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Yang He, Deguang Liu, Peng Dai, Da Wang, Xiaoqin Shi
Drought is predicted to be more frequent, prolonged, and intensive in many areas around the globe under future warming scenarios, which can have significant impacts on aphids in different agricultural systems. However, studies on the genetic structuring process underlying changing aphid biology and ecology under drought are rare. To address the issue, we collected the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), clones from moist, semiarid, and arid areas of northwestern China and genotyped them with microsatellite markers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Stella Constandinou, Nikolaos Nikoloudakis, Angelos C Kyratzis, Andreas Katsiotis
Avena ventricosa Balansa ex Coss. is considered the C-genome donor of the cultivated hexaploid oat and is a 'priority' species for conservation, since it has limited geographic distribution and the only recorded populations in Europe are present in Cyprus. The current study attempts to characterize the genetic structure and fragmentation of the species via the application of genotypic markers. It was revealed that the genetic variety was mainly allocated among the populations collected, since clustering obtained was according to the geographic origin of the samples and the habitat...
2018: PloS One
Yong-Bi Fu
Cultivated hexaploid oat has three different sets of nuclear genomes (A, C, D), but its evolutionary history remains elusive. A multiplexed shotgun sequencing procedure was explored to acquire maternal phylogenetic signals from chloroplast and mitochondria genomes of 25 Avena species. Phylogenetic analyses of the acquired organelle SNP data revealed a new maternal pathway towards hexaploids of oat genome evolution involving three diploid species (A. ventricosa, A. canariensis and A. longiglumis) and two tetraploid species (A...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Koichi Yoneyama, Xiaonan Xie, Kaori Yoneyama, Takaya Kisugi, Takahito Nomura, Yoshifumi Nakatani, Kohki Akiyama, Christopher S P McErlean
Strigolactones (SLs) can be classified into two structurally distinct groups: canonical and non-canonical SLs. Canonical SLs contain the ABCD ring system, and non-canonical SLs lack the A, B, or C ring but have the enol ether-D ring moiety which is essential for biological activities. The simplest non-canonical SL is the SL biosynthetic intermediate carlactone (CL). In plants, CL and its oxidized metabolites such as carlactonoic acid and methyl carlactonoate, are present in root and shoot tissues. In some plant species including black oat (Avena strigosa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and maize (Zea mays), non-canonical SLs are major germination stimulants in the root exudates...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marta José Avena, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira, Lucas Bassolli de Oliveira Alves, T Heather Herdman, Maria Gaby Rivero de Gutiérrez
PURPOSE: To identify the frequency of the nursing diagnoses, ineffective breathing pattern, impaired gas exchange and impaired spontaneous ventilation in newborns; and, to analyze the accuracy of diagnostic indicators identified for each of these diagnoses. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with a nonprobability sample of 92 infants. Data collected were represented by demographic and clinical variables, clinical indicators of the three respiratory nursing diagnoses from NANDA International, and were analyzed according to frequency and agreement between pairs of expert nurses (Kappa)...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
Philippe Louâpre, Cécile Le Lann, Thierry Hance
Insect parasitoids developing inside hosts face a true challenge: hosts are scattered in the field and their localization and selection require the use of complex and sometime confusing information. It was assumed for a long time that small-brained organisms like parasitoids have evolved simple and efficient behavioral mechanisms, leading them to be adapted to a given ecological situation, e.g. the spatial distribution of hosts in the habitat. However, hosts are not static and their distribution may also vary through generations and within the life of parasitoid individuals...
February 28, 2018: Insect Science
Salvatore Multari, Juha Matti Pihlava, Priscilla Ollennu-Chuasam, Veli Hietaniemi, Baoru Yang, Jukka-Pekka Suomela
Finland is the second largest oat producer in Europe. Despite the existing knowledge on phenolics in oats, there is little information on the phenolic composition of oats from Finland. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of free and bound phenolic acids, as well as avenanthramides in eight Finnish cultivars of husked oat (Avena sativa L.). Seven phenolic acids and one phenolic aldehyde were identified, including, in decreasing order of abundance: p-coumaric, ferulic, cinnamic, syringic, vanillic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and o-coumaric acids, and syringaldehyde...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Praveen Krishna Veerasubramanian, Ponrasu Thangavel, Ramya Kannan, Sudip Chakraborty, Balaji Ramachandran, Lonchin Suguna, Vignesh Muthuvijayan
We have developed a novel hydrogel composed of konjac glucomannan (KGM), human hair proteins (KER), and an ethanolic extract of Avena sativa (OAT) and evaluated its potential as a dressing material for diabetic wounds. KGM is an excellent biocompatible gelling agent that stimulates fibroblast proliferation and immunomodulation. Human hair proteins (KER) are biocompatible, biodegradable, and possess abundant cell adhesion sites. KER also promotes fibroblast attachment and proliferation, keratinocyte migration, and collagen expression, which can accelerate wound healing...
