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Vaccination debate

Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Bernadett Berecz Berecz, Helga Zelenyánszki, Sára Pólya, Cecília Tamás-Nyitrai, Mária Oszvald
Vaccines produced in plants have opened up new opportunities in vaccination. Among the various categories of vaccines, the recombinant vaccine is generally regarded as the most economical and safest type because it cannot cause disease and does not require large-scale cultivation of pathogens. Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when compared to nuclear transformation...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Colin D Butler
Since the use of atomic weapons in 1945 visionaries have warned that without major changes the survival of global civilization is in question. These concerns deepened in following decades, during the Cold War, with The Limits to Growth, the best-selling environmental book of the 1970s. Yet, since then, most concern has faded, fuelled by technological developments and a shift in dominant global ideology. Public health, with a few exceptions (one of which is the book Planetary Overload), has been slow to recognize this debate, even as evidence emerges that civilization may indeed be at risk, driven by an increasingly ominous complex of events...
September 24, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
J C Blackwood, D A T Cummings, S Iamsirithaworn, P Rohani
Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination...
September 2016: Epidemics
Elisa Zanaboni, Vanessa Arato, Mariagrazia Pizza, Anja Seubert, Rosanna Leuzzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute respiratory illness caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage whooping cough is currently re-emerging in many developed countries. Although the causes of pertussis resurgence are matter of debate, emerging evidences suggest that acellular vaccines efficiently protect against the hallmark symptoms of pertussis disease but fail to prevent colonization. This presumably impacts on increased risk of bacterial transmission and consequent spread throughout the population...
September 15, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Matteo Ferrando, Diego Bagnasco, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction in clinical practice one century ago for the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has exhibited a relevant clinical efficacy that was subsequently confirmed in controlled trials. Thus, AIT has been accepted worldwide, as testified by guidelines and international documents. AIT is considered pivotal in the management of allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and with or without asthma. These conditions, in addition to hymenoptera venom allergy, currently are the accepted indications...
September 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Anne G M Schilder, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Allan W Cripps, Richard M Rosenfeld, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Mark P Haggard, Roderick P Venekamp
Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. In developing countries, CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss. OM can be of bacterial or viral origin; during 'colds', viruses can ascend through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear and pave the way for bacterial otopathogens that reside in the nasopharynx...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Allison M Whelan
This article examines the rise of the anti-vaccination movement, the proliferation of laws allowing parental exemptions to mandatory school vaccines, and the impact of the movement on immunization rates for all vaccines. It uses the ongoing debate about the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as an example to highlight the ripple effect and consequences of the anti-vaccine movement despite robust evidence of the vaccine's safety and efficacy. The article scrutinizes how state legislatures ironically promote vaccination while simultaneously deferring to the opposition by promulgating broad opt-outs from mandatory vaccine laws...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Mark C Navin
Techniques from behavioral economics-nudges-may help physicians increase pediatric vaccine compliance, but critics have objected that nudges can undermine autonomy. Since autonomy is a centrally important value in healthcare decision-making contexts, it counts against pediatric vaccination nudges if they undermine parental autonomy. Advocates for healthcare nudges have resisted the charge that nudges undermine autonomy, and the recent bioethics literature illustrates the current intractability of this debate...
September 1, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Parang N Mehta
Though vaccines have been in use for over seventy years, we have been unable to eradicate or control pertussis. This disease is a worldwide problem, and recently has been occurring in outbreaks even in places with good immunization coverage. The debate about the use of acellular or whole cell vaccine has taken attention away from the other significant issues. The high rate of serious disease and death in young infants, and the repeated outbreaks of pertussis even in highly-vaccinated populations is a matter for grave concern...
August 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Alison B Comfort, Paul J Krezanoski
There is an on-going debate about whether health products, such as insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) for protection against malaria, should be distributed for free or at a positive price to maximize ownership and use. One argument in favour of free distribution is related to positive externalities. Like vaccines, individual use of ITNs provides a community-wide protective effect against malaria even for non-users. In addition, price may act as a barrier to ownership particularly among those most at-risk who are frequently poor...
August 23, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Joshua L Warren, S Cassandra Pingali, Daniel M Weinberger
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectively reduces the number of cases caused by vaccine-targeted serotypes among children who receive the vaccine and adults who are not directly vaccinated. Recently, there has been debate as to whether adults should receive the same conjugate vaccine as children. In settings where vaccine uptake in children is high, the vaccine serotypes cause a small fraction of disease cases, and direct vaccination might have a small effect...
August 18, 2016: Epidemiology
Efthimios Parasidis
Vaccine-hesitant parents are often portrayed as misinformed dilettantes clinging to unscientific Internet chatter and a debunked study that linked vaccines and autism. While this depiction may be an accurate portrayal of a small (but vocal) subset, scholars have unearthed a more complex picture that casts vaccine hesitancy in the context of broader notions of lack of trust in government and industry. At the same time, commentators have highlighted limitations of the vaccine injury compensation program and US Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg have argued that preemption laws that provide vaccine manufacturers with broad legal immunities create "a regulatory vacuum in which no one ensures that vaccine manufacturers adequately take account of scientific and technological advancements when designing or distributing their products...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Oliver Damm, Julian Witte, Stefanie Wetzka, Christine Prosser, Sebastian Braun, Robert Welte, Wolfgang Greiner
OBJECTIVES: Despite the availability of vaccines and the existence of public vaccination recommendations, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases still cause public health debate. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the current epidemiology and economic burden of measles, mumps, pertussis, and varicella in Germany. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies published since 2000. The literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE...
September 2016: International Journal of Public Health
P R Z Antas
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is not a single organism, but consists of substrains that vary in genotypes and phenotypes. Actually, BCG is the common name given to a family of vaccines created in 1921 by the in vitro attenuation of a virulent Mycobacterium bovis in France. Even nearly a century of use, the BCG vaccine lingers generating confusion and debate due to its diversity and failure to protect against tuberculosis (TB). That is probably owing to the enduring lack of standardization during production, distribution and administration procedures...
July 25, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A T Newall
The cost-effectiveness of 13-type pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use in older adults, and the relative merits when compared to the 23-type polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23), has been a topic of much debate. Although a number of economics evaluations have been conducted many of these were completed before the availability of critical data on PCV13 efficacy in older adults. Recent studies using this data have found conflicting results. This may in part reflect differences in the level of herd protection from infant pneumococcal vaccination programs in different countries...
July 11, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Mitchell Rabinowitz, Lauren Latella, Chadly Stern, John T Jost
UNLABELLED: Several contagious diseases were nearly eradicated through childhood vaccination, but some parents have decided in recent years not to fully vaccinate their children, raising new public health concerns. The question of whether and how beliefs about vaccination are linked to political ideology has been hotly debated. This study investigates the effects of ideology on perceptions of harms and benefits related to vaccination as well as judgments of others' attitudes. A total of 367 U...
2016: PloS One
Tobias Tenenbaum, Maren Seitz, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Streptococcus suis is an important swine and zoonotic pathogen equipped with several virulence factors. The pore-forming toxins are the most abundant bacterial toxins and classified as critical virulence (associated) factors of several pathogens. The role of suilysin (SLY), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin of S. suis, as a true virulence factor is under debate. Most of the bacterial toxins have been reported to modulate the host immune system to facilitate invasion and subsequent replication of bacteria within respective host cells...
July 2016: Future Microbiology
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