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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899522/care-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-in-remission
#1
REVIEW
Charumathi Raghu Subramanian, George Triadafilopoulos
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct conditions: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are chronic, relapsing disorders carrying significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. With growing attention to coordinated healthcare for patients with chronic systemic diseases, this review focuses on the care of IBD patients in remission, their concerns, quality of life, follow-up, the role of primary care physicians and the IBD-specific aspects of long-term care. We did an extensive PubMed search for articles pertaining to IBD patients in remission and, along with the authors' experience, formulated a comprehensive review...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880083/how-do-parents-and-pediatricians-arrive-at-the-decision-to-immunize-their-children-in-the-private-sector-insights-from-a-qualitative-study-on-rotavirus-vaccination-across-select-indian-cities
#2
Mathew Sunil George, Preeti Negandhi, Habib Hassan Farooqui, Anjali Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
Key debates on improving vaccination coverage tend to focus on factors that affect uptake in the public health system while ignoring the private sector that plays an important role in providing health services in any low or middle-income country setting. Using in-depth interviews, we explored factors that influenced the decision of parents as well as pediatricians working in the private sector across 8 Indian cities on whether their children should be vaccinated with a particular vaccine Pediatricians and their relationship with parents was an important factor that influenced the decision on whether parents vaccinated their children with a particular vaccine or not...
November 23, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843544/social-media-as-a-platform-for-health-related-public-debates-and-discussions-the-polio-vaccine-on-facebook
#3
Daniela Orr, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari, Keren Landsman
BACKGROUND: Social media can act as an important platform for debating, discussing, and disseminating information about vaccines. Our objectives were to map and describe the roles played by web-based mainstream media and social media as platforms for vaccination-related public debates and discussions during the Polio crisis in Israel in 2013: where and how did the public debate and discuss the issue, and how can these debates and discussions be characterized? METHOD: Polio-related coverage was collected from May 28 to October 31, 2013, from seven online Hebrew media platforms and the Facebook groups discussing the Polio vaccination were mapped and described...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828674/development-health-and-international-policy-the-research-and-innovation-dimension
#4
Paulo Marchiori Buss, Claudia Chamas, Miriam Faid, Carlos Morel
This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825246/parallel-analyses-of-systemic-and-local-vaccinations-with-envelope-formulated-in-adjuvant-for-induction-of-hiv-specific-antibodies-in-the-vaginal-mucosa
#5
Robert Sealy, Julia Lea Hurwitz
To prevent HIV-1 infections in females, vaccines that elicit antibodies in vaginal secretions are much desired. To induce these antibodies, intravaginal vaccinations are sometimes recommended. However, the benefit of intravaginal vaccination remains a topic of debate, and parallel studies of intravaginal and intramuscular vaccination routes are rarely performed. Here we describe tests of mucosal and systemic antibodies after several routes of vaccination with HIV-1 envelope protein formulated in adjuvant. Response magnitudes were: intraperitoneal > intramuscular = intravaginal tissue ≥ subcutaneous...
November 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795400/pharmacological-inhibition-of-host-heme-oxygenase-1-suppresses-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-vivo-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-t-lymphocytes
#6
Diego L Costa, Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Eduardo P Amaral, Kriti Arora, Alex Chao, Lara R Mittereder, Mamoudou Maiga, Helena I Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Celia W Goulding, Bruno B Andrade, Alan Sher
: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress response antioxidant enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme released during inflammation. HO-1 expression is upregulated in both experimental and human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and in patients it is a biomarker of active disease. Whether the enzyme plays a protective versus pathogenic role in tuberculosis has been the subject of debate. To address this controversy, we administered tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), a well-characterized HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, to mice during acute M...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770803/the-response-of-mute-swans-cygnus-olor-gm-1789-to-vaccination-against-avian-influenza-with-an-inactivated-h5n2-vaccine
#7
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755184/no-when-the-immunologist-becomes-a-virologist-norovirus-an-emerging-infection-in-immune-deficiency-diseases
#8
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719667/plastid-molecular-pharming-i-production-of-oral-vaccines-via-plastid-transformation
#9
Bernadett Berecz Berecz, Helga Zelenyánszki, Sára Pólya, Cecília Tamás-Nyitrai, Mária Oszvald
Vaccines produced in plants have opened up new opportunities in vaccination. Among the various categories of vaccines, the recombinant vaccine is generally regarded as the most economical and safest type because it cannot cause disease and does not require large-scale cultivation of pathogens. Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when compared to nuclear transformation...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680425/evaluating-the-costs-and-benefits-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-adults
#10
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665440/planetary-overload-limits-to-growth-and-health
#11
REVIEW
Colin D Butler
Since the use of atomic weapons in 1945 visionaries have warned that without major changes the survival of global civilization is in question. These concerns deepened in following decades, during the Cold War, with The Limits to Growth, the best-selling environmental book of the 1970s. Yet, since then, most concern has faded, fuelled by technological developments and a shift in dominant global ideology. Public health, with a few exceptions (one of which is the book Planetary Overload), has been slow to recognize this debate, even as evidence emerges that civilization may indeed be at risk, driven by an increasingly ominous complex of events...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663785/using-age-stratified-incidence-data-to-examine-the-transmission-consequences-of-pertussis-vaccination
#12
J C Blackwood, D A T Cummings, S Iamsirithaworn, P Rohani
Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination...
