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Vaccination debate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454521/hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-the-putative-risk-of-central-demyelinating-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Julie Mouchet, Francesco Salvo, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Fabrizio De Ponti, Bernard Bégaud
BACKGROUND: The anti-hepatitis B immunization campaigns launched in the early 1990s were a major public health breakthrough and targeted various populations (at-risk adults, newborns, adolescents). However, debate is still active about a possible link between this vaccine and central demyelination. This study provides a pooled estimate of this risk based on a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of all available epidemiologic studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception to 10 May 2017...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454515/quantitative-profiling-reveals-minor-changes-of-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-response-to-subunit-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#2
Anastasiia L Sycheva, Mikhail V Pogorelyy, Ekaterina A Komech, Anastasia A Minervina, Ivan V Zvyagin, Dmitriy B Staroverov, Dmitriy M Chudakov, Yuri B Lebedev, Ilgar Z Mamedov
Vaccination against influenza is widely used to protect against seasonal flu epidemic although its effectiveness is debated. Here we performed deep quantitative T cell receptor repertoire profiling in peripheral blood of a healthy volunteer in response to trivalent subunit influenza vaccine. We did not observe significant rebuilding of peripheral blood T cell receptors composition in response to vaccination. However, we found several clonotypes in memory T cell fraction that were undetectable before the vaccination and had a maximum concentration at day 45 after vaccine administration...
February 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451465/the-pap-test-20th-century-success-story-21st-century-has-been
#3
Jan Greene
This old standby's ultimate demise will likely take place when cervical cancer incidence declines as the HPV vaccine starts to take effect at a population level. New guidelines are being written, but insurers could have a major influence on how closely those guidelines are followed. So far, though, they haven't waded very far into the Pap-HPV debate.
February 2018: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439865/13-valent-vaccine-serotype-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-in-high-clinical-risk-groups
#4
Priya Daniel, Chamira Rodrigo, Thomas Bewick, Carmen Sheppard, Sonia Greenwood, Tricia M McKeever, Caroline Trotter, Wei Shen Lim
There is debate regarding the value of vaccinating adults with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). This analysis was conducted to investigate the risk of PCV-13 serotype community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalised adults with co-morbid disease and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the UK. Consecutive adults hospitalised (2008-2013) with a primary diagnosis of CAP, were recruited. Pneumococcal aetiology disease was identified by use of pneumococcal urinary antigen detection and serotype identification using a validated multiplex immunoassay or serum latex agglutination...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439706/use-of-eradication-in-hiv-cure-related-research-a-public-health-debate
#5
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431246/recombinant-apxiv-protein-enhances-protective-efficacy-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-in-mice-and-pigs
#6
Hsing-Chieh Wu, Po-Hsien Yeh, Kai-Jen Hsueh, Wen-Jen Yang, Chun-Yen Chu
AIMS: Available bacterins, commercial or autogenous, for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae disease control have thus far shown debatable protective efficacy, and only in homologous challenges. Our study sought to determine whether the addition of reombinant protein ApxIV to the multi-component vaccine could enhance protection against homologous and heterologous challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The virulence of ApxI, ApxII, ApxIV, and OMP were cloned and expressed using a prokaryotic system; these recombinant proteins were combined with inactivated A...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370857/environmental-resistance-development-to-influenza-antivirals-a-case-exemplifying-the-need-for-a-multidisciplinary-one-health-approach-including-physicians
#7
REVIEW
Josef D Järhult
A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for One Health. Physicians are important players in the One Health team, yet they are often hard to convince of the benefits of the One Health approach. Here, the case for multidisciplinarity including physicians is made using the example of environmental resistance development to influenza antivirals. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the major class of anti-influenza pharmaceuticals, and extensively stockpiled globally as a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness, especially important in the first phase before vaccines can be mass-produced...
January 25, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356350/1918-pandemic-morbidity-the-first-wave-hits-the-poor-the-second-wave-hits-the-rich
#8
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
BACKGROUND: Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral". OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#9
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316579/-management-of-compensated-liver-cirrhosis-2018-evidence-based-prophylactic-measures
#10
Kathrin Karkmann, Felix Piecha, Anna Caterina Rünzi, Lisa Schulz, Moritz von Wulffen, Daniel Benten, Johannes Kluwe, Henning Wege
In 2015, more than 13 000 people died due to the consequences of liver cirrhosis in Germany. Frequently, relevant liver fibrosis is diagnosed by non-invasive methods (e. g., ultrasound-based measurement of liver stiffness) already in the compensated stage. Following diagnosis of liver fibrosis, a thorough investigation of the underlying chronic liver disease and effective treatment are important to prevent progression to decompensated cirrhosis. Since morbidity and mortality dramatically increase in the decompensated stage (patients may present with jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding) with an upsurge in 1-year-mortality from 1 - 3...
