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Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
Ewa Krawczyk, Marek Koprowski, Danuta Cembrowska-Lech, Agata Wójcik, Jan Kępczyński
Plant-derived smoke - butenolide, called at present karrikin 1 (KAR1) is known as an important inductor of seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, tricyclic butenolides were synthesized and their effects on germination of dormant and non-dormant Avena fatua caryopses were compared, as were also their effects versus those of KAR1 on seedling growth. KAR1 was found to be most effective and to completely remove dormancy. Butenolides, rac-8 and (S)-8a, showed a low stimulatory effect on germination of dormant caryopses, visible only when applied at very high concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
Lanjie Xu, Qiling Hou, Yanjie Zhao, Lihua Lu, Baoyun Li, Zhongfu Ni, Rongqi Liang
Lipase maturation factor (LMF) family proteins are required for the maturation and transport of active lipoprotein lipases. However, the specific roles of LMF2 remain unknown. In this study, a grain aphid lmf2-like gene fragment was cloned and was highly similar in sequence to a homologous gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. An RNAi vector was constructed with this fragment and used for wheat transformation. The expression of the lmf2-like gene in aphid, as well as the growth and reproduction of the aphids, was analyzed after feeding on the transgenic wheat...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Charles-Antoine Dedryver, Joël Bonhomme, Jean-François Le Gallic, Jean-Christophe Simon
Many aphid species exhibit a variation in reproductive mode which is influenced by winter climate regimes, with cyclical parthenogenetic (CP) lines dominating in cold winter areas (because they produce cold-resistant eggs) and obligate parthenogenetic (OP) ones in mild winter regions (because of their parthenogenetic overwintering). Genetic studies on several aphid species have shown that the OP trait can be transmitted during sexual events involving the two types of lines. This genetic system could be considered as a local safeguarding mechanism for OP alleles in case severe frost would have killed all parthenogenetically overwintering individuals...
June 13, 2017: Insect Science
Hongfeng Chen, Luuk K Koopal, Juan Xiong, Marcelo Avena, Wenfeng Tan
To explore the adsorption mechanisms of a soil humic acid (HA) on purified kaolinite and montmorillonite, a combination of adsorption measurements, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was employed at pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0. The adsorption affinities and plateaus of HA on the two clays increased with decreasing pH, indicating the importance of electrostatic interaction. The effects were more significant for kaolinite than for montmorillonite...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Maria Doligalska, Kinga Jóźwicka, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Małgorzata Kalinowska
Avena sativa L., 1753 (Poaceae) is used as feed for livestock and as a crop rotation agent. The purpose of the study was to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the antihelminth activity of the oat saponins avenacoside B (AveB) and 26-desglucoavenacoside B (26DGAveB) by evaluating their effect on Heligmosomoides bakeri, a parasitic nematode of mice. The avenacosides AveB and 26DGAveB were separated and purified from A. sativa green leaves, and their mycotoxic activity was confirmed against the fungus Trichoderma harzianum...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Jarosław Lewkowski, Marta Morawska, Rafał Karpowicz, Piotr Rychter, Diana Rogacz, Kamila Lewicka, Piotr Dobrzyński
Six new dimethyl N-arylamino(2-pyrrolyl)methylphosphonates 2a-f were synthesized by the modified aza-Pudovik reaction. Their ecotoxicological impact using battery of bioassay was assessed using Microtox and Ostracodtoxit tests as well as phytotoxicity towards two plants, dicotyledonous radish (Raphanus sativus) and monocotyledonous oat (Avena sativa) following the OECD 208 Guideline. Ecotoxicological properties of compounds 2a-f in aspect of acute and chronic toxicity were evaluated using Heterocypris incongruens and Aliivibrio fisheri tests...
May 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Seong-Jun Chun, Yingshun Cui, So-Ra Ko, Hyung-Gwan Lee, Ankita Srivastava, Hee-Mock Oh, Chi-Yong Ahn
A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated strain M36(T), was isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis sp., collected from a eutrophic lake in Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to grow aerobically at 15-42 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0% NaCl) on R2A medium. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain M36(T) is closely related to Acidovorax anthurii DSM 16745(T) (98...
