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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934168/role-of-the-genes-of-type-vi-secretion-system-in-virulence-of-rice-bacterial-brown-stripe-pathogen-acidovorax-avenae-subsp-avenae-strain-rs-2
#1
Md Mahidul Islam Masum, Yingzi Yang, Bin Li, Ogunyemi Solabomi Olaitan, Jie Chen, Yang Zhang, Yushi Fang, Wen Qiu, Yanli Wang, Guochang Sun
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915349/watery-saliva-secreted-by-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-stimulates-aphid-resistance-in-wheat
#2
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frederic Francis, Julian Chen
Infestation with Sitobion avenae induces localized defense responses in wheat; in this study, the role of S. avenae watery saliva in resistance induction was examined by infiltrating aphid saliva into wheat leaves. After feeding S. avenae on an artificial diet for 48 h, we first collected watery saliva from them and then separated the salivary proteins using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gene expression studies showed that infiltration of S. avenae watery saliva in wheat leaves induced strong salicylic acid-responsive defense but moderate jasmonic acid-dependent defense...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852588/expression-differences-in-aphidius-ervi-hymenoptera-braconidae-females-reared-on-different-aphid-host-species
#3
Gabriel I Ballesteros, Jürgen Gadau, Fabrice Legeai, Angelica Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Blas Lavandero, Jean-Christophe Simon, Christian C Figueroa
The molecular mechanisms that allow generalist parasitoids to exploit many, often very distinct hosts are practically unknown. The wasp Aphidius ervi, a generalist koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, was introduced from Europe into Chile in the late 1970s to control agriculturally important aphid species. A recent study showed significant differences in host preference and host acceptance (infectivity) depending on the host A. ervi were reared on. In contrast, no genetic differentiation between A. ervi populations parasitizing different aphid species and aphids of the same species reared on different host plants was found in Chile...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846186/puccinia-coronata-f-sp-avenae-a-threat-to-global-oat-production
#4
Eric S Nazareno, Feng Li, Madeleine Smith, Robert F Park, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca) causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat (Avena spp.). The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen makes crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and is classified as a typical macrocyclic and heteroecious fungus. The asexual phase in the life cycle of Pca occurs in oat while the sexual phase occurs primarily in Rhamnus species as the alternate host...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846056/identification-and-pathogenicity-of-bacteria-associated-with-etiolation-and-decline-of-creeping-bentgrass-golf-course-putting-greens
#5
Joseph Roberts, Bangya Ma, Lane Tredway, Dave Ritchie, Jim Kerns
Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. (CBG)] putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms...
August 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821149/solution-blow-spun-nanocomposites-of-poly-lactic-acid-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-eucalyptus-kraft-pulp
#6
Delne Domingos da Silva Parize, Juliano Elvis de Oliveira, Tina Williams, Delilah Wood, Roberto de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Artur Piotr Klamczynski, Gregory Melvin Glenn, José Manoel Marconcini, Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower thermal stability. Then, PLA/CNC and PLA/CNCMA nanocomposites were successfully obtained by solution blow spinning (SBS) using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as solvent. CNC and CNCMA indicated to be acting both as nucleating agents or growth inhibitors of PLA crystal and tends to favor the formation of PLA crystals of higher stability...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817594/soil-pathogen-aphid-interactions-under-differences-in-soil-organic-matter-and-mineral-fertilizer
#7
Stijn van Gils, Giovanni Tamburini, Lorenzo Marini, Arjen Biere, Maaike van Agtmaal, Olaf Tyc, Martine Kos, David Kleijn, Wim H van der Putten
There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778044/role-of-phenolic-compounds-during-antioxidative-responses-of-winter-triticale-to-aphid-and-beetle-attack
#8
Paweł Czerniewicz, Hubert Sytykiewicz, Roma Durak, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Grzegorz Chrzanowski
One of the earliest responses of plants to insects' attack is generation of reactive oxygen species. However, the elevated level of ROS can elicit oxidative burst within plant tissues, and plants employ antioxidant systems against these radicals. Due to their chemical structures, polyphenols are able to diminish the level of ROS. Thus, we investigated the role of phenolic compounds in oxidative stress within winter triticale caused by Sitobion avenae and Oulema melanopus. It was found, that infestation by insects induced a high increase in the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical within resistant Lamberto cv...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775278/routes-obey-hierarchy-in-complex-networks
#9
Attila Csoma, Attila Kőrösi, Gábor Rétvári, Zalán Heszberger, József Bíró, Mariann Slíz, Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, András Gulyás
The last two decades of network science have discovered stunning similarities in the topological characteristics of real life networks (many biological, social, transportation and organizational networks) on a strong empirical basis. However our knowledge about the operational paths used in these networks is very limited, which prohibits the proper understanding of the principles of their functioning. Today, the most widely adopted hypothesis about the structure of the operational paths is the shortest path assumption...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766148/biology-and-management-of-avena-fatua-and-avena-ludoviciana-two-noxious-weed-species-of-agro-ecosystems
