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Vaccination debate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#1
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#2
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190742/pcv13-serotype-decrease-in-italian-adolescents-and-adults-in-the-post-pcv13-era-herd-protection-from-children-or-secular-trend
#3
Francesco Nieddu, Maria Moriondo, Elisa De Vitis, Silvia Ricci, Giuseppe Indolfi, Massimo Resti, Caterina Vocale, Maria Paola Landini, Assunta Sartor, Chiara Azzari
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: In 2010 PCV13 replaced PCV7 in the pediatric vaccination schedule for Italian children. While a strong herd effect was demonstrated for PCV7, a possible herd effect due to PCV13 is still under debate. Our aim was to evaluate differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes between the pre and post-PCV13 eras in unvaccinated Italian adolescents and adults with laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal infection from 3 Italian Regions with a high rate of PCV13 vaccination of children...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168837/immunity-in-filarial-infections-lessons-from-animal-models-and-human-studies
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno
Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity is extensively being investigated. Currently, little is known regarding the collective functions or counter-regulatory mechanisms of the antibody isotypes in filarial infection with respect to protective immunity...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129049/protection-of-children-against-influenza-emerging-problems
#5
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Influenza is a common disease and in children it can be severe enough to lead to hospitalization and death. Protection of all children against influenza, particularly the youngest, is strongly recommended by most health authorities. However, available vaccines cannot be used in the first 6 months of age, a period of life characterized by the highest risk of influenza-related complications. Maternal immunization is an attractive possibility to overcome this problem. For years, protection against influenza has been pursued by administering the trivalent inactivated vaccine given intramuscularly (IIV3)...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122982/lack-of-adcc-breadth-of-human-non-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-antibodies
#6
Timothée Bruel, Florence Guivel-Benhassine, Valérie Lorin, Hugues Lortat-Jacob, Françoise Baleux, Katia Bourdic, Nicolas Noël, Olivier Lambotte, Hugo Mouquet, Olivier Schwartz
: Anti-HIV-1 non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) capable of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been identified as a protective immune correlate in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) also mediate ADCC in cell culture and rely on their Fc region for optimal efficacy in animal models. Here, we selected 9 monoclonal nnAbs and 5 potent bNAbs, targeting various epitopes and conformations of the gp120/41 complex, and analyzed the potency of the two types of antibodies to bind and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in culture...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118846/ecological-validity-of-cost-effectiveness-models-of-universal-hpv-vaccination-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#7
Giampiero Favato, Emmanouil Noikokyris, Riccardo Vecchiato
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infection with high-risk, oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) still induces a relevant burden of diseases on both men and women. Although vaccines appear to be highly efficacious in preventing the infection of the most common high-risk strains (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18), important questions regarding the appropriate target population for prophylactic vaccination are still debated. Models in the extant literature seem to converge on the cost-effectiveness of high coverage (>80%) of a single cohort of 12-year-old girls...
January 25, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098157/antibody-responses-to-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-health-care-personnel-previously-vaccinated-and-vaccinated-for-the-first-time
#8
Kuan-Ying A Huang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin
Inactivated influenza vaccination induces a hemagglutinin-specific antibody response to the strain used for immunization. Annual vaccination is strongly recommended for health care personnel. However, it is debatable if repeated vaccination would affect the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine through the time. We enrolled health care personnel who had repeated and first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in 2005-2008. Serological antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089081/asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-syndrome-literature-review-and-contributions-towards-a-portuguese-consensus
#9
D Araújo, E Padrão, M Morais-Almeida, J Cardoso, F Pavão, R B Leite, A C Caldas, A Marques
INTRODUCTION: Phenotypic overlap between the two main chronic airway pulmonary diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been the subject of debate for decades, and recently the nomenclature of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was adopted for this condition. The definition of this entity in the literature is, however, very heterogeneous, it is therefore important to define how it applies to Portugal. METHODS: A literature review of ACOS was made in a first phase resulting in the drawing up of a document that was later submitted for discussion among a panel of chronic lung diseases experts, resulting in reflexions about diagnosis, treatment and clinical guidance for ACOS patients...
