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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806767/hydrodynamic-repulsion-of-spheroidal-microparticles-from-micro-rough-surfaces
#1
Aleksey V Belyaev
Isolation of microparticles and biological cells from mixtures and suspensions is a central problem in a variety of biomedical applications. This problem, for instance, is of an immense importance for microfluidic devices manipulating with whole blood samples. It is instructive to know how the mobility and dynamics of rigid microparticles is altered by the presence of micrometer-size roughness on walls. The presented theoretical study addresses this issue via computer simulations. The approach is based on a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method for calculating hydrodynamics and the Lagrangian Particle dynamics method to describe the dynamics of cell membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805850/dispersible-oxygen-microsensors-map-oxygen-gradients-in-three-dimensional-cell-cultures
#2
Sasha Cai Lesher-Pérez, Ge-Ah Kim, Chuan-Hsien Kuo, Brendan M Leung, Sanda Mong, Taisuke Kojima, Christopher Moraes, M D Thouless, Gary D Luker, Shuichi Takayama
Phase fluorimetry, unlike the more commonly used intensity-based measurement, is not affected by differences in light paths from culture vessels or by optical attenuation through dense 3D cell cultures and hydrogels thereby minimizing dependence on signal intensity for accurate measurements. This work describes the use of phase fluorimetry on oxygen-sensor microbeads to perform oxygen measurements in different microtissue culture environments. In one example, cell spheroids were observed to deplete oxygen from the cell-culture medium filling the bottom of conventional microwells within minutes, whereas oxygen concentrations remained close to ambient levels for several days in hanging-drop cultures...
August 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803993/nanoemulsion-formulation-of-a-novel-taxoid-dha-sbt-1214-inhibits-prostate-cancer-stem-cell-induced-tumor-growth
#3
Gulzar Ahmad, Rana El Sadda, Galina Botchkina, Iwao Ojima, James Egan, Mansoor Amiji
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion formulation encapsulating DHA-SBT-1214, a novel omega-3 fatty acid conjugated taxoid prodrug, against prostate cancer stem cells. Nanoemulsions of DHA-SBT-1214 (NE-DHA-SBT-1214) were prepared and characterized. In vitro delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity of NE-DHA-SBT-1214 was compared with solution formulation in PPT2 cells. In vivo studies included analysis of comparative efficacy of NE-DHA-SBT-1214 with Abraxane® and placebo nanoemulsions as well as post-treatment alternations in clonogenic and sphere-forming capabilities of the tumor cells...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800509/polyethylene-glycol-modified-ormosil-theranostic-nanoparticles-for-triggered-doxorubicin-release-and-deep-drug-delivery-into-ovarian-cancer-spheroids
#4
Abhignyan Nagesetti, Supriya Srinivasan, Anthony J McGoron
A novel pegylated multifunctional probe of Ormosil nanoparticles (PEGCDSIR820) loaded with Near Infrared dye (NIR; IR820) and a chemotherapeutic drug, Doxorubicin (DOX) was developed for cancer theranostic applications. PEGCDSIR820 nanoparticles had an average diameter of 58.2±3.1nm, zeta potential of -6.9±0.1mV in cell culture media and stability against aggregation in physiological buffers. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX was 65.0±3.0%, and that of IR820 was 76.0±2.1%. PEGCDSIR820 showed no cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells (Skov-3)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800076/human-dental-pulp-cells-differentiate-toward-neuronal-cells-and-promote-neuroregeneration-in-adult-organotypic-hippocampal-slices-in-vitro
#5
Li Xiao, Ryoji Ide, Chikako Saiki, Yasuo Kumazawa, Hisashi Okamura
The adult mammalian central nerve system has fundamental difficulties regarding effective neuroregeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether human dental pulp cells (DPCs) can promote neuroregeneration by (i) being differentiated toward neuronal cells and/or (ii) stimulating local neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that adult human dental pulp contains multipotent DPCs, including STRO-1, CD146 and P75-positive stem cells. DPC-formed spheroids were able to differentiate into neuronal, vascular, osteogenic and cartilaginous lineages under osteogenic induction...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799397/phase-behavior-of-patchy-spheroidal-fluids
#6
T N Carpency, J D Gunton, J M Rickman
We employ Gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo computer simulation to assess the impact of shape anisotropy and particle interaction anisotropy on the phase behavior of a colloidal (or, by extension, protein) fluid comprising patchy ellipsoidal particles, with an emphasis on critical behavior. More specifically, we obtain the fluid-fluid equilibrium phase diagram of hard prolate ellipsoids having Kern-Frenkel surface patches under a variety of conditions and study the critical behavior of these fluids as a function of particle shape parameters...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798857/the-role-of-shear-stress-and-altered-tissue-properties-on-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transformation-and-tumor-endothelial-cell-interaction
#7
Sara G Mina, Peter Huang, Bruce T Murray, Gretchen J Mahler
Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798841/microfluidic-engineering-of-neural-stem-cell-niches-for-fate-determination
#8
Yachen Wang, Jingyun Ma, Na Li, Liang Wang, Liming Shen, Yu Sun, Yajun Wang, Jingyuan Zhao, Wenjuan Wei, Yan Ren, Jing Liu
