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Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Michał Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska
In this paper, we highlight the affinity between the genomes of key representatives of the Pooideae subfamily, revealed at the chromosomal level by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The analyses were conducted using labeled probes from each species to hybridize with chromosomes of every species used in this study based on a "round robin" rule. As a result, the whole chromosomes or chromosome regions were distinguished or variable types of signals were visualized to prove the different levels of the relationships between genomes used in this study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Claudia Oellig
Ricinoleic acid as the characteristic fatty acid of Secale cornutum oil is a good marker for Secale cornutum impurities in cereal. The presented screening for ricinoleic acid in rye by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD) offers a selective and sensitive method for the determination of Secale cornutum and is very different from existing gas chromatographic analyses. Lipid extraction was followed by transesterification and solid phase extraction clean-up, thereafter extracts were selectively derivatized with 2-naphthoyl chloride and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD with silica gel plates and cyclohexane/diisopropyl ether/formic acid (86:14:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhi Li, Zhenglong Ren, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Benju Yan, Tianheng Ren
Secale cereale L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistance improvement. In this study, a stable wheat-rye substitution line and 3 primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the Chinese local rye Aigan variety and wheat cultivar Mianyang11. The substitution and translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, fluorescence in situ hybridization and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that there were a pair of 1R chromosomes in the substitution line which have been named RS1200-3, and a pair of 1RS...
2016: PloS One
Chang-Shui Wang, Qian-Tao Jiang, Jian Ma, Xiu-Ying Wang, Ji-Rui Wang, Guo-Yue Chen, Peng-Fei Qi, Yuan-Ying Peng, Xiu-Jin Lan, You-Liang Zheng, Yu-Ming Wei
The H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺-PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. 'Qinling'). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺-PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Filipa Monteiro, Patrícia Vidigal, André B Barros, Ana Monteiro, Hugo R Oliveira, Wanda Viegas
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of "Petkus" pool in most modern rye varieties as well as "Petkus" × "Carsten" heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juan Rodríguez Cuesta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Laboratory Animals
Wei Ma, Tobias Sebastian Gabriel, Mihaela Maria Martis, Torsten Gursinsky, Veit Schubert, Jan Vrána, Jaroslav Doležel, Heidrun Grundlach, Lothar Altschmied, Uwe Scholz, Axel Himmelbach, Sven-Erik Behrens, Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam, Andreas Houben
B chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary, dispensable parts of the nuclear genome, which appear in many different species of eukaryote. So far, Bs have been considered to be genetically inert elements without any functional genes. Our comparative transcriptome analysis and the detection of active RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the proximity of B chromatin demonstrate that the Bs of rye (Secale cereale) contribute to the transcriptome. In total, 1954 and 1218 B-derived transcripts with an open reading frame were expressed in generative and vegetative tissues, respectively...
July 28, 2016: New Phytologist
Monika Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Wacław Orczyk, Paweł Krajewski, Jan Bocianowski, Anna Stochmal, Mariusz Kowalczyk
Hydroxamates (HX) are major secondary metabolites synthesized by rye and are responsible for some of the unique properties of this cereal, including good tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses and allelopathy. Recently, five genes encoding enzymes taking part in HX biosynthesis have been sequenced and characterized, which was the starting point to undertake the present study. Association analysis of the content of six HX-HBOA (2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), GDIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) in the above-ground parts of plants and roots was performed on a population consisting of 102 and 121 diverse inbred lines, in 2013 and 2014, respectively...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Yoshihito Sunaga, Hisatomi Harada
A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg(-1) dry plant material including soil...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Majka, M Kwiatek, J Belter, H Wiśniewska
Allocation of the chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii in triticale background resulted in changes of its organization, what is related to varied expression of genes determining agronomically important traits. Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are crucial for transfer of genes from wild relatives into cultivated varieties. This kind of genetic stocks is used for physical mapping of specific chromosomes and analyzing alien genes expression. The main aim of our study is to improve hexaploid triticale by transferring D-genome chromatin from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (2n = 4x = 28, DDRR)...
October 2016: Plant Cell Reports
E Santos, M Matos, P Silva, A M Figueiras, C Benito, O Pinto-Carnide
The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships among Secale spp. and among cultivars of Secale cereale using RAPDs, ISSRs and sequence analysis of six exons of ScMATE1 gene. Thirteen ryes (cultivated and wild) were genotyped using 21 RAPD and 16 ISSR primers. A total of 435 markers (242 RAPDs and 193 ISSRs) were obtained, with 293 being polymorphic (146 RAPDs and 147 ISSRs). Two RAPD and nine ISSR primers generated more than 80% of polymorphism...
