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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#1
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909426/deconstructing-the-bat-skin-microbiome-influences-of-the-host-and-the-environment
#2
Christine V Avena, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jonathan W Leff, Holly M Archer, Winifred F Frick, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Karen E Powers, Jeffrey T Foster, Valerie J McKenzie
Bats are geographically widespread and play an important role in many ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the ecology of their associated microbial communities and the role microbial taxa play in bat health, development, and evolution. Moreover, few vertebrate animal skin microbiomes have been comprehensively assessed, and thus characterizing the bat skin microbiome will yield valuable insight into the variability of vertebrate skin microbiomes as a whole. The recent emergence of the skin fungal disease white-nose syndrome highlights the potentially important role bat skin microbial communities could play in bat health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904465/simultaneous-detection-of-three-bacterial-seed-borne-diseases-in-rice-using-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#3
In Jeong Kang, Mi-Hyung Kang, Tae-Hwan Noh, Hyeong Kwon Shim, Dong Bum Shin, Suggi Heu
Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877184/compromised-photosynthetic-electron-flow-and-h2o2-generation-correlate-with-genotype-specific-stomatal-dysfunctions-during-resistance-against-powdery-mildew-in-oats
#4
Javier Sánchez-Martín, Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Luis A J Mur, Diego Rubiales, Elena Prats
Stomatal dysfunction known as "locking" has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa) and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e., penetration resistance, early and late HR) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875306/family-wide-structural-characterization-and-genomic-comparisons-decode-diversity-oriented-biosynthesis-of-thalassospiramides-by-marine-proteobacteria
#5
Weipeng Zhang, Liang Lu, Qiliang Lai, Beika Zhu, Zhongrui Li, Ying Xu, Zongze Shao, Karl Herrup, Bradley S Moore, Avena C Ross, Pei-Yuan Qian
The thalassospiramide lipopeptides have great potential for therapeutic applications, however, their structural and functional diversity, and biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, by cultivating 130 Rhodospirillaceae strains sampled from oceans worldwide, we discovered 21 new thalassospiramide analogues and demonstrated their neuroprotective effects. To investigate the diversity of biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) architectures, we sequenced the genomes of 28 Rhodospirillaceae strains. Our family-wide genomic analysis revealed three types of dysfunctional BGCs, and four functional BGCs whose architectures correspond to four production patterns...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872635/rhizosphere-organic-anions-play-a-minor-role-in-improving-crop-species-ability-to-take-up-residual-phosphorus-p-in-agricultural-soils-low-in-p-availability
#6
Yanliang Wang, Tore Krogstad, Jihong L Clarke, Moritz Hallama, Anne F Øgaard, Susanne Eich-Greatorex, Ellen Kandeler, Nicholas Clarke
Many arable lands have accumulated large reserves of residual phosphorus (P) and a relatively large proportion of soil P is less available for uptake by plants. Root released organic anions are widely documented as a key physiological strategy to enhance P availability, while limited information has been generated on the contribution of rhizosphere organic anions to P utilization by crops grown in agricultural soils that are low in available P and high in extractable Ca, Al, and Fe. We studied the role of rhizosphere organic anions in P uptake from residual P in four common crops Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, Solanum tuberosum, and Brassica napus in low- and high-P availability agricultural soils from long-term fertilization field trials in a mini-rhizotron experiment with four replications...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868159/are-aphid-parasitoids-from-mild-winter-climates-losing-their-winter-diapause
#7
Kévin Tougeron, Cécile Le Lann, Jacques Brodeur, Joan van Baaren
Temperature is both a selective pressure and a modulator of the diapause expression in insects from temperate regions. Thus, with climate warming, an alteration of the response to seasonal changes is expected, either through genetic adaptations to novel climatic conditions or phenotypic plasticity. Since the 1980s in western France, the winter guild of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cereal fields has been made up of two species: Aphidius rhopalosiphi and Aphidius matricariae. The recent activity of two other species, Aphidius avenae and Aphidius ervi, during the winter months suggests that a modification of aphid parasitoid overwintering strategies has taken place within the guild...
