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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228946/reward-and-punishment-sensitivity-and-disordered-eating-behaviors-in-men-and-women
#1
Kalina T Eneva, Susan Murray, Jared O'Garro-Moore, Angelina Yiu, Lauren B Alloy, Nicole M Avena, Eunice Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Reward and punishment sensitivities have been identified as potential contributors to binge eating and compensatory behaviors, though few studies have examined gender differences in these behaviors. METHOD: A college-aged sample (N = 1,022) completed both the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) and Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). RESULTS: Rates of binge eating were similar in males and females...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193860/investigations-of-human-myosin-vi-targeting-using-optogenetically-controlled-cargo-loading
#2
Alexander R French, Tobin R Sosnick, Ronald S Rock
Myosins play countless critical roles in the cell, each requiring it to be activated at a specific location and time. To control myosin VI with this specificity, we created an optogenetic tool for activating myosin VI by fusing the light-sensitive Avena sativa phototropin1 LOV2 domain to a peptide from Dab2 (LOVDab), a myosin VI cargo protein. Our approach harnesses the native targeting and activation mechanism of myosin VI, allowing direct inferences on myosin VI function. LOVDab robustly recruits human full-length myosin VI to various organelles in vivo and hinders peroxisome motion in a light-controllable manner...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188590/pesticide-stress-on-plants-negatively-affects-parasitoid-fitness-through-a-bypass-of-their-phytophage-hosts
#3
Andries A Kampfraath, Daniel Giesen, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Cécile Le Lann
Pesticides taken up by plants from the soil or interstitial (pore) water can cascade to higher trophic levels, which are expected to be more affected due to cumulative bottom-up effects. Knowledge about the impact of indirect exposure to pesticides on non-target terrestrial trophic chains, however, is still lacking. Therefore, we examined the direct and indirect effects of three concentrations of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and an insecticide with a similar molecular structure (1,4-dichlorobenzene, DCB) on the fitness traits of a tritrophic system: the wheat plant Triticum aestivum, the aphid Sitobion avenae and its specialist parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi...
February 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163585/association-analysis-of-resistance-to-cereal-cyst-nematodes-heterodera-avenae-and-root-lesion-nematodes-pratylenchus-neglectus-and-p-thornei-in-cimmyt-advanced-spring-wheat-lines-for-semi-arid-conditions
#4
Abdelfattah A Dababat, Gomez-Becerra Hugo Ferney, Gul Erginbas-Orakci, Susanne Dreisigacker, Mustafa Imren, Halil Toktay, Halil I Elekcioglu, Tesfamariam Mekete, Julie M Nicol, Omid Ansari, Francis Ogbonnaya
To identify loci linked to nematode resistance genes, a total of 126 of CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines adapted to semi-arid conditions were screened for resistance to Heterodera avenae, Pratylenchus neglectus, and P. thornei, of which 107 lines were genotyped with 1,310 DArT. Association of DArT markers with nematode response was analyzed using the general linear model. Results showed that 11 markers were associated with resistance to H. avenae (pathotype Ha21), 25 markers with resistance to P. neglectus, and 9 significant markers were identified to be linked with resistance to P...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157193/unraveling-the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-ancient-and-recent-polypoidization-events-in-avena-poaceae
#5
Qing Liu, Lei Lin, Xiangying Zhou, Paul M Peterson, Jun Wen
Understanding the diversification of polyploid crops in the circum-Mediterranean region is a challenging issue in evolutionary biology. Sequence data of three nuclear genes and three plastid DNA fragments from 109 accessions of Avena L. (Poaceae) and the outgroups were used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The evolution of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) and its close relatives was inferred to have involved ancient allotetraploidy and subsequent recent allohexaploidy events. The crown ages of two infrageneric lineages (Avena sect...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157176/the-essential-oil-of-monarda-didyma-l-lamiaceae-exerts-phytotoxic-activity-in-vitro-against-various-weed-seed
#6
Donata Ricci, Francesco Epifano, Daniele Fraternale
The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L...
February 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156137/chromosomal-distribution-patterns-of-the-ac-10-microsatellite-and-other-repetitive-sequences-and-their-use-in-chromosome-rearrangement-analysis-of-species-of-the-genus-avena
#7
Araceli Fominaya, Yolanda Loarce, Alexander Montes, Esther Ferrer
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC)10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC)10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions...
