, G Stochel, M Arruebo, N Benkirane-Jessel
Chitosan scaffolds of different deacetylation degrees, average molecular weights and concentrations reinforced with silica nanoparticles were prepared for bone tissue regeneration. The resulting nanocomposites showed similar pore sizes (<300μm) regardless the deacetylation degree and concentration used in their formulation. Their mechanical compression resistance was increased by a 30% with the addition of silica nanoparticles as nanofillers. The biocompatibility of the three-dimensional chitosan scaffolds was confirmed by the Alamar Blue assay in human primary osteoblasts as well as the formation of cell spheroids indicative of their great potential for bone regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647083/the-production-of-3d-tumor-spheroids-for-cancer-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Shilpa Sant, Paul A Johnston
New cancer drug approval rates are ≤5% despite significant investments in cancer research, drug discovery and development. One strategy to improve the rate of success of new cancer drugs transitioning into the clinic would be to more closely align the cellular models used in the early lead discovery with pre-clinical animal models and patient tumors. For solid tumors, this would mandate the development and implementation of three dimensional (3D) in vitro tumor models that more accurately recapitulate human solid tumor architecture and biology...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644728/liposomes-equipped-with-cell-penetrating-peptide-br2-enhances-chemotherapeutic-effects-of-cantharidin-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Xue Zhang, Congcong Lin, Aiping Lu, Ge Lin, Huoji Chen, Qiang Liu, Zhijun Yang, Hongqi Zhang
A main hurdle for the success of tumor-specific liposomes is their inability to penetrate tumors efficiently. In this study, we incorporated a cell-penetrating peptide BR2 onto the surface of a liposome loaded with the anticancer drug cantharidin (CTD) to create a system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells more efficiently and effectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay comparing the loaded liposomes' effects on hepatocellular cancer HepG2 and the control Miha cells showed that CTD-loaded liposomes had a stronger anticancer effect after BR2 modification...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640990/opiate-antagonists-do-not-interfere-with-the-clinical-benefits-of-stimulants-in-adhd-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone
#4
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640315/formation-and-field-driven-dynamics-of-nematic-spheroids
#5
Fred Fu, Nasser Mohieddin Abukhdeir
Unlike the canonical application of liquid crystals (LCs), LC displays, emerging technologies based on LC materials are increasingly leveraging the presence of nanoscale defects. The inherent nanoscale characteristics of LC defects present both significant opportunities as well as barriers for the application of this fascinating class of materials. Simulation-based approaches to the study of the effects of confinement and interface anchoring conditions on LC domains has resulted in significant progress over the past decade, where simulations are now able to access experimentally-relevant length scales while simultaneously capturing nanoscale defect structures...
June 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639393/an-activatable-photosensitizer-targeted-to-%C3%AE-glutamyltranspeptidase
#6
Mayumi Chiba, Yuki Ichikawa, Mako Kamiya, Toru Komatsu, Tasuku Ueno, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Tetsuo Nagano, Norbert Lange, Yasuteru Urano
We adopted a spirocyclization-based strategy to design γ-glutamyl-hydroxymethyl selenorhodamine green (gGlu-HMSeR) as a photo-inactive compound that would be specifically cleaved by the tumor-associated enzyme γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) to generate a potent photosensitizer, HMSeR. gGlu-HMSeR takes a colorless, spirocyclic structure, and does not show marked phototoxicity to low-GGT-expressing cells or normal tissues upon irradiation with visible light. In contrast, HMSeR predominantly takes an open colored structure, and generates reactive oxygen species upon irradiation...
