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Slađana Žilić, Dejan Dodig, Zorica Basić, Jelena Vančetović, Primož Titan, Nenad Đurić, Nataša Tolimir
Cereals based food is one of the major source of Maillard reaction products in the diet. Free amino acids and reducing sugars are considered to be the main precursors in the formation of these heat-induced compounds. In order to determine genetic resources with reduced potential for acrylamide formation, the content of sugars, as well as free asparagine were analyzed in a total of 30 cultivars of 10 varieties belonging to eight species (Triticum aestivum var. lutescens, T. aestivum var. alba, T. aestivum var...
February 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Anna Kalinka, Magdalena Achrem, Paulina Poter
Methylation of cytosine in DNA is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in eukaryotes and plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene activity and the maintenance of genomic integrity. DNA methylation and other epigenetic mechanisms affect the development, differentiation or the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress. This study compared the level of methylation of cytosines on a global (ELISA) and genomic scale (MSAP) between the species of the genus Secale. We analyzed whether the interspecific variation of cytosine methylation was associated with the size of the genome (C-value) and the content of telomeric heterochromatin...
2017: PeerJ
José Luis Martín-Barrasa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
Eva Bauer, Thomas Schmutzer, Ivan Barilar, Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Mihaela M Martis, Sven O Twardziok, Bernd Hackauf, Andres Gordillo, Peer Wilde, Malthe Schmidt, Viktor Korzun, Klaus F X Mayer, Karl Schmid, Chris-Carolin Schön, Uwe Scholz
We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe. Through whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of the 7.9 Gbp genome of the winter rye inbred line Lo7 we obtained a de novo assembly represented by 1.29 million scaffolds covering a total length of 2.8 Gbp. Our reference sequence represents nearly the entire low-copy portion of the rye genome. This genome assembly was used to predict 27,784 rye gene models based on homology to sequenced grass genomes...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhencai Sun, Anja Sänger, Philip Rebensburg, Peter Lentzsch, Stephan Wirth, Martin Kaupenjohann, Andreas Meyer-Aurich
Biochar has been frequently suggested as an amendment to improve soil quality and mitigate climate change. To investigate the optimal management of nitrogen (N) fertilization, we examined the combined effect of biochar and N fertilizer on plant N uptake and N2O emissions in a cereal rotation system in a randomized two-factorial field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Brandenburg, Germany. The biochar treatment received 10Mgha(-1) wood-derived biochar in September 2012. Four levels of N fertilizer, corresponding to 0, 50%, 100%, 130% of the recommended fertilizer level, were applied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Piotr Gawroński, Magdalena Pawełkowicz, Katarzyna Tofil, Grzegorz Uszyński, Saida Sharifova, Shivaksh Ahluwalia, Mirosław Tyrka, Maria Wędzony, Andrzej Kilian, Hanna Bolibok-Brągoszewska
Large genome size and complexity hamper considerably the genomics research in relevant species. Rye (Secale cereale L.) has one of the largest genomes among cereal crops and repetitive sequences account for over 90% of its length. Diversity Arrays Technology is a high-throughput genotyping method, in which a preferential sampling of gene-rich regions is achieved through the use of methylation sensitive restriction enzymes. We obtained sequences of 6,177 rye DArT markers and following a redundancy analysis assembled them into 3,737 non-redundant sequences, which were then used in homology searches against five Pooideae sequence sets...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
H Sofia Pereira, Margarida Delgado, Wanda Viegas, João M Rato, Augusta Barão, Ana D Caperta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rye supernumerary (B) chromosomes have an accumulation mechanism involving the B subtelomeric domain highly enriched in D1100- and E3900-related sequences. In this work, the effects of heat stress during the early stages of male meiosis in 0B and +B plants were studied. METHODS: In-depth cytological analyses of chromatin structure and behaviour were performed on staged rye meiocytes utilizing DAPI, fluorescence in situ hybridization and 5-methylcytosine immune labelling...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Michał Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska
In this paper, we highlight the affinity between the genomes of key representatives of the Pooideae subfamily, revealed at the chromosomal level by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The analyses were conducted using labeled probes from each species to hybridize with chromosomes of every species used in this study based on a "round robin" rule. As a result, the whole chromosomes or chromosome regions were distinguished or variable types of signals were visualized to prove the different levels of the relationships between genomes used in this study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Claudia Oellig
Ricinoleic acid as the characteristic fatty acid of Secale cornutum oil is a good marker for Secale cornutum impurities in cereal. The presented screening for ricinoleic acid in rye by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD) offers a selective and sensitive method for the determination of Secale cornutum and is very different from existing gas chromatographic analyses. Lipid extraction was followed by transesterification and solid-phase extraction cleanup; thereafter, extracts were selectively derivatized with 2-naphthoyl chloride and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD with silica gel plates and cyclohexane/diisopropyl ether/formic acid (86:14:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhi Li, Zhenglong Ren, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Benju Yan, Tianheng Ren
Secale cereale L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistance improvement. In this study, a stable wheat-rye substitution line and 3 primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the Chinese local rye Aigan variety and wheat cultivar Mianyang11. The substitution and translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, fluorescence in situ hybridization and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that there were a pair of 1R chromosomes in the substitution line which have been named RS1200-3, and a pair of 1RS...