November 4, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150529/free-asparagine-and-sugars-profile-of-cereal-species-the-potential-of-cereals-for-acrylamide-formation-in-foods
#8
Slađana Žilić, Dejan Dodig, Zorica Basić, Jelena Vančetović, Primož Titan, Nenad Đurić, Nataša Tolimir
Cereals based food is one of the major source of Maillard reaction products in the diet. Free amino acids and reducing sugars are considered to be the main precursors in the formation of these heat-induced compounds. In order to determine genetic resources with reduced potential for acrylamide formation, the content of sugars, as well as free asparagine were analyzed in a total of 30 cultivars of 10 varieties belonging to eight species (Triticum aestivum var. lutescens, T. aestivum var. alba, T. aestivum var...
February 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132155/2-de-separation-and-identification-of-oat-avena-sativa-l-proteins-and-their-prolamin-fractions
#9
Dorota Nałęcz, Iwona Szerszunowicz, Marta Dziuba, Piotr Minkiewicz
At present two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is the most widely used proteomic tool, which enables simultaneous separation of even thousands of proteins with a high degree of resolution. The quality of 2-DE separation depends on the type of biological material used as a protein source. The presence of interfering compounds (e.g., phenols, as it is the fact in plant material including oat seeds) impedes 2-DE run. With the use of this technique it is possible to analyze the complex protein mixtures, characteristic protein fractions, as well as individual proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132154/isolation-of-oat-avena-sativa-l-total-proteins-and-their-prolamin-fractions-for-2d-electrophoresis
#10
Dorota Nałęcz, Marta Dziuba, Iwona Szerszunowicz
Appropriate sample preparation is essential to obtaining good results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). For various reasons (particularly phenolic compounds, proteolytic enzymes, and cell-wall mucilages) the extraction of proteins from plant material, among them oat proteins, is difficult. During isolation all soluble substances that may interfere with the analysis (especially isoelectric focusing) are removed, and proteins of interest are separated from the remains. However, the applied procedure of isolation cannot be too extensive, because additional stages cause loss of the proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132142/protocol-for-producing-synthetic-polyploid-oats
#11
Toshinobu Morikawa
A protocol to produce synthetic oats by introducing alien genetic variations into cultivated oats is proposed based on suitable genetic relationships between Avena species. Furthermore, artificial hybridization procedures between different ploidy species are explained. Amphiploids can be produced by rescuing aborted embryos and treating the F1 hybrids with colchicine to overcome sterility between interspecific plants. Furthermore, I present the cytological methods for observing somatic and meiotic chromosomes in the treated hybrids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132141/wide-hybridization-between-oat-and-pearl-millet
#12
Takayoshi Ishii
Wide hybridization is a one of the important techniques in plant breeding. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) belong to different subfamilies of Poaceae. In generally, such distant relative species show uniparental chromosome elimination after successful fertilization. However, all seven pearl millet chromosomes are retained beside the genome of oat during embryogenesis. Hybrid seedlings develop, but show necrosis after light irradiation. Here, a detailed protocol for wide hybridization between oat and pearl millet is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131477/advances-on-the-determination-of-thresholds-of-cu-phytotoxicity-in-field-contaminated-soils-in-central-chile
#13
Pedro Mondaca, Joanie Catrin, José Verdejo, Sébastien Sauvé, Alexander Neaman
To better determine phytotoxicity thresholds for metals in the soil, studies should use actual field-contaminated soil samples rather than metal-spiked soil preparations. However, there are surprisingly few such data available for Cu phytotoxicity in field-contaminated soils. Moreover, these studies differ from each other with regards to soil characteristics and experimental setups. This study aimed at more accurately estimating Cu phytotoxicity thresholds using field-collected agricultural soils (Entisols) from areas exposed to contamination from Cu mining...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094341/ecological-impact-of-a-secondary-bacterial-symbiont-on-the-clones-of-sitobion-avenae-fabricius-hemiptera-aphididae
#14
Chen Luo, Kun Luo, Linqin Meng, Bin Wan, Huiyan Zhao, Zuqing Hu
