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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778044/role-of-phenolic-compounds-during-antioxidative-responses-of-winter-triticale-to-aphid-and-beetle-attack
#1
Paweł Czerniewicz, Hubert Sytykiewicz, Roma Durak, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Grzegorz Chrzanowski
One of the earliest responses of plants to insects' attack is generation of reactive oxygen species. However, the elevated level of ROS can elicit oxidative burst within plant tissues, and plants employ antioxidant systems against these radicals. Due to their chemical structures, polyphenols are able to diminish the level of ROS. Thus, we investigated the role of phenolic compounds in oxidative stress within winter triticale caused by Sitobion avenae and Oulema melanopus. It was found, that infestation by insects induced a high increase in the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical within resistant Lamberto cv...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775278/routes-obey-hierarchy-in-complex-networks
#2
Attila Csoma, Attila Kőrösi, Gábor Rétvári, Zalán Heszberger, József Bíró, Mariann Slíz, Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, András Gulyás
The last two decades of network science have discovered stunning similarities in the topological characteristics of real life networks (many biological, social, transportation and organizational networks) on a strong empirical basis. However our knowledge about the operational paths used in these networks is very limited, which prohibits the proper understanding of the principles of their functioning. Today, the most widely adopted hypothesis about the structure of the operational paths is the shortest path assumption...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766148/biology-and-management-of-avena-fatua-and-avena-ludoviciana-two-noxious-weed-species-of-agro-ecosystems
#3
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Nadeem Iqbal, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Zarka Hanif, Sudheesh Manalil, Saima Hashim, Hafiz Haider Ali, Lynda Kebaso, David Frimpong, Halima Namubiru, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762997/investigating-the-biosynthesis-of-natural-products-from-marine-proteobacteria-a-survey-of-molecules-and-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Marshall L Timmermans, Yagya P Paudel, Avena C Ross
The phylum proteobacteria contains a wide array of Gram-negative marine bacteria. With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a whole host of information is being revealed about the primary and secondary metabolism of marine proteobacteria. This has led to the discovery of a growing number of medically relevant natural products, including novel leads for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and cancer. Of equal interest, marine proteobacteria produce natural products whose structure and biosynthetic mechanisms differ from those of their terrestrial and actinobacterial counterparts...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755697/proteomic-and-biochemical-assays-of-glutathione-related-proteins-in-susceptible-and-multiple-herbicide-resistant-avena-fatua-l
#5
Erin E Burns, Barbara K Keith, Mohammed Y Refai, Brian Bothner, William E Dyer
Extensive herbicide usage has led to the evolution of resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. The multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) Avena fatua L. populations utilized in this study are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families, across five modes of action, available for A. fatua control in U.S. small grain production, and thus pose significant agronomic and economic threats. Resistance to ALS and ACCase inhibitors is not conferred by target site mutations, indicating that non-target site resistance mechanisms are involved...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753645/developmental-morphology-of-cover-crop-species-exhibit-contrasting-behaviour-to-changes-in-soil-bulk-density-revealed-by-x-ray-computed-tomography
#6
Jasmine E Burr-Hersey, Sacha J Mooney, A Glyn Bengough, Stefan Mairhofer, Karl Ritz
Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740284/the-effect-of-mechanical-processing-on-avenanthramide-and-phenol-levels-in-two-organically-grown-italian-oat-cultivars
#7
Elena Antonini, Giuseppe Diamantini, Paolino Ninfali
Avenanthramides (AVNs), free and bound phenols and their antioxidant capacities (ORAC) were evaluated in two Avena sativa L. cultivars, Donata and Flavia. The cultivars (cvs.) were grown in loamy and medium texture soils and assessed after industrial dehulling and milling. Total dietary fiber, β-glucan, starch and proteins were also evaluated. Cv. Donata showed 2.8 fold higher AVN storage as compared to cv. Flavia, which was linked with genotype. The accumulation of AVN content was also influenced by the texture of the soil...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725236/the-seed-semipermeable-layer-and-its-relation-to-seed-quality-assessment-in-four-grass-species
#8
Yan Y Lv, Xue Q He, Xiao W Hu, Yan R Wang
The existence of a semipermeable layer in grass seeds has been extensively reported, yet knowledge of its influence on tests for seed viability and vigor that depend upon measurement of electrical conductivity (EC) is limited. This study determined the presence and location of the semipermeable layer, and its relation to seed viability and vigor assessment, in seeds of four important grass species-Elymus nutans Griseb., Lolium perenne L., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel., and Avena sativa L. Intact seeds of E...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715126/an-engineered-photoswitchable-mammalian-pyruvate-kinase
#9
Stefanie Gehrig, Jamie A Macpherson, Paul C Driscoll, Alastair Symon, Stephen R Martin, James I MacRae, Jens Kleinjung, Franca Fraternali, Dimitrios Anastasiou
Changes in allosteric regulation of glycolytic enzymes have been linked to metabolic reprogramming involved in cancer. Remarkably, allosteric mechanisms control enzyme function at significantly shorter time-scales compared to the long-term effects of metabolic reprogramming on cell proliferation. It remains unclear if and how the speed and reversibility afforded by rapid allosteric control of metabolic enzymes is important for cell proliferation. Tools that allow specific, dynamic modulation of enzymatic activities in mammalian cells would help address this question...