June 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638452/targeting-tpx2-suppresses-the-tumorigenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-resulting-in-arrested-mitotic-phase-progression-and-increased-genomic-instability
#7
Chao-Wen Hsu, Yu-Chia Chen, Hsing-Hao Su, Guan-Jin Huang, Chih-Wen Shu, Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Hung-Wei Pan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat, with chemotherapies being relatively ineffective. Therefore, a better knowledge of molecular hepatocarcinogenesis will provide opportunities for designing targeted therapies. TPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2) is overexpressed as a consequence of oncogenic alterations and is likely to alter the proper regulation of chromosome segregation in cancer cells. Disrupting the machinery which is responsible for mitosis and chromosome instability in cancer cells can be one of the most successful strategies for cancer therapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637431/continuous-long-term-cytotoxicity-monitoring-in-3d-spheroids-of-beetle-luciferase-expressing-hepatocytes-by-nondestructive-bioluminescence-measurement
#8
Mayu Yasunaga, Yasuko Fujita, Rumiko Saito, Mitsuo Oshimura, Yoshihiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) spheroids are frequently used in toxicological study because their morphology and function closely resemble those of tissue. As these properties are maintained over a long term, repeated treatment of the spheroids with a test object is possible. Generally, in the repeated treatment test to assess cytotoxicity in the spheroids, ATP assay, colorimetric measurement using pigments or high-content imaging analysis is performed. However, continuous assessment of cytotoxicity in the same spheroids using the above assays or analysis is impossible because the spheroids must be disrupted or killed...
June 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633424/three-dimensional-3d-heparg-spheroid-model-with-physiologically-relevant-xenobiotic-metabolism-competence-and-hepatocyte-functionality-for-liver-toxicity-screening
#9
Sreenivasa C Ramaiahgari, Suramya Waidyanatha, Darlene Dixon, Michael J DeVito, Richard S Paules, Stephen S Ferguson
Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using in vitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically-relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631568/mir-183-overexpression-inhibits-tumorigenesis-and-enhances-ddp-induced-cytotoxicity-by-targeting-mta1-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Guanghui Wang, Shujing Wang, Congying Li
MicroRNA 183 (miR-183) was identified to be downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma spheroids and served as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-183 and its role in cisplatin (DDP) resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells are still unclear. The expression of miR-183 and metastasis-associated protein 1 at messenger RNA and protein levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cells was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631562/cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-patterning-differentiation-and-in-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Simple Mohanta, Gangotri Siddappa, Sindhu Govindan Valiyaveedan, Ravindra Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Debashish Das, Ramanan Pandian, Samanta Sekhar Khora, Moni Abraham Kuriakose, Amritha Suresh
Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630420/functional-evaluation-of-a-bioartificial-liver-support-system-using-immobilized-hepatocyte-spheroids-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-liver-failure
#12
Ji-Hyun Lee, Doo-Hoon Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jae-Nam Ryu, Jeong-Kwon Noh, In Keun Jang, Hey-Jung Park, Hee-Hoon Yoon, Jung-Keug Park, Young-Jin Kim, Sung-Koo Kim, Suk-Koo Lee
Bioartificial livers (BAL) may offer acute liver failure (ALF) patients an opportunity for cure without liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of a spheroid-based BAL system, containing aggregates of porcine hepatocytes, in a porcine model of ALF. ALF pigs were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of treatment naïve pigs (n = 5), blank group consisted of pigs that were attached to the BAL system not containing hepatocytes for 12 hours (n = 5) and BAL group consisted of pigs that were attached to the BAL containing hepatocytes for 12 hours (n = 5)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629427/targeting-vegfr-3-2-signaling-pathways-with-ad0157-a-potential-strategy-against-tumor-associated-lymphangiogenesis-and-lymphatic-metastases
#13
Melissa García-Caballero, Jenny Paupert, Silvia Blacher, Maureen Van de Velde, Ana Rodríguez Quesada, Miguel Angel Medina, Agnès Noël
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic metastasis is one of the leading causes of death in patients with different types of cancer and is the main prognostic factor for the disease survival. The formation of new lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) in primary tumors facilitates tumor cell dissemination to regional lymph nodes and correlates with distant metastases. Lymphangiogenesis has thus emerged as a suitable therapeutic target to block metastases, but no anti-lymphangiogenic compounds have been approved for clinical use to date...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629029/chitosan-coated-amyloid-fibrils-increase-adipogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Jay Gilbert, Nicholas P Reynolds, Sarah M Russell, David Haylock, Sally McArthur, Mirren Charnley, Owen G Jones