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has great therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system injuries. Successful NSC replacement therapy requires precise control over the cellular behaviors. However, the regulation of NSC fate is largely unclear, which severely restricts the potential clinical applications. To develop an effective model, we designed an assembled microfluidic system to engineer NSC niches and assessed the effects of various culture conditions on NSC fate determination...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797843/blockade-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-activity-reverts-resistance-to-cisplatin-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Maria Elena Pisanu, Alessia Noto, Claudia De Vitis, Stefania Morrone, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gerardo Botti, Federico Venuta, Daniele Diso, Ziga Jakopin, Fabrizio Padula, Alberto Ricci, Salvatore Mariotta, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli, Enrico Giarnieri, Ivano Amelio, Massimiliano Agostini, Gerry Melino, Gennaro Ciliberto, Rita Mancini
Poor prognosis in lung cancer has been attributed to the presence of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) which resist chemotherapy and cause disease recurrence. Hence, the strong need to identify mechanisms of chemoresistance and to develop new combination therapies. We have previously shown that Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD1), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids is upregulated in 3D lung cancer spheroids and is an upstream activator of key proliferation pathways β-catenin and YAP/TAZ...
August 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797568/the-combination-of-a-966492-and-topotecan-for-effective-radiosensitization-on-glioblastoma-spheroids
#10
Fereshteh Koosha, Ali Neshasteh-Riz, Abbas Takavar, Nazila Eyvazzadeh, Zohreh Mazaheri, Samira Eynali, Mehdi Mousavi
Radiotherapy is one of the modalities in the treatment of glioblastoma patients, but glioma tumors are resistant to radiation and also chemotherapy drugs. Thus, researchers are investigating drugs which have radiosensitization capabilities in order to improve radiotherapy. PARP enzymes and topoisomerase I enzymes have a critical role in repairing DNA damage in tumor cells. Thus, inhibiting activity of these enzymes helps stop DNA damage repair and increase DSB lethal damages. In the current study, we investigated the combination of TPT as a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and A-966492 as a novel PARP inhibitor for further radiosensitization...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796401/combination-cisplatin-and-sulforaphane-treatment-reduces-proliferation-invasion-and-tumor-formation-in-epidermal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Candace Kerr, Gautam Adhikary, Daniel Grun, Nicholas George, Richard L Eckert
Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely common type of cancer. Early tumors can be successfully treated by surgery, but recurrent disease is aggressive and resistant to therapy. Cisplatin is often used as a treatment, but the outcome is rarely satisfactory. For this reason new strategies are required. Sulforaphane is a diet-derived cancer prevention agent that is effective in suppressing tumor growth in animal models of skin cancer. We monitored the efficacy of sulforaphane and cisplatin as a combined therapy for squamous cell carcinoma...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794917/microfluidic-device-for-primary-tumor-spheroid-isolation
#12
Jiaojiao Zhou, Jimmy Su, Xiaotong Fu, Lei Zheng, Zhizhong Yin
BACKGROUND: Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cell culture is vastly different from in vivo physiological conditions, which can lead to inaccurate or insufficient data in areas where response and efficacy within humans are being investigated, such as drug discovery, pathology studies, etc. Misleading results arise from two main disadvantages of monolayer cell culture. First, after several passages, cell lines lose many features from their original in vivo state. Second, the morphology of cells cultured in a monolayer is much different from the cell morphology in three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo conditions, thus resulting in altered cellular function...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794042/palmitoylation-contributes-to-membrane-curvature-in-influenza-a-virus-assembly-and-hemagglutinin-mediated-membrane-fusion
#13
Petr Chlanda, Elena Mekhedov, Hang Waters, Alexander Sodt, Cindi Schwartz, Vinod Nair, Paul S Blank, Joshua Zimmerberg
The highly conserved cytoplasmic tail of influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) contains three cysteines, post-translationally modified by covalently bound fatty acids. While viral HA acylation is crucial in virus replication, its physico-chemical role is unknown. We used virus-like particles (VLP) to study the effect of acylation on morphology, protein incorporation, lipid composition, and membrane fusion. De-acylation interrupted HA-M1 interactions since de-acylated mutant HA fail to incorporate an M1 layer within spheroidal VLP, and filamentous particles incorporated increased numbers of neuraminidase (NA)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793334/spheroid-growth-in-ovarian-cancer-alters-transcriptome-responses-for-stress-pathways-and-epigenetic-responses
#14
Trillitye Paullin, Chase Powell, Christopher Menzie, Robert Hill, Feng Cheng, Christopher J Martyniuk, Sandy D Westerheide
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791765/effects-of-gelling-bath-on-the-physical-properties-of-alginate-gel-beads-and-the-biological-characteristics-of-entrapped-hepg2-cells
#15
Dongsheng Sun, Yang Liu, Hao Wu, Ying Ren, Xiaojun Ma, Huijian Wu, Guangwei Sun
Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, Alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions...