January 6, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061505/effectiveness-of-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv23-against-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-elderly-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Gerhard Falkenhorst, Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Eva Hummers-Pradier, Ole Wichmann, Christian Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034371/vaccines-against-human-papillomavirus-infections-protection-against-cancer-genital-warts-or-both
#11
REVIEW
E A Joura, S Pils
Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924684/fifteen-years-of-epidemiologic-virologic-and-syndromic-influenza-surveillance-a-focus-on-type-b-virus-and-the-effects-of-vaccine-mismatch-in-liguria-region-italy
#12
Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Andrea Orsi, Chiara Paganino, Ilaria Barberis, Federico Grammatico, Paola Canepa, Emanuela Rappazzo, Bianca Bruzzone, Laura Sticchi, Filippo Ansaldi
In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons...
February 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899522/care-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-in-remission
#13
REVIEW
Charumathi Raghu Subramanian, George Triadafilopoulos
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct conditions: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are chronic, relapsing disorders carrying significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. With growing attention to coordinated healthcare for patients with chronic systemic diseases, this review focuses on the care of IBD patients in remission, their concerns, quality of life, follow-up, the role of primary care physicians and the IBD-specific aspects of long-term care. We did an extensive PubMed search for articles pertaining to IBD patients in remission and, along with the authors' experience, formulated a comprehensive review...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880083/how-do-parents-and-pediatricians-arrive-at-the-decision-to-immunize-their-children-in-the-private-sector-insights-from-a-qualitative-study-on-rotavirus-vaccination-across-select-indian-cities
#14
Mathew Sunil George, Preeti Negandhi, Habib Hassan Farooqui, Anjali Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
Key debates on improving vaccination coverage tend to focus on factors that affect uptake in the public health system while ignoring the private sector that plays an important role in providing health services in any low or middle-income country setting. Using in-depth interviews, we explored factors that influenced the decision of parents as well as pediatricians working in the private sector across 8 Indian cities on whether their children should be vaccinated with a particular vaccine Pediatricians and their relationship with parents was an important factor that influenced the decision on whether parents vaccinated their children with a particular vaccine or not...
December 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843544/social-media-as-a-platform-for-health-related-public-debates-and-discussions-the-polio-vaccine-on-facebook
#15
Daniela Orr, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari, Keren Landsman
BACKGROUND: Social media can act as an important platform for debating, discussing, and disseminating information about vaccines. Our objectives were to map and describe the roles played by web-based mainstream media and social media as platforms for vaccination-related public debates and discussions during the Polio crisis in Israel in 2013: where and how did the public debate and discuss the issue, and how can these debates and discussions be characterized? METHOD: Polio-related coverage was collected from May 28 to October 31, 2013, from seven online Hebrew media platforms and the Facebook groups discussing the Polio vaccination were mapped and described...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828674/development-health-and-international-policy-the-research-and-innovation-dimension
#16
Paulo Marchiori Buss, Claudia Chamas, Miriam Faid, Carlos Morel
This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825246/parallel-analyses-of-systemic-and-local-vaccinations-with-envelope-formulated-in-adjuvant-for-induction-of-hiv-specific-antibodies-in-the-vaginal-mucosa
#17
Robert E Sealy, Julia L Hurwitz
To prevent HIV-1 infections in females, vaccines that elicit antibodies in vaginal secretions are much desired. To induce these antibodies, intravaginal vaccinations are sometimes recommended. However, the benefit of intravaginal vaccination remains a topic of debate, and parallel studies of intravaginal and intramuscular vaccination routes are rarely performed. Here we describe tests of mucosal and systemic antibodies after mouse vaccinations by several routes with HIV-1 envelope protein formulated in adjuvant...
December 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795400/pharmacological-inhibition-of-host-heme-oxygenase-1-suppresses-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-vivo-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-t-lymphocytes
#18
Diego L Costa, Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Eduardo P Amaral, Kriti Arora, Alex Chao, Lara R Mittereder, Mamoudou Maiga, Helena I Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Celia W Goulding, Bruno B Andrade, Alan Sher
: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress response antioxidant enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme released during inflammation. HO-1 expression is upregulated in both experimental and human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and in patients it is a biomarker of active disease. Whether the enzyme plays a protective versus pathogenic role in tuberculosis has been the subject of debate. To address this controversy, we administered tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), a well-characterized HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, to mice during acute M...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770803/the-response-of-mute-swans-cygnus-olor-gm-1789-to-vaccination-against-avian-influenza-with-an-inactivated-h5n2-vaccine
#19
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755184/no-when-the-immunologist-becomes-a-virologist-norovirus-an-emerging-infection-in-immune-deficiency-diseases
#20
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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