January 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261237/ethics-evidence-and-the-anti-vaccination-debate
#11
Megan-Jane Johnstone
On 11 October 2016 the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) released a position statement on 'Nurses, midwives and vaccination' (www.nursingmidwiferyboard. gov.au/News/2016-10-11-position-statement-vaccination.aspx).
March 2017: Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251602/controlled-human-infection-models-for-vaccine-development-zika-virus-debate
#12
Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment...
October 31, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178692/-management-of-vaccination-in-children-receiving-an-allogeneic-marrow-transplant
#13
S Blumental, A Ferster, N Azzi, P Lepage
Over the last decades, significant advances in the diagnosis and therapeutics have considerably improved success rate from bone marrow transplant in patients suffering from otherwise life-threatening diseases, allowing now for prolonged survival and better quality of life after an allograft. However, infectious diseases remain one of the most serious complication in this population, hence associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Prevention, in particular through vaccination, constitutes a cornerstone of the management of immunocompromised hosts, since this procedure aims to protect them once back to life in community after long periods of hospitalization...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159788/the-fight-against-tuberculosis-in-the-mid-nineteenth-century-the-pivotal-contribution-of-edoardo-maragliano-1849-1940
#14
Mariano Martini, Ilaria Barberis, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Filippo Paluan
The second half of the nineteenth century saw the development of new medical "specialties", which, like the idea of constitutional disease, had a profound influence on medical practice. Against this lively "backdrop", Edoardo Maragliano played a central role in medicine's "renaissance" in Italy. Having graduated in medicine in 1870 at the University of Naples, he worked as an assistant in the University Medical Clinic. After beginning his academic career as professor of pathology at the Faculty of Medicine in Genoa in 1877, he became full professor of internal medicine in 1881...
November 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128384/adverse-effects-of-single-component-measles-vaccine-in-school-children
#15
Selam Tosun, Ali Ilgın Olut, Nermin Tansug
Measles is a highly contagious viral infection potentially with serious complications and the principal method of protection from the disease is vaccination. Measles vaccination resulted in a 79% drop in measles deaths between 2000 and 2015 worldwide. There has long been a debate about the necessity and benefit-loss ratio of routine MMR vaccination due to possible AE of MMR vaccine. Especially in developed countries which are thought to be free of measles there is an increasing tendency towards hesitation for vaccination though there have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118656/-a-matter-of-commonsense-the-coventry-poliomyelitis-epidemic-1957-and-the-british-public
#16
Gareth Millward
In 1956, the British Ministry of Health instituted a vaccination programme against poliomyelitis, but run into myriad supply and administrative issues. When Coventry experienced an epidemic in 1957, it came to symbolise these problems. Throughout, it was claimed that the government lacked 'common sense'. This article explores how and why 'common sense' was used as a rhetorical weapon in the debates over policy at the local and national level. While those claiming 'common sense' were often at odds with medical and administrative authorities, the arguments were often informed by deeply held beliefs about vaccination and disease...
July 3, 2017: Contemporary British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118082/health-literacy-approaches-to-improving-communication-between-dental-hygienists-and-patients-for-hpv-related-oral-cancer-prevention
#17
Erika L Thompson, Ellen M Daley, Cheryl A Vamos, Alice M Horowitz, Frank A Catalanotto, Rita D DeBate, Laura K Merrell, Stacey B Griner, Coralia Vazquez-Otero, Nolan S Kline
Purpose: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a causal agent for oropharyngeal cancers, suggesting a new role for dental hygienists in HPV-related cancer prevention strategies. Health literacy assessment is an approach that can be used to understand providers' informational assets and needs for educating and discussing HPV prevention with patients. This study aimed to understand dental hygienists' level of health literacy regarding HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers.Methods: Four focus group sessions with dental hygienists (n=48) were conducted at a national conference...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068486/vaccines-and-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
J L Frederiksen, M Topsøe Mailand
An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live vaccine against yellow fever, vaccinations appear safe in untreated patients with MS and ON. However, most studies were underpowered, and small risks cannot be excluded. One study of BCG vaccination after the first demyelinating event showed even a reduced risk of developing MS...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042916/the-proposal-of-paediatric-virology-and-its-perspectives-an-interview-with-professor-of-paediatrics-maria-theodoridou
#19
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031651/vaccine-criticism-presence-and-arguments-on-french-speaking-websites
#20
A Nugier, F Limousi, N Lydié
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of vaccine criticism on the French Web and to analyze strategies and arguments used by opponents of vaccination. METHODS: The most frequently used keywords associated with the terms "vaccination" and "vaccine" on Google.fr in September 2013 were identified and searched for individually on Google.fr. The links presented in the first three pages of results were reviewed to identify the most frequent providers of information. The proportion of critical content was determined by website type and a content analysis was performed...
October 11, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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