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Reid Tingley, Georgia Ward-Fear, Lin Schwarzkopf, Matthew J Greenlees, Benjamin L Phillips, Gregory Brown, Simon Clulow, Jonathan Webb, Robert Capon, Andy Sheppard, Tanja Strive, Mark Tizard, Richard Shine
Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Danilo de Souza Almeida, Louise Canto Ferreira, Deimy Lima Ferreira, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Edna Aoba Ishikawa, Rita Catarina Medeiros Sousa, Maísa Silva de Sousa
The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) is a Deltaretrovírus that was first isolated in the 1970s, and associated with Adult T-cell Leucemia-Lymphoma (ATLL), and subsequently to Tropical Spastic Paraparesis-Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The genetic diversity of the virus varies among geographic regions, although its mutation rate is very low (approximately 1% per thousand years) in comparison with other viruses. The present study determined the genetic diversity of HTLV-1 in the metropolitan region of Belém, in northern Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Elodie F Briefer, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Roi Mandel, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep09989.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Edna Nahon-Crystal, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Rajeev Gupta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Although an accumulation of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, the etiology of the disease remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as an early event in AD pathogenesis and is reflected by reduced metabolism, disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. The focus of this review is the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, and specifically, the role of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which has been linked to AD pathogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Buyun Chen, Pingping Lu, Dugan Freeman, Yang Gao, Edna Choo, Kevin DeMent, Scott Savage, Kelly Zhang, Dennis Milanwoski, Lichuan Liu, Brian Dean, Yuzhong Deng
The pH labile metabolite, hydrophobicity, high oral dose and systematic exposure of GDC-0810 posed tremendous challenges to develop a LC-MS method for a stable isotope labeled aBA study. In this study, we explored practical solutions to balance stability and sensitivity and to cope with the impact of high Cp.o. to Ci.v. ratio on the labeling selection and assay dynamic range. A [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 was synthesized to minimize the isotopic interference between PO dose, internal standard and I.V. microtracer. A highly sensitive LC-MS assay was validated for quantitation of [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 from 5 to 1250 pg/mL...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Markus Majaneva, Ola H Diserud, Shannon H C Eagle, Erik Boström, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Torbjørn Ekrem
Freshwater metazoan biodiversity assessment using environmental DNA (eDNA) captured on filters offers new opportunities for water quality management. Filtering of water in the field is a logistical advantage compared to transport of water to the nearest lab, and thus, appropriate filter preservation becomes crucial for maximum DNA recovery. Here, the effect of four different filter preservation strategies, two filter types, and pre-filtration were evaluated by measuring metazoan diversity and community composition, using eDNA collected from a river and a lake ecosystem...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Edna M S Oliveira, Francisco R Silva, Crislânia C O Morais, Thiago Mielle B F Oliveira, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle, Artur J Motheo, Cynthia C Albuquerque, Suely S L Castro
This study investigated the anodic oxidation of phenolic wastewater generated by cashew-nut processing industry (CNPI) using active (Ti/RuO2 -TiO2 ) and inactive (boron doped diamond, BDD) anodes. During electrochemical treatment, various operating parameters were investigated, such as current density, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenols, O2 production, temperature, pH, as well as current efficiency and energy consumption. After electrolysis under optimized working conditions, samples were evaluated by chromatography and toxicological tests against L...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masayuki Ushio, Koichi Murata, Tetsuya Sado, Isao Nishiumi, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Masaki Miya
Birds play unique functional roles in the maintenance of ecosystems, such as pollination and seed dispersal, and thus monitoring bird species diversity is a first step towards avoiding undesirable consequences of anthropogenic impacts on bird communities. In the present study, we hypothesized that birds, regardless of their main habitats, must have frequent contact with water and that tissues that contain their DNA that persists in the environment (environmental DNA; eDNA) could be used to detect the presence of avian species...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Avshalom Leibowitz, Ariel Bier, Mayan Gilboa, Edna Peleg, Iris Barshack, Ehud Grossman
Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS) may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac) (0.1 mg/mL) placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg) levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Joseph C Dysthe, Torrey Rodgers, Thomas W Franklin, Kellie J Carim, Michael K Young, Kevin S McKelvey, Karen E Mock, Michael K Schwartz
Information on the distribution of multiple species in a common landscape is fundamental to effective conservation and management. However, distribution data are expensive to obtain and often limited to high-profile species in a system. A recently developed technique, environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling, has been shown to be more sensitive than traditional detection methods for many aquatic species. A second and perhaps underappreciated benefit of eDNA sampling is that a sample originally collected to determine the presence of one species can be re-analyzed to detect additional taxa without additional field effort...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Sara Fernandez, Miguel M Sandin, Paul G Beaulieu, Laura Clusa, Jose L Martinez, Alba Ardura, Eva García-Vázquez
Background: Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture...