Many insects harbor heritable endosymbionts, whether obligatory or facultative, and the role of facultative endosymbionts in shaping the phenotype of these species has become increasingly important. However, little is known about whether micro-injected endosymbionts can have any effects on aphid clones, which was measured using various ecological parameters. We examined the effects between symbiotic treatments and the vital life history traits generated by Regiella insecticola on the life table parameters of Sitobion avenae...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088418/laboratory-silo-type-and-inoculation-effects-on-nutritional-composition-fermentation-and-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-of-oat-silage
#15
J J Romero, Y Zhao, M A Balseca-Paredes, F Tiezzi, E Gutierrez-Rodriguez, M S Castillo
The objectives were to evaluate (1) the use of 2 types of experimental silos (S) to characterize whole-crop oat (Avena sativa L.) silage with or without addition of an inoculant (I), and (2) the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure of oats ensiled using only plastic bucket silos (BKT). From each of 6 sections in a field, oats were harvested, treated (INO) or not (CON) with inoculant, packed into 19-L BKT or vacuum bags (BG), and ensiled for 217 d. The inoculant added contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh oats, respectively)...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068090/femtosecond-to-millisecond-dynamics-of-light-induced-allostery-in-the-avena-sativa-lov-domain
#16
Agnieszka A Gil, Sergey P Laptenok, Jarrod B French, James N Iuliano, Andras Lukacs, Christopher R Hall, Igor V Sazanovich, Gregory M Greetham, Adelbert Bacher, Boris Illarionov, Markus Fischer, Peter J Tonge, Stephen R Meech
The rational engineering of photosensor proteins underpins the field of optogenetics, in which light is used for spatiotemporal control of cell signaling. Optogenetic elements function by converting electronic excitation of an embedded chromophore into structural changes on the microseconds to seconds time scale, which then modulate the activity of output domains responsible for biological signaling. Using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy coupled with isotope labeling, we have mapped the structural evolution of the LOV2 domain of the flavin binding phototropin Avena sativa (AsLOV2) over 10 decades of time, reporting structural dynamics between 100 fs and 1 ms after optical excitation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056335/effects-of-handling-and-environment-on-preterm-newborns-sleeping-in-incubators
#17
Kelly Cristina Sbampato Calado Orsi, Marta José Avena, Marcia Lurdes de Cacia Pradella-Hallinan, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, Ariane Ferreira Machado Avelar, Eliana Moreira Pinheiro
OBJECTIVE: To describe the total sleep time, stages of sleep, and wakefulness of preterm newborns and correlate them to levels of sound pressure, light, temperature, relative air humidity, and handling inside incubators. DESIGN: Observational, correlational study. SETTING: A neonatal intermediate care unit. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve preterm newborns, who were 32.2 ± 4.2 weeks gestational age and weighed 1,606 ± 317 g. METHODS: Sleep records were assessed by polysomnograph...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054034/sensory-evaluation-of-gluten-free-quinoa-whole-grain-snacks
#18
Talwinder S Kahlon, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Mei-Chen M Chiu
Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006018/potential-host-manipulation-by-the-aphid-parasitoid-aphidius-avenae-to-enhance-cold-tolerance
#19
Lucy Alford, Annabelle Androdias, Thomas Franco, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
During parasitoid development, the immature parasitoid is confined to the host species. As a result, any potential to modify the physiology or behaviour of the host could play an important role in parasitoid fitness. The potential for host manipulation by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius avenae to increase cold thermotolerance was investigated using the aphid host species Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae. Aphids were parasitized at L3/L4 instar stage (5 d old) and allowed to develop into pre-reproductive adults (10 d old) containing a 5 d old parasitoid larva...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003041/the-impact-of-oat-avena-sativa-consumption-on-biomarkers-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-parallel-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Mojgan Mortazavi Najafabadi, Pamela J Surkan, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Awat Feizi, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Animal studies report that oat (Avena sativa L) intake has favorable effects on kidney function. However, the effects of oat consumption have not been assessed in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of oat intake on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Fifty-two patients with CKD were randomly assigned to a control group (recommended to reduce intake of dietary protein, phosphorus, sodium and potassium) or an oat consumption group (given nutritional recommendations for controls +50 g/day oats)...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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