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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774357/peyer-s-patch-specific-lactobacillus-reuteri-strains-increase-extracellular-microbial-dna-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#1
Ce Qi, Jin Sun, Ya Li, Min Gu, Tim Goulette, Xiaomeng You, David A Sela, Xingguo Wang, Hang Xiao
Specific Lactobacillus reuteri is autochthonous Lactobacillus species in humans with potential application in food production as a probiotic. The difference in colonizing Peyer's patches (PP) might decide their health-promoting properties. We aimed to investigate the difference between PP- and lumen-specific L. reuteri on antimicrobial peptide expression in this study. L. reuteri strains were isolated from PP and the lumen of C57BL/6J mice, which were used to treat mice. PP-specific L. reuteri cells stimulate RegIIIγ mRNA expression of the crypt epithelial sample...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768738/unlocking-biodiversity-and-conservation-studies-in-high-diversity-environments-using-environmental-dna-edna-a-test-with-guianese-freshwater-fishes
#2
Kévin Cilleros, Alice Valentini, Luc Allard, Tony Dejean, Roselyne Etienne, Gaël Grenouillet, Amaia Iribar, Pierre Taberlet, Régis Vigouroux, Sébastien Brosse
Determining the species compositions of local assemblages is a prerequisite to understanding how anthropogenic disturbances affect biodiversity. However, biodiversity measurements often remain incomplete due to the limited efficiency of sampling methods. This is particularly true in freshwater tropical environments that host rich fish assemblages, for which assessments are uncertain and often rely on destructive methods. Developing an efficient and non-destructive method to assess biodiversity in tropical freshwaters is highly important...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766663/the-effect-of-filtration-method-on-the-efficiency-of-environmental-dna-capture-and-quantification-via-metabarcoding
#3
Jianlong Li, Lori-Jayne Lawson Handley, Daniel S Read, Bernd Hänfling
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a promising tool for rapid and non-invasive biodiversity monitoring. eDNA density is low in environmental samples, and a capture method, such as filtration, is often required to concentrate eDNA for downstream analyses. In this study, six treatments, with differing filter types and pore sizes for eDNA capture, were compared for their efficiency and accuracy to assess fish community structure with known fish abundance and biomass via eDNA metabarcoding. Our results showed that different filters (with the exception of 20 μm large-pore filters) were broadly consistent in their DNA capture ability...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764945/a-mechanism-of-unidirectional-transformation-leading-to-antibiotic-resistance-occurs-within-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-biofilm-consortia
#4
Santiago M Lattar, Xueqing Wu, Jennifer Brophy, Fuminori Sakai, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae acquires genes for resistance to antibiotics such as streptomycin (Str) or trimethoprim (Tmp) by recombination via transformation of DNA released by other pneumococci and closely related species. Using naturally transformable pneumococci, including strain D39 serotype 2 (S2) and TIGR4 (S4), we studied whether pneumococcal nasopharyngeal transformation was symmetrical, asymmetrical, or unidirectional. Incubation of S2Tet and S4Str in a bioreactor simulating the human nasopharynx led to the generation of SpnTet/Str recombinants...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763862/hydrogen-peroxide-treatment-promotes-chlorophytes-over-toxic-cyanobacteria-in-a-hyper-eutrophic-aquaculture-pond
#5
Zhen Yang, Riley P Buley, Edna G Fernandez-Figueroa, Mario U G Barros, Soorya Rajendran, Alan E Wilson
Controlling blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton, including cyanobacteria, is a high priority for managers of aquatic systems that are used for drinking water, recreation, and aquaculture production. Although a variety of treatment approaches exist, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has the potential to be an effective and ecofriendly algaecide given that this compound may select against cyanobacteria while not producing harmful residues. To broadly evaluate the effectiveness of H2 O2 on toxigenic phytoplankton, we tested multiple concentrations of H2 O2 on (1) four cyanobacterial cultures, including filamentous Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Planktothrix, and unicellular Microcystis, in a 5-day laboratory experiment and (2) a dense cyanobacterial bloom in a 7-day field experiment conducted in a nutrient-rich aquaculture pond...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762175/pregnancy-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-babies-with-in-utero-exposure-to-tenofovir-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#6
Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Mark A Marzinke, Kenneth Ngure, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy. METHODS: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761890/glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-variants-and-lower-expression-of-nr3c1-are-associated-with-cocaine-use
#7
Andrea B Schote, Kristina Jäger, Sara L Kroll, Matthias Vonmoos, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Jobst Meyer, Edna Grünblatt, Boris B Quednow
Animal and cross-sectional human studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with altered responsivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress. Moreover, increased susceptibility to stress has been proposed as an important factor for development, maintenance and relapse of cocaine addiction. As the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) mediates genomic effects of the stress hormone cortisol, we investigated NR3C1 expression and the association of NR3C1 genotypes with cocaine use, addiction and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in 126 chronic cocaine users and 98 stimulant-naïve healthy controls...
