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Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
Laramy Enders, Trevor Hefley, John Girvin, Robert Whitworth, Charles Smith
Several aphid species transmit barley yellow dwarf, a globally destructive disease caused by viruses that infect cereal grain crops. Data from >400 samples collected across Kansas wheat fields in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop spatio-temporal models predicting the extent to which landcover, temperature and precipitation affect spring aphid vector abundance and presence of individuals carrying Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The distribution of Rhopalosiphum padi abundance was not correlated with climate or landcover, but Sitobion avenae abundance was positively correlated to fall temperature and negatively correlated to spring temperature and precipitation...
May 11, 2018: Phytopathology
M G Russo, C B Dejean, S A Avena, V Seldes, P Ramundo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic Andean mitochondrial diversity by analyzing an individual from the archaeological site Pukara de La Cueva (North-western Argentina). The date of the discovery context (540 ± 60 BP) corresponds to the Regional Developments II period. METHODS: Two separate DNA extractions were performed from dentin powder of one tooth. HVR I was amplified by PCR from each extract in three overlapping fragments and the haplotype was determined by consensus among all obtained sequences...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Xiang-Shun Hu, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Tong-Yi Zhu, Yue Song, Li-Juan Wu, Xiao-Feng Liu, Hui-Yan Zhao, Tong-Xian Liu
The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, rm , net reproductive rate, and fitness index...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Zhao, Xueqin Tang, Charlene P Wight, Nicholas A Tinker, Yunfeng Jiang, Honghai Yan, Jian Ma, Xiu-Jin Lan, Yu-Ming Wei, Changzhong Ren, Guoyue Chen, Yuanying Peng
Short straw is a desired trait in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.) for some production environments. Marker-assisted selection, a key tool for achieving this objective, is limited by a lack of mapping data and available markers. Here, bulked-segregant analysis was used to identify PCR-based markers associated with a dwarfing gene. Genetic analysis identified a monogenic dominant inheritance of one dwarfing gene from WAOAT2132, temporarily designated DwWA. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (AME117) that was already available and a new codominant PCR-based marker (bi17) developed by homologous cloning in the present study were both associated with the dwarfing gene...
May 7, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Bandana Dhungana, Shaukat Ali, Emmanuel Byamukama, Padmanaban Krishnan, Melanie Caffe-Treml
Ochratoxin A (OTA) can cause toxicogenic effects in humans and animals when contaminated food products are consumed. Oat ( Avena sativa), like any other cereal grain, can be contaminated with OTA when storage conditions are favorable for fungal growth and toxin production. South Dakota is among the leading oat-producing states in the United States. It is therefore important to determine the frequency of occurrence of the primary OTA-producing fungal species on oat grains produced in the state. In this study, we evaluated oat grain samples from South Dakota for the incidence of Penicillium verrucosum, the major ochratoxigenic fungus in temperate regions...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Jian Liu, Deping Han, Yawei Shi
Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are the products of a large, highly complex gene family involved in host defense. TLPs also belong to the pathogenesis-related family 5 (PR-5) of plant defense proteins. Most TLPs exhibit potential antifungal activities, and their accumulation in the plant is related to many physiological processes. In this study, a gene encoding TLP named permatin with an open reading frame of 678 bp encoding a protein of 225 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 23.5 kDa was cloned from naked oat leaves...
May 2, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Jan Kępczyński, Danuta Cembrowska-Lech
A simple and rapid method involving flow cytometry and NO-specific probe (DAF-FM DA) proved useful for detection and determination of intracellular NO production in Medicago truncatula suspension cells and leaves as well as in cells of Avena fatua, Amaranthus retroflexus embryos and leaves. The measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in plant material is important for examining the regulatory roles of endogenous NO in various physiological processes. The possibility of detecting and determining intracellular NO production by flow cytometry (FCM) with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM DA), an NO-specific probe in Medicago truncatula cells in suspension and leaves as well as in cells of embryos and leaves of Avena fatua L...
April 27, 2018: Planta
Shu Lin Wang, Feng Peng, Wei Hua Lu, Yi Shi Chen, Peng Cheng Jing
An experiment was undertaken to compare the morphological characteristics of seeds of 28 Gramineae plants which widely distributed in north Xinjiang and to study their digestion in the rumen of sheep. After determining their morphological characteristics including seed length, width, height, seed shape index, 100-seed mass, and seed germination percentage, seeds were put into nylon bags and then placed in the rumen of sheep through a fistula. The bags were removed at different times to determine the morphological characteristics and seed germination rates...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
William Edward Dyer
Herbicide-resistant weeds, especially those with resistance to multiple herbicides, represent a growing worldwide threat to agriculture and food security. Natural selection for resistant genotypes may act on standing genetic variation, or on a genetic and physiological background that is fundamentally altered because of stress responses to sublethal herbicide exposure. Stress-induced changes include DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations, transcriptional remodeling, and protein modifications, all of which can lead to herbicide resistance and a wide range of pleiotropic effects...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Flávia Thiebaut, Cristian A Rojas, Clícia Grativol, Edmundo P da R Calixto, Mariana R Motta, Helkin G F Ballesteros, Barbara Peixoto, Berenice N S de Lima, Lucas M Vieira, Maria Emilia Walter, Elvismary M de Armas, Júlio O P Entenza, Sergio Lifschitz, Laurent Farinelli, Adriana S Hemerly, Paulo C G Ferreira
Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae . Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A...