February 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Fei Liu, Furkan Türker Saricaoglu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, David F Bridges, Gary R Takeoka, Vivian C H Wu, Bor-Sen Chiou, Delilah F Wood, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w / w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marisa E Miller, Ying Zhang, Vahid Omidvar, Jana Sperschneider, Benjamin Schwessinger, Castle Raley, Jonathan M Palmer, Diana Garnica, Narayana Upadhyaya, John Rathjen, Jennifer M Taylor, Robert F Park, Peter N Dodds, Cory D Hirsch, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae , is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting the importance of understanding haplotype diversity in this species. We generated highly contiguous de novo genome assemblies of two P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates, 12SD80 and 12NC29, from long-read sequences. In total, we assembled 603 primary contigs for 12SD80, for a total assembly length of 99...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Solomon W Mwendia, Chris M Mwungu, Stanley Karanja Ng'ang'a, David Njenga, An Notenbaert
Despite the significant livestock contribution to households' nutrition and incomes in many African smallholder farms, milk productivity remains low. Inadequate feeding is the main reason for the underperformance. To contribute towards addressing this, an on-farm feeding trial was undertaken in Ol-joro-Orok Central Kenya. A feed basket using oat (Avena sativa) cv Conway and vetch (Vicia villosa) was compared to farmers practice. Milk production (kg) and quality parameters, including butterfat, protein, lactose, and density, were monitored, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) undertaken...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Izabela Ruduś, Jan Kępczyński
Molecular studies of primary and secondary dormancy in Avena fatua L., a serious weed of cereal and other crops, are intended to reveal the species-specific details of underlying molecular mechanisms which in turn may be useable in weed management. Among others, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data of comparative gene expression analysis may give some insight into the involvement of particular wild oat genes in dormancy release, maintenance or induction by unfavorable conditions. To assure obtaining biologically significant results using this method, the expression stability of selected candidate reference genes in different data subsets was evaluated using four statistical algorithms i...
2018: PloS One
Ivan Casaburi, Paola Avena, Arianna De Luca, Rosa Sirianni, Vittoria Rago, Adele Chimento, Francesca Trotta, Carmela Campana, William E Rainey, Vincenzo Pezzi
We previously demonstrated that treatment of the H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line with the non-steroidal, high-affinity GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) agonist G-1 reduced tumor growth in vitro and in vivo through a GPER independent action. Moreover, we observed that G-1 treatment induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis following a sustained ERK1/2 activation. However, the precise mechanisms causing these effects were not clarified. Starting from our preliminary published results, we performed a microarray study that clearly evidenced a strong and significative up-regulation of EGR-1 gene in H295R cells treated for 24h with micromolar concentration of G-1...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Samir Fakhour, Jérôme Ambroise, François Renoz, Vincent Foray, Jean-Luc Gala, Thierry Hance
Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Kendra J Alfson, Laura E Avena, Jenny Delgado, Michael W Beadles, Jean L Patterson, Ricardo Carrion, Anthony Griffiths
Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with high case fatality rates, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Licensing of MARV countermeasures will likely require approval via the FDA's Animal Efficacy Rule, which requires well-characterized animal models that recapitulate human disease. This includes selection of the virus used for exposure and ensuring that it retains the properties of the original isolate. The consequences of amplification of MARV for challenge studies are unknown. Here, we serially passaged and characterized MARV through 13 passes from the original isolate...
January 2018: MSphere
Qi Bei, Gong Chen, Fangju Lu, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
This work aims to investigate the effects of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes on the release of phenolics in oat fermentation with Monascus anka. There were good correlations between phenolic content and α-amylase, xylanase and FPase activities. A high level of α-amylase activity (141.07 U/g) was observed, while xylanase (2.40 U/g), total cellulase (0.52 U/g) and β-glucosidase activities (0.028 U/g) were relatively low in the fermentation system. The phenolic content of oat powder treated with crude enzyme from fermented oats significantly increased, especially that of the ferulic acid in the insoluble fraction and the vanillic acid in the soluble fraction...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Edith Espinosa-Páez, Ma Guadalupe Alanis-Guzmán, Carlos E Hernández-Luna, Juan G Báez-González, Carlos A Amaya-Guerra, Ana M Andrés-Grau
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity (39.5% on kidney beans and 225% on oats in relation to the controls) and content of total polyphenols (kidney beans three times higher regarding the controls) increased significantly by the presence of the fungus mycelium, even after simulated digestion...
December 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lekha Mikkilineni, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Marina Domingo-Vidal, John Sprandio, Paola Avena, Paolo Cotzia, Alina Dulau-Florea, Jerald Gong, Guldeep Uppal, Tingting Zhan, Benjamin Leiby, Zhao Lin, Barbara Pro, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti, Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn
BACKGROUND: Twenty percent of patients with classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) have aggressive disease defined as relapsed or refractory disease to initial therapy. At present we cannot identify these patients pre-treatment. The microenvironment is very important in cHL because non-cancer cells constitute the majority of the cells in these tumors. Non-cancer intra-tumoral cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to promote tumor growth in cHL via crosstalk with the cancer cells...
June 2017: Seminars in Oncology
Wan-Dong Yin, Ary A Hoffmann, Xin-Bo Gu, Chun-Sen Ma
Direct damage of increased solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) on organism fitness has attracted attention due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Although most ectotherms are not capable of detecting and avoiding solar UVB, they may avoid direct exposure to solar UVB via thermoregulation behavior. However, it is still not clear whether organisms are harmed by ambient UVB radiation before escaping to shaded microhabitats. In this study we used the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to test whether sunlight-avoidance behavior was caused by heat stress rather than UVB, and whether behavioral thermoregulation in shaded microhabitats contributes to avoidance or reduction of direct UVB damage...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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