May 15, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757618/does-size-matter-an-experimental-evaluation-of-the-relative-abundance-and-decay-rates-of-aquatic-edna
#8
Jonas Bylemans, Elise M Furlan, Dianne M Gleeson, Christopher M Hardy, Richard P Duncan
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly used to monitor aquatic macro-fauna. Typically, short mitochondrial DNA fragments are targeted because these should be relatively more abundant in the environment as longer fragments will break into smaller fragments over time. However, longer fragments may permit more flexible primer design and increase taxonomic resolution for eDNA metabarcoding analyses, and recent studies have shown that long mitochondrial eDNA fragments can be extracted from environmental water samples...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752923/video-compared-to-conversational-contraceptive-counseling-during-labor-and-maternity-hospitalization-in-colombia-a-randomized-trial
#9
Alyssa R Hersh, Luisa F Muñoz, Mónica Rincón, Carolina Alvarez, Jorge E Tolosa, Diva J Moreno, Martha Rubio, Juan C Vargas, Francisco Edna, Nelson Taborda, Maureen K Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Assess if video-based contraceptive education could be an efficient adjunct to contraceptive counseling and attain the same contraceptive knowledge acquisition as conversation-based counseling. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial examining contraceptive counseling during labor and maternity hospitalization regarding the options of immediate postpartum contraception. At two urban public hospitals, we randomized participants to a structured conversation with a trained counselor or a 14-min video providing the same information...
May 9, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752266/biofilm-formation-by-helicobacter-pylori-is-differentially-affected-by-common-culture-conditions-and-protein-plays-a-central-role-in-the-biofilm-matrix
#10
Ian H Windham, Stephanie L Servetas, Jeannette M Whitmire, Daniel Pletzer, Robert E W Hancock, D Scott Merrell
The concept of Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation is relatively new. To help provide a foundation for future biofilm studies, we characterized the biofilm formation ability of a common H. pylori lab strain, G27. The goal of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation by G27 in response to common culture conditions and to explore the biofilm matrix. Our results indicate that while growth in varies types of media did not dramatically effect biofilm formation, surface selection had a significant effect on final biofilm mass...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747863/early-detection-of-marine-invasive-species-bugula-neritina-bryozoa-cheilostomatida-using-species-specific-primers-and-environmental-dna-analysis-in-korea
#11
Philjae Kim, Donghwan Kim, Tae Joong Yoon, Sook Shin
The bryozoan, Bugula neritina, is one of the most widespread sessile marine invasive species. Since its first discovery in Korea in 1978, the gradual increase in the distribution and abundance of this species resulted in a significant damage to growth of aquaculture. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially useful tool for species detection including rare, invasive and threatened native species. In this study, species-specific primers and probe were designed to amplify a 185-bp region based on mitochondrial COI of B...
April 27, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746527/characterization-of-a-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-thermonuclease
#12
Christine Cho, Aroon T Chande, Lokesh Gakhar, Jason Hunt, Margaret R Ketterer, Michael A Apicella
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has been shown to form biofilms, comprised of extracellular DNA (eDNA), in the middle ear and bronchus during clinical infections. Studies in our laboratory have shown that NTHi possesses a homolog of Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (staphylococcal thermonuclease), NTHi nuclease (NTHi Nuc, HI_1296). This enzyme had similar size, heat stability, and divalent cation requirements to those of the staphylococcal homolog as determined by light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745861/computing-the-family-free-dcj-similarity
#13
Diego P Rubert, Edna A Hoshino, Marília D V Braga, Jens Stoye, Fábio V Martinez
BACKGROUND: The genomic similarity is a large-scale measure for comparing two given genomes. In this work we study the (NP-hard) problem of computing the genomic similarity under the DCJ model in a setting that does not assume that the genes of the compared genomes are grouped into gene families. This problem is called family-free DCJ similarity. RESULTS: We propose an exact ILP algorithm to solve the family-free DCJ similarity problem, then we show its APX-hardness and present four combinatorial heuristics with computational experiments comparing their results to the ILP...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737493/obesity-prevention-strategies-and-challenges-in-latin-america
#14
REVIEW
Louise Cominato, Georgia Finardi Di Biagio, Denise Lellis, Ruth Rocha Franco, Marcio Correa Mancini, Maria Edna de Melo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to present changes of policies and norms aimed to reduce obesity levels that have been adopted in some Latin American countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The global increase of the excess weight within the population has been demanding governmental actions aimed at preventing health impacts generated by obesity. Over recent years, many Latin American countries have established a number of regulations aimed at reducing weight in the population using interventions that could effectively prevent childhood obesity, including the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), increasing physical activity in open spaces, and, especially, front-of-package labeling...