May 28, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
J C Mezzalira, O J F Bonnet, P C de F Carvalho, L Fonseca, C Bremm, C C Mezzalira, E A Laca
1.The functional response (i.e. the relationship between consumers' intake rate and resource density) is central in plant-herbivore interactions. Its shape and the biological processes leading to it have significant implications for both foraging theory and ecology of grazing systems. 2.A type IV functional response (i.e. dome-shaped relationship) of short-term intake rate of dry matter (intake while grazing) has rarely been reported for large herbivores and the conditions that can lead to it are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
M T Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Manash Pratim Pathak, Rudragoud S Policegoudra, Danswrang Goyary, Aparoop Das, Santa Mandal, Srijita Chakraborti, Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Johirul Islam, Pompy Patowary, P Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Gramine is a natural indole alkaloid that has been isolated from different raw plants occurring mainly in Avena sativa, etc. The study was aimed to investigate the possible in vitro antioxidant, in vitro mutagenic, in vitro antimutagenic, and in vivo genotoxic activity of gramine using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, Metal chelating, Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay as well as chromosomal aberration. Four concentrations of gramine viz. 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/mL were evaluated for its antioxidant activity in FRAP Assay and Metal Chelating Test...
May 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Zane J Grabau, Zin Thu Zar Maung, D Corey Noyes, Dean G Baas, Benjamin P Werling, Daniel C Brainard, Haddish Melakeberhan
Cover cropping is a common practice in U.S. Midwest carrot production for soil conservation, and may affect soil ecology and plant-parasitic nematodes-to which carrots are very susceptible. This study assessed the impact of cover crops-oats (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Defender, rape (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and a mixture of oats and radish-on plant-parasitic nematodes and soil ecology based on the nematode community in Michigan carrot production systems. Research was conducted at two field sites where cover crops were grown in Fall 2014 preceding Summer 2015 carrot production...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
Ratthaphol Charlermroj, Manlika Makornwattana, Orawan Himananto, Channarong Seepiban, Sudtida Phuengwas, Nuchnard Warin, Oraprapai Gajanandana, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri
To employ a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to simultaneously detect multiple plant pathogens (potyviruses, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Melon yellow spot virus, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli) in actual plant samples, several factors need to be optimized and rigorously validated. Here, a simple extraction method using a single extraction buffer was successfully selected to detect the four pathogens in various cucurbit samples (cucumber, cantaloupe, melon, and watermelon). The extraction method and assay performance were validated with inoculated and field cucurbit samples...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Saeed Ullah Khattak, Ghosia Lutfullah, Zafar Iqbal, Irshad Ur Rehman, Jamshaid Ahmad, Abid Ali Khan
In the quest for bioactive natural products of fungal origin, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from rhizosphere of Mentha piperita using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czapec Yeast Broth (CYB) nutrient media for metabolites production. In total, three different metabolites were purified using HPLC/LCMS and the structures were established using 500 Varian NMR experiments. Further the isolated metabolites in different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) were tested for herbicidal activity using Completely Randomized design (CRD) against the seeds of Silybum marianum and Avena fatua which are major threats to wheat crop in Pakistan...
May 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
Barbara K Keith, Erin E Burns, Brian Bothner, Charles C Carey, Aurélien J Mazurie, Jonathan K Hilmer, Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Hikmet Budak, William E Dyer
BACKGROUND: Intensive use of herbicides has led to the evolution two multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) Avena fatua (wild oat) populations in Montana that are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families available for A. fatua control in U.S. small grain crops. We used transcriptome and proteome surveys to compare constitutive changes in MHR and herbicide susceptible (HS) plants associated with non-target site resistance (NTSR). RESULTS: Compared to HS plants, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with functions in xenobiotic catabolism, stress response, redox maintenance, and transcriptional regulation that are similar to abiotic-stress tolerant phenotypes...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Kyong-Hee Nam, Young-Joong Kim, Ye Seul Moon, In-Soon Pack, Chang-Gi Kim
Salinization is one of the most important abiotic stressors in an ecosystem. To examine how exposing a host plant to excess salt affects the consequent performance and metabolism of insects in a food chain, we determined the life history traits and the metabolite profiles in rice (Oryza sativa), the herbivore Sitobion avenae, and its predator Harmonia axyridis. When compared with performance under normal (non-stressed) conditions, exposing plants to 50mM NaCl significantly delayed the timing of development for S...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fei Liu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Rachelle Woods, Bor-Sen Chiou, Delilah Wood, Tina Williams, Wallace Yokoyama, Gregory M Glenn, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
The primary advantage of nanofibers over larger diameter fibers is the larger surface area to volume ratio. This study evaluated solution blow spinning (SBS) processing conditions for obtaining food-grade gelatin nanofibers from mammalian and fishery byproducts, such as pork skin gelatins (PGs) and high molecular weight fish skin gelatin (HMWFG). HMWFG had a highest intact collagen structure compared to PGs. PGs with different Bloom values, solution viscosities, and surface tensions were compared with HMWFG for their ability to produce nanofibers through SBS...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science
Joana Rodrigues, Wanda Viegas, Manuela Silva
The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity-A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus...
2017: PloS One
Magdalena José Avena, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
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