November 21, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861896/preparation-of-zein-fibers-using-solution-blow-spinning-method
#8
Fei Liu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Rachelle Woods, Bor-Sen Chiou, Tina G Williams, Delilah F Wood, Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Wallace Yokoyama, Gregory M Glenn, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
Zein fibers were successfully fabricated via solution blow spinning (SBS) using acetic acid as solvent. Surface tension, viscosity and modulus of zein solutions were respectively determined by force tensiometer and rheometer. Increases of these properties were observed with an increase of concentration from 20% to 35% (w/w). The fabrication conditions of zein fibers were initially investigated as a function of zein concentration (25% to 35% w/w), feed rate (0.04 to 0.1 mL/min) and air pressure (0.28 to 0.62 MPa)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808156/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-effector-expansin-like-protein-from-heterodera-avenae-that-induces-cell-death-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#9
Jing Liu, Huan Peng, Jiangkuan Cui, Wenkun Huang, Lingan Kong, Jihong Liu Clarke, Heng Jian, Guo Liang Wang, Deliang Peng
Cereal cyst nematodes are sedentary biotrophic endoparasites that maintain a complex interaction with their host plants. Nematode effector proteins are synthesized in the oesophageal glands and are secreted into plant tissues through the stylet. To understand the function of nematode effectors in parasitic plants, we cloned predicted effectors genes from Heterodera avenae and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infiltration assays showed that HaEXPB2, a predicted expansin-like protein, caused cell death in N...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780837/direct-exposure-of-wheat-seeds-to-high-voltage-electrostatic-fields-adversely-affects-the-performance-of-sitobion-avenae-hemiptera-aphididae
#10
Kun Luo, Zhu Cao, Rui Gao, Juan He, Guang-Yu Li, Huan-Huan Gao, Gai-Sheng Zhang, Hui-Yan Zhao
Exposing seeds to a high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) may influence the performance of herbivores and improve the germination rate by inducing biological and physiological changes in plants. In the current study, an age-stage, two-sex life table was established to evaluate the effects from directly exposing seeds to HVEFs on the performance of apterous Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on winter wheat. We treated the wheat seeds by exposing them to an HVEF for 20 min at three intensities: 2, 4, or 6 KV/cm...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766868/photoadduct-formation-from-the-fmn-singlet-excited-state-in-the-lov2-domain-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-phototropin
#11
Jingyi Zhu, Tilo Mathes, Yusaku Hontani, Maxime T A Alexandre, Kee Chua Toh, Peter Hegemann, John T M Kennis
The two Light, Oxygen, and Voltage domains of phototropin are blue-light photoreceptor domains which control various functions in plants and green algae. The key step of the light-driven reaction is the formation of a photoadduct between its FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine, where the canonical reaction proceeds through the FMN triplet state. Here, complete photoreaction mapping of CrLOV2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phototropin and AsLOV2 from Avena sativa phototropin-1 was realized by ultrafast broadband spectroscopy from femtoseconds to microseconds...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764248/correction-characterization-of-three-novel-fatty-acid-and-retinoid-binding-protein-genes-ha-far-1-ha-far-2-and-hf-far-1-from-the-cereal-cyst-nematodes-heterodera-avenae-and-h-filipjevi
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762301/comparative-profiling-of-micrornas-in-the-winged-and-wingless-english-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-f-homoptera-aphididae
#13
Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692790/changes-in-the-ecological-properties-of-organic-wastes-during-their-biological-treatment
#14
P Kuryntseva, P Galitskaya, S Selivanovskaya
Organic wastes, such as the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or sewage sludge (SS), have become a serious environmental problem in Russia as well as in other countries. The use of these wastes as soil amendments allows their negative impact on the environment to be minimized. However, before these wastes can be used, they need to be treated appropriately in order to decrease their level of hazard. In this study, composting of raw SS, OFMSW, a mixture of these two wastes (OFMSW+SS) at a ratio 1:2 as well as the anaerobically digested variants of these wastes (SSd, OFMSWd and OFMSWd+SSd) mixed with oiled sawdust was performed...
September 28, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677892/impact-of-cropping-systems-soil-inoculum-and-plant-species-identity-on-soil-bacterial-community-structure
#15
Suzanne L Ishaq, Stephen P Johnson, Zach J Miller, Erik A Lehnhoff, Sarah Olivo, Carl J Yeoman, Fabian D Menalled
Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648527/improving-the-sun-drying-of-apricots-prunus-armeniaca-with-photo-selective-dryer-cabinet-materials
#16
Rebecca R Milczarek, Roberto Avena-Mascareno, Jérôme Alonzo, Mélissa I Fichot
Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590814/aphid-infestation-increases-fusarium-langsethiae-and-t-2-and-ht-2-mycotoxins-in-wheat
#17
Jassy Drakulic, Olubukola Ajigboye, Ranjan Swarup, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
: Fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in northern Europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. The species produces the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, which are highly toxic. It was hypothesized that grain aphids, Sitobion avenae, may transmit F. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses was performed to test this. Manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to uninfected hosts resulted in pathogen DNA accumulation in hosts...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586333/engineering-and-application-of-lov2-based-photoswitches
#18
S P Zimmerman, B Kuhlman, H Yumerefendi
Cellular optogenetic switches, a novel class of biological tools, have improved our understanding of biological phenomena that were previously intractable. While the design and engineering of these proteins has historically varied, they are all based on borrowed elements from plant and bacterial photoreceptors. In general terms, each of the optogenetic switches designed to date exploits the endogenous light-induced change in photoreceptor conformation while repurposing its effect to target a different biological phenomenon...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573283/evidence-of-plastic-probing-behavior-in-a-superclone-of-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#19
J Barrios-SanMartín, C C Figueroa, C C Ramírez
Asexual reproduction is very common in invasive insect pest. In the recent years, increasing evidences have shown that some invasive asexual lineages display an outstanding capacity to predominate in space and persist on time (superclones). However, little is known about the host-use behavior of these superclones. The English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of cereals worldwide. Chilean populations of the grain aphid are characterized by a high degree of heterozygosity and low genotypic variability across regions and years, with only four predominant superclone genotypes representing nearly 90% of populations...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570531/non-target-site-tolerance-mechanisms-describe-tolerance-to-glyphosate-in-avena-sterilis
#20
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcantara-de la Cruz, Hugo E Cruz-Hipólito, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Ilias Travlos, Rafael De Prado
Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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