May 8, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736731/phthalimido-thiazole-as-privileged-scaffold-activity-against-immature-and-adult-worms-of-schistosoma-mansoni
#15
Sheilla Andrade de Oliveira, Miria de Oliveira Barbosa, Carlos André Laranjeira Miranda Filho, Arsênio Rodrigues Oliveira, Fabiano Amaro de Sousa, Edna de Farias Santiago, Gevanio Bezerra de Oliveira Filho, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes Gomes, Juliana Maria da Conceição, Fábio André Brayner, Luiz Carlos Alves, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Phthalimide, 1,3-thiazole, and thiazolidinone cores are considered privileged scaffolds and represent an attractive starting point to design new bioactive compounds for neglected tropical disease (NTD). Schistosomiasis is a NTD, caused by Schistosoma worms which praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug used to treat humans, but the decrease in the effect after treatment has been reported. Recently, some phthalimide-thiazole derivatives exhibited in vitro antischistosomal activity against adult worms with significant ultrastructural changes and a lower cytotoxic effect on splenocytes...
May 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732403/environmental-dna-illuminates-the-dark-diversity-of-sharks
#16
Germain Boussarie, Judith Bakker, Owen S Wangensteen, Stefano Mariani, Lucas Bonnin, Jean-Baptiste Juhel, Jeremy J Kiszka, Michel Kulbicki, Stephanie Manel, William D Robbins, Laurent Vigliola, David Mouillot
In the era of "Anthropocene defaunation," large species are often no longer detected in habitats where they formerly occurred. However, it is unclear whether this apparent missing, or "dark," diversity of megafauna results from local species extirpations or from failure to detect elusive remaining individuals. We find that despite two orders of magnitude less sampling effort, environmental DNA (eDNA) detects 44% more shark species than traditional underwater visual censuses and baited videos across the New Caledonian archipelago (south-western Pacific)...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730433/the-tolerogenic-peptide-hcdr1-immunomodulates-cytokine-and-regulatory-molecule-gene-expression-in-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-patients
#17
Zev Sthoeger, Amir Sharabi, Ilan Asher, Heidy Zinger, Rafael Segal, Gene Shearer, Ori Elkayam, Edna Mozes
Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands. We investigated whether the tolerogenic peptide, hCDR1, that ameliorates lupus manifestations would have beneficial effects on pSS as well. The in vitro effects of hCDR1 on gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulatory molecules were tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 16 pSS patients. hCDR1, but not a control peptide, significantly reduced gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, MX-1 and BlyS and up-regulated immunosuppressive (TGF-β, FOXP3) molecules in PBMC of pSS patients...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729686/treatments-for-bulimia-nervosa-a-network-meta-analysis
#18
Eric Slade, Edna Keeney, Ifigeneia Mavranezouli, Sofia Dias, Linyun Fou, Sarah Stockton, Leanne Saxon, Glenn Waller, Hannah Turner, Lucy Serpell, Christopher G Fairburn, Tim Kendall
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a severe eating disorder that can be managed using a variety of treatments including pharmacological, psychological, and combination treatments. We aimed to compare their effectiveness and to identify the most effective for the treatment of BN in adults. METHODS: A search was conducted in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Central from their inception to July 2016. Studies were included if they reported on treatments for adults who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for BN...
May 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725289/fine-localization-of-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-synaptic-cleft-of-the-vertebrate-neuromuscular-junction
#19
Edna Blotnick-Rubin, Lili Anglister
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is concentrated at cholinergic synapses, where it is a major factor in controlling the duration of transmitter action. The concentration and localization of AChE within the synaptic cleft are in keeping with the functional requirements of the particular type of synapse. The densities of synaptic AChE at various neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) had been evaluated by quantitative EM-autoradiography using radiolabeled probes. Yet, fundamental issues concerning the precise distribution and location of the enzyme in the cleft remained open: whether and to what extent synaptic AChE is associated with pre- or postsynaptic membranes, or with synaptic basal lamina (BL), and whether it occurs only in the primary cleft (PC) or also in postjunctional folds (PJFs)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723434/prgb-promotes-aggregation-biofilm-formation-and-conjugation-through-dna-binding-and-compaction
#20
Andreas Schmitt, Kai Jiang, Martha I Camacho, Venkateswara Rao Jonna, Anders Hofer, Fredrik Westerlund, Peter J Christie, Ronnie P-A Berntsson
Gram-positive bacteria deploy type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to facilitate horizontal gene transfer. The T4SSs of Gram-positive bacteria rely on surface adhesins as opposed to conjugative pili to facilitate mating. Enterococcus faecalis PrgB is a surface adhesin that promotes mating pair formation and robust biofilm development in an extracellular DNA (eDNA) dependent manner. Here we report the structure of the adhesin domain of PrgB. The adhesin domain binds and compacts DNA in vitro. In vivo PrgB deleted of its adhesin domain does not support cellular aggregation, biofilm development and conjugative DNA transfer...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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