August 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790117/in-vivo-validation-of-papss1-3-phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate-synthase-1-as-a-cisplatin-sensitizing-therapeutic-target
#16
Ada W Y Leung, Chansey J Veinotte, Nicole Melong, Min Hee Oh, Kent T J Chen, Katey Enfield, Ian Backstrom, Corinna Warburton, Donald T Yapp, Jason N Berman, Marcel B Bally, William W Lockwood
INTRODUCTION: Our previous screening efforts found that inhibition of PAPSS1 increases the potency of DNA damaging agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Here, we explored the clinical relevance of PAPSS1 and further investigated it as a therapeutic target in pre-clinical model systems. METHODS: PAPSS1 expression and cisplatin IC50 values were assessed in 52 lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) cell lines. Effects of PAPSS1 inhibition on A549 cisplatin sensitivity under hypoxic and starvation conditions, in 3D spheroids, as well as in zebrafish and mouse xenografts, were evaluated...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783251/safety-and-efficacy-of-allogeneic-lung-spheroid-cells-in-a-mismatched-rat-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
Jhon Cores, M Taylor Hensley, Kathryn Kinlaw, S Michaela Rikard, Phuong-Uyen Dinh, Dipti Paudel, Junnan Tang, Adam C Vandergriff, Tyler A Allen, Yazhou Li, Jianhua Liu, Bo Niu, Yuepeng Chi, Thomas Caranasos, Leonard J Lobo, Ke Cheng
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating interstitial lung disease characterized by the relentless deposition of extracellular matrix causing lung distortions and dysfunctions. The prognosis after detection is merely 3-5 years and the only two Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs treat the symptoms, not the disease, and have numerous side effects. Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Current animal and clinical studies focus on the use of adipose or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...
August 7, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782139/low-doses-of-curcuma-longa-modulates-cell-migration-and-cell-cell-adhesion
#18
Paloma Santos de Campos, Bibiana Franzen Matte, Leonardo Francisco Diel, Luciano Henrique Jesus, Lisiane Bernardi, Alessandro Menna Alves, Pantelis Varvaki Rados, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers
Cell invasion and metastasis are involved in clinical failures in cancer treatment, and both events require the acquisition of a migratory behavior by tumor cells. Curcumin is a promising natural product with anti-proliferative activity, but its effects on cell migration are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cell-cell adhesion of keratinocyte, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and fibroblast cell lines, as well as in a xenograft model of OSCC...
August 7, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781092/properties-of-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-effects-of-culture-conditions
#19
Nobuyuki Kawashima, Sonoko Noda, Mioko Yamamoto, Takashi Okiji
Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) highly express mesenchymal stem cell markers and possess the potential to differentiate into neural cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Thus, DPMSCs are considered suitable for tissue regeneration. The colony isolation method has commonly been used to collect relatively large amounts of heterogeneous DPMSCs. Homogenous DPMSCs can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies against mesenchymal stem cell markers, although this method yields a limited number of cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780462/advances-and-challenges-in-stem-cell-culture
#20
REVIEW
Christina McKee, G Rasul Chaudhry
Stem cells (SCs) hold great promise for cell therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine as well as pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. They have the capacity to self-renew and the ability to differentiate into specialized cell types depending upon their source of isolation. However, use of SCs for clinical applications requires a high quality and quantity of cells. This necessitates large-scale expansion of SCs followed by efficient and homogeneous differentiation into functional derivatives...
July 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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