September 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633511/a-novel-high-throughput-assay-to-quantify-the-vaccine-induced-inhibition-of-bordetella-pertussis-adhesion-to-airway-epithelia
#13
Elisa Zanaboni, Vanessa Arato, Mariagrazia Pizza, Anja Seubert, Rosanna Leuzzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute respiratory illness caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage whooping cough is currently re-emerging in many developed countries. Although the causes of pertussis resurgence are matter of debate, emerging evidences suggest that acellular vaccines efficiently protect against the hallmark symptoms of pertussis disease but fail to prevent colonization. This presumably impacts on increased risk of bacterial transmission and consequent spread throughout the population...
September 15, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620194/mk-8237-a-house-dust-mite-vaccine-for-treating-allergic-rhinitis-asthma-and-atopic-dermatitis
#14
Matteo Ferrando, Diego Bagnasco, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction in clinical practice one century ago for the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has exhibited a relevant clinical efficacy that was subsequently confirmed in controlled trials. Thus, AIT has been accepted worldwide, as testified by guidelines and international documents. AIT is considered pivotal in the management of allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and with or without asthma. These conditions, in addition to hymenoptera venom allergy, currently are the accepted indications...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604644/otitis-media
#15
Anne G M Schilder, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Allan W Cripps, Richard M Rosenfeld, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Mark P Haggard, Roderick P Venekamp
Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. In developing countries, CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss. OM can be of bacterial or viral origin; during 'colds', viruses can ascend through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear and pave the way for bacterial otopathogens that reside in the nasopharynx...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587450/lowering-the-age-of-consent-pushing-back-against-the-anti-vaccine-movement
#16
Allison M Whelan
This article examines the rise of the anti-vaccination movement, the proliferation of laws allowing parental exemptions to mandatory school vaccines, and the impact of the movement on immunization rates for all vaccines. It uses the ongoing debate about the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as an example to highlight the ripple effect and consequences of the anti-vaccine movement despite robust evidence of the vaccine's safety and efficacy. The article scrutinizes how state legislatures ironically promote vaccination while simultaneously deferring to the opposition by promulgating broad opt-outs from mandatory vaccine laws...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586522/the-ethics-of-vaccination-nudges-in-pediatric-practice
#17
Mark C Navin
Techniques from behavioral economics-nudges-may help physicians increase pediatric vaccine compliance, but critics have objected that nudges can undermine autonomy. Since autonomy is a centrally important value in healthcare decision-making contexts, it counts against pediatric vaccination nudges if they undermine parental autonomy. Advocates for healthcare nudges have resisted the charge that nudges undermine autonomy, and the recent bioethics literature illustrates the current intractability of this debate...
September 1, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567644/protection-against-pertussis
#18
Parang N Mehta
Though vaccines have been in use for over seventy years, we have been unable to eradicate or control pertussis. This disease is a worldwide problem, and recently has been occurring in outbreaks even in places with good immunization coverage. The debate about the use of acellular or whole cell vaccine has taken attention away from the other significant issues. The high rate of serious disease and death in young infants, and the repeated outbreaks of pertussis even in highly-vaccinated populations is a matter for grave concern...
August 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553842/the-effect-of-price-on-demand-for-and-use-of-bednets-evidence-from-a-randomized-experiment-in-madagascar
#19
Alison B Comfort, Paul J Krezanoski
There is an on-going debate about whether health products, such as insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) for protection against malaria, should be distributed for free or at a positive price to maximize ownership and use. One argument in favour of free distribution is related to positive externalities. Like vaccines, individual use of ITNs provides a community-wide protective effect against malaria even for non-users. In addition, price may act as a barrier to ownership particularly among those most at-risk who are frequently poor...
August 23, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541841/spatial-variability-in-the-persistence-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-targeted-pneumococcal-serotypes-among-adults
#20
Joshua L Warren, S Cassandra Pingali, Daniel M Weinberger
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectively reduces the number of cases caused by vaccine-targeted serotypes among children who receive the vaccine and adults who are not directly vaccinated. Recently, there has been a debate as to whether adults should receive the same conjugate vaccine as children. In settings where vaccine uptake in children is high, the vaccine serotypes cause a small fraction of disease cases, and direct vaccination might have a small effect...
January 2017: Epidemiology
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