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Jingyi Zhu, Tilo Mathes, Yusaku Hontani, Maxime T A Alexandre, Kee Chua Toh, Peter Hegemann, John T M Kennis
The two Light, Oxygen, and Voltage domains of phototropin are blue-light photoreceptor domains which control various functions in plants and green algae. The key step of the light-driven reaction is the formation of a photoadduct between its FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine, where the canonical reaction proceeds through the FMN triplet state. Here, complete photoreaction mapping of CrLOV2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phototropin and AsLOV2 from Avena sativa phototropin-1 was realized by ultrafast broadband spectroscopy from femtoseconds to microseconds...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
P Kuryntseva, P Galitskaya, S Selivanovskaya
Organic wastes, such as the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or sewage sludge (SS), have become a serious environmental problem in Russia as well as in other countries. The use of these wastes as soil amendments allows their negative impact on the environment to be minimized. However, before these wastes can be used, they need to be treated appropriately in order to decrease their level of hazard. In this study, composting of raw SS, OFMSW, a mixture of these two wastes (OFMSW+SS) at a ratio 1:2 as well as the anaerobically digested variants of these wastes (SSd, OFMSWd and OFMSWd+SSd) mixed with oiled sawdust was performed...
September 28, 2016: Waste Management
Suzanne L Ishaq, Stephen P Johnson, Zach J Miller, Erik A Lehnhoff, Sarah Olivo, Carl J Yeoman, Fabian D Menalled
Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Rebecca R Milczarek, Roberto Avena-Mascareno, Jérôme Alonzo, Mélissa I Fichot
Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Jassy Drakulic, Olubukola Ajigboye, Ranjan Swarup, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
: Fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in Northern Europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. The species produces the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2 which are highly toxic. It was hypothesised that grain aphids, Sitobion avenae, might transmit F. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses were performed to test this. Manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to uninfected hosts resulted in pathogen DNA accumulation in hosts...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S P Zimmerman, B Kuhlman, H Yumerefendi
Cellular optogenetic switches, a novel class of biological tools, have improved our understanding of biological phenomena that were previously intractable. While the design and engineering of these proteins has historically varied, they are all based on borrowed elements from plant and bacterial photoreceptors. In general terms, each of the optogenetic switches designed to date exploits the endogenous light-induced change in photoreceptor conformation while repurposing its effect to target a different biological phenomenon...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
J Barrios-SanMartín, C C Figueroa, C C Ramírez
Asexual reproduction is very common in invasive insect pest. In the recent years, increasing evidences have shown that some invasive asexual lineages display an outstanding capacity to predominate in space and persist on time (superclones). However, little is known about the host-use behavior of these superclones. The English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of cereals worldwide. Chilean populations of the grain aphid are characterized by a high degree of heterozygosity and low genotypic variability across regions and years, with only four predominant superclone genotypes representing nearly 90% of populations...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcantara-de la Cruz, Hugo E Cruz-Hipólito, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Ilias Travlos, Rafael De Prado
Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuji He, Jianhua Gao, Na Guo, Yanjun Guo
Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. As the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S...
August 26, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Wenxin Xue, Jia Fan, Yong Zhang, Qingxuan Xu, Zongli Han, Jingrui Sun, Julian Chen
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide...
2016: PloS One
Juan A Sánchez, Angela P Fuentes-Pardo, Íde Ní Almhain, Néstor E Ardila-Espitia, Jaime Cantera-Kintz, Manu Forero-Shelton
Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity...
2016: PeerJ
Patrick E Konold, Tilo Mathes, Jörn Weiβenborn, Marie Louise Groot, Peter Hegemann, John T M Kennis
Light-triggered reactions of biological photoreceptors have gained immense attention for their role as molecular switches in their native organisms and for optogenetic application. The light, oxygen, and voltage 2 (LOV2) sensing domain of plant phototropin binds a C-terminal Jα helix that is docked on a β-sheet and unfolds upon light absorption by the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore. In this work, the signal transduction pathway of LOV2 from Avena sativa was investigated using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy from picoseconds to microseconds...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Haibo Zhou, Longsheng Chen, Yong Liu, Julian Chen, Frédéric Francis
Using infochemicals to develop a push-pull strategy in pest control is a potential way to promote sustainable crop production. Infochemicals from plant essential oils were mixed with paraffin oil for slow release in field experiments on wheat to control the population density of cereal aphids and to enhance their natural enemies. (Z)-3-Hexenol (Z3H) attracted Metopolophum dirhodum and Sitobion avenae, the predominant species on wheat in Belgium, and may be a useful infochemical for aphid control by attracting aphids away from field plots...
2016: Scientific Reports
Louisa R Winkler, J Michael Bonman, Shiaoman Chao, B Admassu Yimer, Harold Bockelman, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Honghai Yan, Wubishet A Bekele, Charlene P Wight, Yuanying Peng, Tim Langdon, Robert G Latta, Yong-Bi Fu, Axel Diederichsen, Catherine J Howarth, Eric N Jellen, Brian Boyle, Yuming Wei, Nicholas A Tinker
Genome analysis of 27 oat species identifies ancestral groups, delineates the D genome, and identifies ancestral origin of 21 mapped chromosomes in hexaploid oat. We investigated genomic relationships among 27 species of the genus Avena using high-density genetic markers revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Two methods of GBS analysis were used: one based on tag-level haplotypes that were previously mapped in cultivated hexaploid oat (A. sativa), and one intended to sample and enumerate tag-level haplotypes originating from all species under investigation...
August 13, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Araceli Fominaya, Yolanda Loarce, Juan M González, Esther Ferrer
Tyramide signal amplification (TSA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown as a valuable molecular tool for visualizing specific amplified DNA sequences in chromosome preparations. This chapter describes how to perform TSA-FISH, paying special interest to its two critical steps: probe generation and metaphase plate generation. The potential of physically mapping 12S-globulin sequences by TSA-FISH as a means of identifying homeology among chromosome regions of Avena species was tested and is discussed...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eric N Jellen
C-banding is used to differentially stain metaphase chromosomes in organisms having appreciable amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. Its primary benefits are that it is an inexpensive and a relatively fast method of identifying individual chromosomes and morphological or karyotypic variation, including large chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidies. We currently employ this technique with considerable effect in genome analysis of oat (Avena sativa) and related grass species, though it has been most extensively used for chromosome analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its relatives of the Triticeae...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kristen Criscitelli, Nicole M Avena
Both cigarette smoking and obesity are significant public health concerns and are associated with increased risk of early mortality. It is well established that the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is an important component of the reward system within the brain and is implicated in the development of addiction. Indeed, nicotine and highly palatable foods are capable of altering dopamine release within this system, engendering addictive like responses in susceptible individuals. Although additional research is warranted, findings from animal and human literature have elucidated many of neuroadaptions that occur from exposure to nicotine and highly palatable foods, leading to a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to these aberrant behaviors...
August 7, 2016: Preventive Medicine
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