July 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707186/natural-oils-for-skin-barrier-repair-ancient-compounds-now-backed-by-modern-science
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra R Vaughn, Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#11
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683080/winter-cover-crops-on-processing-tomato-yield-quality-pest-pressure-nitrogen-availability-and-profit-margins
#12
Kimberly D Belfry, Cheryl Trueman, Richard J Vyn, Steven A Loewen, Laura L Van Eerd
Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682158/recombination-of-virulence-genes-in-divergent-acidovorax-avenae-strains-that-infect-a-common-host
#13
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States of America. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass and maize pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens, than to each other...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680436/the-complex-cell-wall-composition-of-syncytia-induced-by-plant-parasitic-cyst-nematodes-reflects-both-function-and-host-plant
#14
Li Zhang, Catherine J Lilley, Mustafa Imren, J Paul Knox, Peter E Urwin
Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664421/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-new-peroxygenases-in-oat
#15
Indika Benaragama, Dauenpen Meesapyodsuk, Aaron D Beattie, Xiao Qiu
Two new peroxygenases for the biosynthesis of epoxy fatty acids in oat were identified and functionally analyzed by heterologous expression along with rationally designed site-directed mutagenesis. Oat (Avena sativa L.) contains a large family of peroxygenases, a group of heme-containing monooxygenases catalyzing hydroperoxide-dependent epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we report identification and functional analysis of two new peroxygenases AsPXG2 and AsPXG3 from oat. The open reading frame (ORF) of AsPXG2 contains 702 bps encoding a polypeptide of 233 amino acids, while the ORF of AsPXG3 is 627 bps coding for 208 amino acids...
June 29, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658367/potentially-inappropriate-medications-among-older-adults-in-pelotas-southern-brazil
#16
Bárbara Heather Lutz, Vanessa Irribarem Avena Miranda, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,451 older individuals aged 60 years or more in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. We have investigated the use of medications in the last 15 days. Using the Beers criteria (2012), we have verified the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relationship with socioeconomic and demographic variables, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease...
June 22, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653938/report-screening-of-the-anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-some-medicinal-plants-of-jordan
#17
Ahmad S Alkofahi, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour
Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in Jordan. Extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using Alloxan. Plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at every hour for 3 hours...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621508/avoidance-of-parasitized-host-by-female-wasps-of-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-braconidae-the-role-of-natal-rearing-effects-and-host-availability
#18
Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618259/synthesis-of-tricyclic-butenolides-and-comparison-their-effects-with-known-smoke-butenolide-kar1
#19
Ewa Krawczyk, Marek Koprowski, Danuta Cembrowska-Lech, Agata Wójcik, Jan Kępczyński
Plant-derived smoke - butenolide, called at present karrikin 1 (KAR1) is known as an important inductor of seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, tricyclic butenolides were synthesized and their effects on germination of dormant and non-dormant Avena fatua caryopses were compared, as were also their effects versus those of KAR1 on seedling growth. KAR1 was found to be most effective and to completely remove dormancy. Butenolides, rac-8 and (S)-8a, showed a low stimulatory effect on germination of dormant caryopses, visible only when applied at very high concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#20
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
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