June 2016: Journal of Genetics
Thomas Miedaner, Ann-Kristin Schmitt, Bettina Klocke, Brigitta Schmiedchen, Peer Wilde, Hartmut Spiess, Lilla Szabo, Silvia Koch, Kerstin Flath
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis) leads to considerable yield losses in rye-growing areas with continental climate, from Eastern Germany to Siberia. For implementing resistance breeding, it is of utmost importance to (1) analyze the diversity of stem rust populations in terms of pathotypes (=virulence combinations) and (2) identify resistance sources in winter rye populations. We analyzed 323 single-uredinial isolates mainly collected from German rye-growing areas across three years for their avirulence/virulence on 15 rye inbred differentials...
June 28, 2016: Phytopathology
Mike W Dunbar, Matthew E O'Neal, Aaron J Gassmann
Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Alexandra de Sousa, Hamada AbdElgawad, Asard Han, Jorge Teixeira, Manuela Matos, Fernanda Fidalgo
One of the major limitations to plant growth and yield in acidic soils is the prevalence of soluble aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil solution, which can irreversible damage the root apex cells. Nonetheless, many Al-tolerant species overcome Al toxicity and are well-adapted to acidic soils, being able to complete their life cycle under such stressful conditions. At this point, the complex physiological and biochemical processes inherent to Al tolerance remain unclear, especially in what concerns the behavior of antioxidant enzymes and stress indicators at early plant development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
N Ali, Js Pat Heslop-Harrison, H Ahmad, R A Graybosch, G L Hein, T Schwarzacher
Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th...
August 2016: Heredity
Aryeh Keehn, Jacob Taylor, Franklin C Lowe
INTRODUCTION: The use of complementary and alternative medications for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is a lucrative business in the USA with revenues reaching close to US$6.4 billion in sales for the 2014 fiscal year. Yet, despite its popularity, the evidence supporting the continued use of phytotherapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is questionable and a topic worth investigation given its wide spread use. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search utilizing Medline and PubMed was conducted to identify literature pertaining to phytotherapy for the management of BPH...
July 2016: Current Urology Reports
E V Evtushenko, V G Levitsky, E A Elisafenko, K V Gunbin, A I Belousov, J Šafář, J Doležel, A V Vershinin
BACKGROUND: A prominent and distinctive feature of the rye (Secale cereale) chromosomes is the presence of massive blocks of subtelomeric heterochromatin, the size of which is correlated with the copy number of tandem arrays. The rapidity with which these regions have formed over the period of speciation remains unexplained. RESULTS: Using a BAC library created from the short arm telosome of rye chromosome 1R we uncovered numerous arrays of the pSc200 and pSc250 tandem repeat families which are concentrated in subtelomeric heterochromatin and identified the adjacent DNA sequences...
2016: BMC Genomics
Xiang Guo, Handong Su, Qinghua Shi, Shulan Fu, Jing Wang, Xiangqi Zhang, Zanmin Hu, Fangpu Han
Centromeres typically contain tandem repeat sequences, but centromere function does not necessarily depend on these sequences. We identified functional centromeres with significant quantitative changes in the centromeric retrotransposons of wheat (CRW) contents in wheat aneuploids (Triticum aestivum) and the offspring of wheat wide hybrids. The CRW signals were strongly reduced or essentially lost in some wheat ditelosomic lines and in the addition lines from the wide hybrids. The total loss of the CRW sequences but the presence of CENH3 in these lines suggests that the centromeres were formed de novo...
April 2016: PLoS Genetics
Ileana Frasier, Alberto Quiroga, Elke Noellemeyer
In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Meng Li, Zongxiang Tang, Ling Qiu, Yangyang Wang, Shuyao Tang, Shulan Fu
To effectively use elite genes on the long arm of rye chromosome 6 (the 6RL arm) in wheat breeding programs, precise and fast identification of 6RL chromatin in wheat backgrounds is necessary. PCR-based 6RL-specific markers can facilitate the detection of elite genes on 6RL in wheat breeding. However, only a limited number of 6RL-specific markers have been developed. In the present study, 300 new PCR-based 6RL-specific markers were identified using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, and were further physically mapped to four regions on the 6RL arm using 6R and 6RL deletion lines...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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