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Vaccination debate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670995/the-new-italian-mandatory-vaccine-law-as-a-health-policy-instrument-against-the-anti-vaccination-movement
#1
F Chirico
In Italy, the Parliament granted recently the final approval to a law introducing a long list of childhood vaccinations mandatory for preschool and school-age children. Before the approval, a vibrant public debate took place on the traditional media, in the social networks and among policymakers because of the so called "anti-vaccination movement". In this paper, we discuss about ethical aspects and relationship between individual rights and public health. The role of social networks and the Internet is also essential to disseminate correct informations, influencing health behaviours and contributing to educating people about this major public health issue in a right way...
May 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667346/in-situ-vaccination-harvesting-low-hanging-fruit-on-the-cancer-immunotherapy-tree
#2
REVIEW
Mee Rie Sheen, Steven Fiering
After 100 years of debate, it is clear that cancer is recognized by the immune system and this has generated immense interest in cancer immunotherapy. The systemic nature of the immune system gives immunotherapy the ability to treat metastatic disease, which currently requires chemotherapy that frequently fails. Like chemotherapy, most immunotherapy is systemically applied in an effort to generate systemic antitumor immune response. However, local administration of immunostimulatory reagents into a recognized tumor by in situ vaccination (ISV) can also generate systemic antitumor immunity to fight metastatic disease...
April 18, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652798/the-double-face-of-exosome-carried-micrornas-in-cancer-immunomodulation
#3
REVIEW
Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629679/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-hiv-vaccine-trials-in-adolescents-in-south-africa-going-beyond-willingness-to-participate-towards-implementation
#4
M Wallace, K Middelkoop, P Smith, C Pike, T Bennie, J Chandia, G Churchyard, G Gray, M H Latka, M Mathebula, M Nchabeleng, S Roux, C Slack, A Strode, L-G Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death in adolescents (aged 15 - 25 years), and in sub-Saharan Africa HIV-related deaths continue to rise in this age group despite a decline in both adult and paediatric populations. This is attributable in part to high adolescent infection rates and supports the urgent need for more efficacious prevention strategies. In particular, an even partially effective HIV vaccine, given prior to sexual debut, is predicted to significantly curb adolescent infection rates...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584893/increase-in-childhood-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-after-bcg-coverage-drop-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-study-finland-1995-to-2016
#5
Antti Kontturi, Hanna Soini, Jukka Ollgren, Eeva Salo
Background: Epidemiological data on childhood nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is scarce and the protective effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination remains debated. In 2006 the BCG policy in Finland changed from universal to selective. We aimed to study the effect of the BCG coverage decrease on the incidence of childhood NTM infections in Finland. Methods: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study of NTM notifications recorded to the National Infectious Diseases Register between 1995 and 2016 and identified native-born children aged 0-4 years infected with NTM...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573274/listen-to-the-public-and-fulfil-their-information-interests-translating-vaccine-communication-research-findings-into-guidance-for-regulators
#6
REVIEW
Priya Bahri, Mireia Castillon Melero
Regulatory authorities have a crucial role in communicating about vaccines they license. In terms of content and timing, their communication to the public is usually driven by data on quality, safety and efficacy. However, concerns over safety and vaccine hesitancy have emerged in some communities of various countries, and this demands a new approach to communication, starting with listening to the public debate. Reviewing communication research findings, coming in particular from the cognitive, decision-making and media sciences, constitutes one mechanism of listening and has led the European Union regulatory network to developing guidance about which common concerns and information needs of the public to address through proactive and prepared communication...
March 24, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548896/hpv-vaccination-syndrome-a-clinical-mirage-or-a-new-tragic-fibromyalgia-model
#7
Manuel Martínez-Lavín
Independent investigators have described the onset of a chronic painful dysautonomic syndrome soon after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The veracity of this syndrome is hotly debated. Many of the reported post-HPV vaccination cases fullfill fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the arguments favoring the existence of a syndrome associated to HPV vaccination. We propose that fibromyalgia dysautonomic-neuropathic model could help in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in those patients in whom the onset of a painful chronic illness began after HPV immunization...
March 13, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544144/-we-are-the-heroes-because-we-are-ready-to-die-for-this-country-participants-decision-making-and-grounded-ethics-in-an-ebola-vaccine-clinical-trial
#8
Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524950/human-dignity-as-leading-principle-in-public-health-ethics-a-multi-case-analysis-of-21st-century-german-health-policy-decisions
#9
Sebastian F Winter, Stefan F Winter
BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that since the turn of the millennium German health policy made a considerable step towards prevention and health promotion, putting the strategies of 'personal empowerment' and 'settings based approach' high on the federal government's agenda. This phenomenon has challenged the role of ethics in health policy. Concurrently, increasing relevance of the Concept of Human Dignity for health and human rights has been discussed. However, a direct relationship between Human Dignity and Public Health Ethics (PHE) has surprisingly not yet been established...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506363/-varicella-vaccination-scientific-reasons-for-a-different-strategic-approach
#10
Alberto Donzelli, Vittorio Demicheli
The Italian Parliament has recently introduced 10 mandatory immunisations, including the one against varicella. For this vaccination, the obligation starts with the birth cohort of 2017, but it is offered free of charge to subjects with a negative history and not previously vaccinated. This paper presents up-to-date evidence on this issue and illustrates a number of critical arguments that may question the opportunity of this choice. Particularly, while the disease is relatively mild in children aged between 1 and 9 years, the risk of worsening its consequences is progressive with age, becoming worst in the elderly, so the vaccination of children may increase the age of the cases...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503439/vaccine-induced-autoimmunity-the-role-of-molecular-mimicry-and-immune-crossreaction
#11
REVIEW
Yahel Segal, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Since the early 1800s vaccines have saved numerous lives by preventing lethal infections. However, during the past two decades, there has been growing awareness of possible adverse events associated with vaccinations, cultivating heated debates and leading to significant fluctuations in vaccination rates. It is therefore pertinent for the scientific community to seriously address public concern of adverse effects of vaccines to regain public trust in these important medical interventions. Such adverse reactions to vaccines may be viewed as a result of the interaction between susceptibility of the vaccinated subject and various vaccine components...