2018: PeerJ
Nathalie Lejal, Sandrine Truchet, Edna Bechor, Edwige Bouguyon, Vijay Khedkar, Nicolas Bertho, Jasmina Vidic, Pierre Adenot, Stéphanie Solier, Edgar Pick, Anny Slama-Schwok
BACKGROUND: Targeting cells of the host immune system is a promising approach to fight against Influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Macrophage cells use the NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) enzymatic complex as a first line of defense against pathogens by generating superoxide ions O2 - and releasing H2 O2 . Herein, we investigated whether targeting membrane -embedded NOX2 decreased IAV entry via raft domains and reduced inflammation in infected macrophages. METHODS: Confocal microscopy and western blots monitored levels of the viral nucleoprotein NP and p67phox , NOX2 activator subunit, Elisa assays quantified TNF-α levels in LPS or IAV-activated mouse or porcine alveolar macrophages pretreated with a fluorescent NOX inhibitor, called nanoshutter NS1...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Victoria Peyret, Magalí Nazar, Mariano Martin, Amado A Quintar, Elmer A Fernandez, Romina C Geysels, Cesar Fuziwara, María M Montesinos, Cristina A Maldonado, Pilar Santisteban, Edna T Kimura, Claudia G Pellizas, Juan P Nicola, Ana M Masini-Repiso
Emerging evidence suggests that unregulated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling promotes tumor survival signals, thus favoring tumor progression. Here, the mechanism underlying TLR4 overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) mainly harboring the BRAFV600E mutation was studied. TLR4 was overexpressed in PTCs compared to non-neoplastic thyroid tissue. Moreover, paired clinical specimens of primary PTC and its lymph node metastasis showed a significant upregulation of TLR4 levels in the metastatic tissues...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Edna Garcia, Iman Kundu, Asma Ali, Ryan Soles
Objectives: To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Methods: The 2016-2017 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between the American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, & Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment division and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Diego A Miranda, William C Krause, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Miyuki Suzawa, Hazel Escusa, Juat Chin Foo, Diyala S Shihadih, Andreas Stahl, Mark Fitch, Edna Nyangau, Marc Hellerstein, Markus R Wenk, David L Silver, Holly A Ingraham
Excess lipid accumulation is an early signature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) (encoded by NR5A2) is suppressed in human NAFLD, evidence linking this phospholipid-bound nuclear receptor to hepatic lipid metabolism is lacking. Here, we report an essential role for LRH-1 in hepatic lipid storage and phospholipid composition based on an acute hepatic KO of LRH-1 in adult mice (LRH-1AAV8-Cre mice). Indeed, LRH-1-deficient hepatocytes exhibited large cytosolic lipid droplets and increased triglycerides (TGs)...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Augustine Massawe, Hussein L Kidanto, Robert Moshiro, Edna Majaliwa, Flora Chacha, Aisa Shayo, Paschal Mdoe, Prisca Ringia, Mary Azayo, Georgina Msemo, Estomih Mduma, Hege L Ersdal, Jeffrey M Perlman
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonatal mortality (NM) has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Major causes of mortality include birth asphyxia, respiratory insufficiency and infections. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have been shown to significantly reduce mortality in developed countries. There is inconsistent use of ACS in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether implementation of a care bundle that includes ACS, maternal antibiotics (MA), neonatal antibiotics (NA) and avoidance of moderate hypothermia (temperature < 36°C) targeting infants of estimated gestational age (EGA) 28 to 34 6/7 weeks would reduce NM (< 7 days) by 35%...
2018: PloS One
Sharmila Devi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Lancet
David Bass, Christopher van der Gast, Serena Thomson, Sigrid Neuhauser, Sally Hilton, Gary D Bending
Microbial communities closely associated with the rhizosphere can have strong positive and negative impacts on plant health and growth. We used a group-specific amplicon approach to investigate local scale drivers in the diversity and distribution of plasmodiophorids in rhizosphere/root and bulk soil samples from oilseed rape (OSR) and wheat agri-systems. Plasmodiophorids are plant- and stramenopile-associated protists including well known plant pathogens as well as symptomless endobiotic species. We detected 28 plasmodiophorid lineages (OTUs), many of them novel, and showed that plasmodiophorid communities were highly dissimilar and significantly divergent between wheat and OSR rhizospheres and between rhizosphere and bulk soil samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nitya Prabhakaran, Miguel A Guzman, Pournima Navalkele, Edna Chow-Maneval, Jacqueline R Batanian
Gangliogliomas are rare neoplasms of the central nervous system that mostly originate in the temporal lobe and are associated with seizures. Literature mentions that BRAF mutations are most commonly associated with gangliogliomas. We discuss a unique case of ganglioglioma originating in the posterior fossa that showed multiple losses and a unique interstitial deletion at 9q21 by an array-comparative genome hybridization (array-CGH). The deletion led to a novel molecular fusion (TLE4-NTRK2) which was confirmed by next generation sequencing and provides a potential for a gene-targeted therapy...
March 4, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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