#10
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Nadeem Iqbal, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Zarka Hanif, Sudheesh Manalil, Saima Hashim, Hafiz Haider Ali, Lynda Kebaso, David Frimpong, Halima Namubiru, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762997/investigating-the-biosynthesis-of-natural-products-from-marine-proteobacteria-a-survey-of-molecules-and-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Marshall L Timmermans, Yagya P Paudel, Avena C Ross
The phylum proteobacteria contains a wide array of Gram-negative marine bacteria. With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a whole host of information is being revealed about the primary and secondary metabolism of marine proteobacteria. This has led to the discovery of a growing number of medically relevant natural products, including novel leads for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and cancer. Of equal interest, marine proteobacteria produce natural products whose structure and biosynthetic mechanisms differ from those of their terrestrial and actinobacterial counterparts...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755697/proteomic-and-biochemical-assays-of-glutathione-related-proteins-in-susceptible-and-multiple-herbicide-resistant-avena-fatua-l
#12
Erin E Burns, Barbara K Keith, Mohammed Y Refai, Brian Bothner, William E Dyer
Extensive herbicide usage has led to the evolution of resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. The multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) Avena fatua L. populations utilized in this study are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families, across five modes of action, available for A. fatua control in U.S. small grain production, and thus pose significant agronomic and economic threats. Resistance to ALS and ACCase inhibitors is not conferred by target site mutations, indicating that non-target site resistance mechanisms are involved...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753645/developmental-morphology-of-cover-crop-species-exhibit-contrasting-behaviour-to-changes-in-soil-bulk-density-revealed-by-x-ray-computed-tomography
#13
Jasmine E Burr-Hersey, Sacha J Mooney, A Glyn Bengough, Stefan Mairhofer, Karl Ritz
Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740284/the-effect-of-mechanical-processing-on-avenanthramide-and-phenol-levels-in-two-organically-grown-italian-oat-cultivars
#14
Elena Antonini, Giuseppe Diamantini, Paolino Ninfali
Avenanthramides (AVNs), free and bound phenols and their antioxidant capacities (ORAC) were evaluated in two Avena sativa L. cultivars, Donata and Flavia. The cultivars (cvs.) were grown in loamy and medium texture soils and assessed after industrial dehulling and milling. Total dietary fiber, β-glucan, starch and proteins were also evaluated. Cv. Donata showed 2.8 fold higher AVN storage as compared to cv. Flavia, which was linked with genotype. The accumulation of AVN content was also influenced by the texture of the soil...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725236/the-seed-semipermeable-layer-and-its-relation-to-seed-quality-assessment-in-four-grass-species
#15
Yan Y Lv, Xue Q He, Xiao W Hu, Yan R Wang
The existence of a semipermeable layer in grass seeds has been extensively reported, yet knowledge of its influence on tests for seed viability and vigor that depend upon measurement of electrical conductivity (EC) is limited. This study determined the presence and location of the semipermeable layer, and its relation to seed viability and vigor assessment, in seeds of four important grass species-Elymus nutans Griseb., Lolium perenne L., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel., and Avena sativa L. Intact seeds of E...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715126/an-engineered-photoswitchable-mammalian-pyruvate-kinase
#16
Stefanie Gehrig, Jamie A Macpherson, Paul C Driscoll, Alastair Symon, Stephen R Martin, James I MacRae, Jens Kleinjung, Franca Fraternali, Dimitrios Anastasiou
Changes in allosteric regulation of glycolytic enzymes have been linked to metabolic reprogramming involved in cancer. Remarkably, allosteric mechanisms control enzyme function at significantly shorter time-scales compared to the long-term effects of metabolic reprogramming on cell proliferation. It remains unclear if and how the speed and reversibility afforded by rapid allosteric control of metabolic enzymes is important for cell proliferation. Tools that allow specific, dynamic modulation of enzymatic activities in mammalian cells would help address this question...
July 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707186/natural-oils-for-skin-barrier-repair-ancient-compounds-now-backed-by-modern-science
#17
REVIEW
Alexandra R Vaughn, Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#18
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683080/winter-cover-crops-on-processing-tomato-yield-quality-pest-pressure-nitrogen-availability-and-profit-margins
#19
Kimberly D Belfry, Cheryl Trueman, Richard J Vyn, Steven A Loewen, Laura L Van Eerd
Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682158/recombination-of-virulence-genes-in-divergent-acidovorax-avenae-strains-that-infect-a-common-host
#20
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul R Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass- and maize-pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass-pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens than to each other...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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