2016: PloS One
Chang-Shui Wang, Qian-Tao Jiang, Jian Ma, Xiu-Ying Wang, Ji-Rui Wang, Guo-Yue Chen, Peng-Fei Qi, Yuan-Ying Peng, Xiu-Jin Lan, You-Liang Zheng, Yu-Ming Wei
The H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺-PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. 'Qinling'). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺-PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Filipa Monteiro, Patrícia Vidigal, André B Barros, Ana Monteiro, Hugo R Oliveira, Wanda Viegas
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of "Petkus" pool in most modern rye varieties as well as "Petkus" × "Carsten" heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juan Rodríguez Cuesta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Laboratory Animals
Wei Ma, Tobias Sebastian Gabriel, Mihaela Maria Martis, Torsten Gursinsky, Veit Schubert, Jan Vrána, Jaroslav Doležel, Heidrun Grundlach, Lothar Altschmied, Uwe Scholz, Axel Himmelbach, Sven-Erik Behrens, Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam, Andreas Houben
B chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary, dispensable parts of the nuclear genome, which appear in many different species of eukaryote. So far, Bs have been considered to be genetically inert elements without any functional genes. Our comparative transcriptome analysis and the detection of active RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the proximity of B chromatin demonstrate that the Bs of rye (Secale cereale) contribute to the transcriptome. In total, 1954 and 1218 B-derived transcripts with an open reading frame were expressed in generative and vegetative tissues, respectively...
January 2017: New Phytologist
Monika Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Wacław Orczyk, Paweł Krajewski, Jan Bocianowski, Anna Stochmal, Mariusz Kowalczyk
Hydroxamates (HX) are major secondary metabolites synthesized by rye and are responsible for some of the unique properties of this cereal, including good tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses and allelopathy. Recently, five genes encoding enzymes taking part in HX biosynthesis have been sequenced and characterized, which was the starting point to undertake the present study. Association analysis of the content of six HX-HBOA (2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), GDIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) in the above-ground parts of plants and roots was performed on a population consisting of 102 and 121 diverse inbred lines, in 2013 and 2014, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
Yoshihito Sunaga, Hisatomi Harada
A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg(-1) dry plant material including soil...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Majka, M Kwiatek, J Belter, H Wiśniewska
Allocation of the chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii in triticale background resulted in changes of its organization, what is related to varied expression of genes determining agronomically important traits. Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are crucial for transfer of genes from wild relatives into cultivated varieties. This kind of genetic stocks is used for physical mapping of specific chromosomes and analyzing alien genes expression. The main aim of our study is to improve hexaploid triticale by transferring D-genome chromatin from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (2n = 4x = 28, DDRR)...
October 2016: Plant Cell Reports
E Santos, M Matos, P Silva, A M Figueiras, C Benito, O Pinto-Carnide
The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships among Secale spp. and among cultivars of Secale cereale using RAPDs, ISSRs and sequence analysis of six exons of ScMATE1 gene. Thirteen ryes (cultivated and wild) were genotyped using 21 RAPD and 16 ISSR primers. A total of 435 markers (242 RAPDs and 193 ISSRs) were obtained, with 293 being polymorphic (146 RAPDs and 147 ISSRs). Two RAPD and nine ISSR primers generated more than 80% of polymorphism...
June 2016: Journal of Genetics
Thomas Miedaner, Ann-Kristin Schmitt, Bettina Klocke, Brigitta Schmiedchen, Peer Wilde, Hartmut Spiess, Lilla Szabo, Silvia Koch, Kerstin Flath
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis) leads to considerable yield losses in rye-growing areas with continental climate, from Eastern Germany to Siberia. For implementing resistance breeding, it is of utmost importance to (1) analyze the diversity of stem rust populations in terms of pathotypes (=virulence combinations) and (2) identify resistance sources in winter rye populations. We analyzed 323 single-uredinial isolates mainly collected from German rye-growing areas across three years for their avirulence/virulence on 15 rye inbred differentials...
June 28, 2016: Phytopathology
Mike W Dunbar, Matthew E O'Neal, Aaron J Gassmann
Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
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