March 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482613/identification-of-a-novel-mechanism-of-action-of-bovine-igg-antibodies-specific-for-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Mutsumi Furukawa, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Eiji Hata, Hidetomo Iwano, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Tasuke Ando, Mika Sato, Tomohito Hayashi, Yoshio Kiku, Yuya Nagasawa, Kanae Niimi, Katsuki Usami, Kumiko Ito, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that causes subclinical mastitis associated with huge economic losses to the dairy industry. A few vaccines for bovine mastitis are available, and they are expected to induce the production of S. aureus-specific antibodies that prevent bacterial adherence to host cells or promote opsonization by phagocytes. However, the efficacy of such vaccines are still under debate; therefore, further research focusing on improving the current vaccines by seeking additional mechanisms of action is required to reduce economic losses due to mastitis in the dairy industry...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462344/do-community-pharmacists-add-value-to-routine-immunization-programmes-a-review-of-the-evidence-from-the-uk
#13
S Perman, R M Kwiatkowska, A Gjini
Background: Community pharmacies are an important setting for the provision of preventative health services in the UK. There has been debate over the value of delivering routine immunizations in a pharmacy setting, though government policy supports this initiative and in 2015 the first nationally commissioned community pharmacy vaccination service was launched for seasonal influenza vaccination. The impact of these vaccination services needs to be evaluated to inform future policy. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished evaluations of community pharmacy-based vaccination services implemented in the UK between 2000 and 2015...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454521/hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-the-putative-risk-of-central-demyelinating-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Julie Mouchet, Francesco Salvo, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Fabrizio De Ponti, Bernard Bégaud
BACKGROUND: The anti-hepatitis B immunization campaigns launched in the early 1990s were a major public health breakthrough and targeted various populations (at-risk adults, newborns, adolescents). However, debate is still active about a possible link between this vaccine and central demyelination. This study provides a pooled estimate of this risk based on a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of all available epidemiologic studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception to 10 May 2017...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454515/quantitative-profiling-reveals-minor-changes-of-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-response-to-subunit-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#15
Anastasiia L Sycheva, Mikhail V Pogorelyy, Ekaterina A Komech, Anastasia A Minervina, Ivan V Zvyagin, Dmitriy B Staroverov, Dmitriy M Chudakov, Yuri B Lebedev, Ilgar Z Mamedov
Vaccination against influenza is widely used to protect against seasonal flu epidemic although its effectiveness is debated. Here we performed deep quantitative T cell receptor repertoire profiling in peripheral blood of a healthy volunteer in response to trivalent subunit influenza vaccine. We did not observe significant rebuilding of peripheral blood T cell receptors composition in response to vaccination. However, we found several clonotypes in memory T cell fraction that were undetectable before the vaccination and had a maximum concentration at day 45 after vaccine administration...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451465/the-pap-test-20th-century-success-story-21st-century-has-been
#16
Jan Greene
This old standby's ultimate demise will likely take place when cervical cancer incidence declines as the HPV vaccine starts to take effect at a population level. New guidelines are being written, but insurers could have a major influence on how closely those guidelines are followed. So far, though, they haven't waded very far into the Pap-HPV debate.
February 2018: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439865/13-valent-vaccine-serotype-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-in-high-clinical-risk-groups
#17
Priya Daniel, Chamira Rodrigo, Thomas Bewick, Carmen Sheppard, Sonia Greenwood, Tricia M McKeever, Caroline Trotter, Wei Shen Lim
There is debate regarding the value of vaccinating adults with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). This analysis was conducted to investigate the risk of PCV-13 serotype community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalised adults with co-morbid disease and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the UK. Consecutive adults hospitalised (2008-2013) with a primary diagnosis of CAP, were recruited. Pneumococcal aetiology disease was identified by use of pneumococcal urinary antigen detection and serotype identification using a validated multiplex immunoassay or serum latex agglutination...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439706/use-of-eradication-in-hiv-cure-related-research-a-public-health-debate
#18
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431246/recombinant-apxiv-protein-enhances-protective-efficacy-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-in-mice-and-pigs
#19
Hsing-Chieh Wu, Po-Hsien Yeh, Kai-Jen Hsueh, Wen-Jen Yang, Chun-Yen Chu
AIMS: Available bacterins, commercial or autogenous, for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae disease control have thus far shown debatable protective efficacy, and only in homologous challenges. Our study sought to determine whether the addition of reombinant protein ApxIV to the multi-component vaccine could enhance protection against homologous and heterologous challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The virulence of ApxI, ApxII, ApxIV, and OMP were cloned and expressed using a prokaryotic system; these recombinant proteins were combined with inactivated A...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370857/environmental-resistance-development-to-influenza-antivirals-a-case-exemplifying-the-need-for-a-multidisciplinary-one-health-approach-including-physicians
#20
REVIEW
Josef D Järhult
A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for One Health. Physicians are important players in the One Health team, yet they are often hard to convince of the benefits of the One Health approach. Here, the case for multidisciplinarity including physicians is made using the example of environmental resistance development to influenza antivirals. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the major class of anti-influenza pharmaceuticals, and extensively stockpiled globally as a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness, especially important in the first phase before vaccines can be mass-produced...
January 25, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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