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to revolutionize medicine due to their ability to differentiate into specific lineages for targeted tissue repair. Development of materials and cell culture platforms that improve differentiation of either autologous or allogenic stem cell sources into specific lineages would enhance clinical utilization of MCSs. In this study, nanoscale amyloid fibrils were evaluated as substrate materials to encourage viability, proliferation, multipotency, and differentiation of MSCs...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628708/brain-calcifications-in-adult-onset-genetic-leukoencephalopathies-a-review
#15
Xavier Ayrignac, Gaël Nicolas, Clarisse Carra-Dallière, Didier Hannequin, Pierre Labauge
Importance: Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies and leukodystrophies are increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders with new diagnostic approaches and potential treatments. In the new era of genomics, the challenging interpretation of individual genetic variations requires an accurate phenotypic description and classification. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches have been proposed to improve the diagnostic process of adult-onset leukoencephalopathies...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627607/inactivation-of-akt-erk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-genistein-derivative-7-difluoromethoxyl-5-4-di-n-octylygenistein-reduces-ovarian-carcinoma-oncogenicity
#16
Yingxia Ning, Meng Xu, Xiaocheng Cao, Xiangding Chen, Xin Luo
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have central functions in cancer formation and development. Aberrant expression of AKT, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways have been reported in several types of CSCs. Phytochemicals from dietary compounds possess anti-CSC properties, and have been characterized as promising therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of many types of cancers. We previously showed that the newly synthesized genistein derivative, 7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4'-di-n-octylygenistein (DFOG), can inhibit the self-renewal ability of ovarian cancer stem cells (OVCSLCs)...
June 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627604/the-c-terminus-domain-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-stimulates-the-proliferation-of-mouse-foetal-hepatic-progenitor-cells-although-it-is-not-required-for-the-formation-of-spheroids
#17
Liming Yu, Shu Chen, Na Luo, Song He
The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is an important factor in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The C-terminal region of HBx plays a major role in the replication of HBV. Notably, HBx promotes the expansion and tumourigenesis of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in mice. However, it remains unclear as to whether the C-terminal region of HBx is required for the stimulation fo the proliferation of mouse foetal HPCs (FHPCs). In our study, we used EpCAM+, CD133+ and CD49f+ FHPCs, which are bipotential clonogenic cells...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627581/controlled-self-assembly-of-alginate-microgels-by-rapidly-binding-molecule-pairs
#18
Yuebi Hu, Angelo S Mao, Rajiv M Desai, Huanan Wang, David A Weitz, David J Mooney
Controlled self-assembly of cell-encapsulating microscale polymeric hydrogels (microgels) could be advantageous in a variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Here, a method of assembly by chemical modification of alginate polymer with binding pair molecules (BPM) was explored. Alginate was modified with several types of BPM, specifically biotin and streptavidin and click chemistry compounds, and fabricated into 25-30 μm microgels using a microfluidic platform. These microgels were demonstrated to self-assemble under physiological conditions...
June 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627487/epicellular-coccidiosis-in-goldfish
#19
Kálmán Molnár, Csaba Székely
In a goldfish stock held in a pet fish pond, heavy coccidian infection, caused by an epicellularly developing Goussia species, appeared in April of 3 consecutive years (2014 to 2016). The shape and size of the oocysts resembled those of an inadequately described species, Goussia carassiusaurati (Romero-Rodriguez, 1978). In histological sections, gamogonic and sporogonic stages infested mostly the second fifth of the intestine, where almost all epithelial cells were infected. Both gamonts and young oocysts occurred intracellularly but in an extracytoplasmal position, seemingly outside the cells...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623481/erratum-to-homogeneous-pancreatic-cancer-spheroids-mimic-growth-pattern-of-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-and-macrometastases-displaying-heterogeneity-and-crater-like-structure-on-inner-layer
#20
Hao Feng, Bao-Chi Ou, Jing-Kun Zhao, Shuai Yin, Eva Oechsle, Ai-Guo Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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