December 20, 2017: Non-Coding RNA
Chunli Mao, Yanqiao Zhu, Hang Cheng, Huifang Yan, Liyuan Zhao, Jia Tang, Xiqing Ma, Peisheng Mao
Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds ( Avena sativa L...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M Gabriela Russo, Fanny Mendisco, Sergio A Avena, Cristian M Crespo, Valeria Arencibia, Cristina B Dejean, Verónica Seldes
OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic genetic variation and population structure among the South-central Andes Area by studying individuals from Quebrada de Humahuaca, North-western (NW) Argentina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 15 autosomal STRs in 19 individuals from several archaeological sites in Quebrada de Humahuaca, belonging to the Regional Developments Period (900-1430 AD). Compiling autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome data, we evaluated population structure and differentiation among eight South-central Andean groups from the current territories of NW Argentina and Peru...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Carmela Avena-Woods, Robert A Mangione, Wenchen Kenneth Wu
Objective. To evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of celiac disease, and identify potential areas where additional continuing education may be needed. Methods. A survey was sent to community pharmacists practicing in a national chain pharmacy in one region of New Jersey and New York. Results. There were 418 pharmacists who responded to the survey with a response rate of 38%. Only 27% of all respondents who reported their understanding of celiac disease to be basic or advanced correctly defined celiac disease as both an autoimmune and a chronic lifelong disease...
March 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Faride Asgari, Ahmad Majd, Parissa Jonoubi, Farzaneh Najafi
Nowadays, nanoparticles are extensively being utilized in medicine, industry, and agriculture thus distributed into the environment. Hence, it is essential to examine exactly the impact of these materials on a variety of organisms, including various species of plants. Therefore, in the current study, we compared the effects of sodium silicate and nano silicon (SiNP) (both at two concentrations of 5 and 10 mM) separately on lignification of the xylem cell wall, antioxidant enzyme activities, ultrastructure of leaf and root cells, expression of silicon transporter (Lsi1) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and also evaluated the protein content and chemical content of oat plants (Avena sativa L...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Fei Liu, Furkan Türker Saricaoglu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, David F Bridges, Gary R Takeoka, Vivian C H Wu, Bor-Sen Chiou, Delilah F Wood, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
Carvacrol is a volatile monoterpenic phenol and main component of oregano essential oil that shows nonspecific antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Fish-skin gelatin (FSG) nanofibers encapsulating carvacrol (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, w/w FSG) were successfully prepared via solution blow-spinning (SBS) technique using lecithin (2.475% wb) as the surfactant. FSG emulsions with lower carvacrol ratios (5% and 10%) showed higher values in particle size and surface tension as well as lower values in viscosity and modulus, which led to failure of maintaining nanofibers shape...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Jeison Manuel Arroyave, Virginia Puccia, Graciela P Zanini, Marcelo J Avena
Phosphate adsorption at the metal oxide-water interface has been intensely studied, and the system phosphate-goethite in aqueous media is normally used as a model system with abundant information regarding adsorption-desorption under very different conditions. In spite of this, there is still discussion on whether the main inner-sphere surface complexes that phosphate forms on goethite are monodentate or bidentate. A new spectroscopic technique, InfraRed Surface Titration (IRST), is presented here and used to systematically explore the surface speciation of phosphate on goethite in the pH range 4...
March 14, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Han Wu, Xin Rui, Wei Li, Yu Xiao, Jianzhong Zhou, Mingsheng Dong
This study explored a novel strategy to develop solid-state whole-grain oats as a novel carrier of lactic acid bacteria and a nutraceutical supplement rich in ACE inhibitory peptides. Oats were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, Rhizopus oryzae, or a combination of L. plantarum B1-6 and R. oryzae. L. plantarum showed a much better growth performance in oats when it was combined with R. oryzae than when it was cultured alone, as evidenced by an increase in viable cell count to 9.70 log cfu g-1 after 72 h of fermentation...
March 21, 2018: Food & Function
Kateryna Zhalnina, Katherine B Louie, Zhao Hao, Nasim Mansoori, Ulisses Nunes da Rocha, Shengjing Shi, Heejung Cho, Ulas Karaoz, Dominique Loqué, Benjamin P Bowen, Mary K Firestone, Trent R Northen, Eoin L Brodie
Like all higher organisms, plants have evolved in the context of a microbial world, shaping both their evolution and their contemporary ecology. Interactions between plant roots and soil microorganisms are critical for plant fitness in natural environments. Given this co-evolution and the pivotal importance of plant-microbial interactions, it has been hypothesized, and a growing body of literature suggests, that plants may regulate the composition of their rhizosphere to promote the growth of microorganisms that improve plant fitness in a given ecosystem...
April 2018: Nature Microbiology
Yang He, Deguang Liu, Peng Dai, Da Wang, Xiaoqin Shi
Drought is predicted to be more frequent, prolonged, and intensive in many areas around the globe under future warming scenarios, which can have significant impacts on aphids in different agricultural systems. However, studies on the genetic structuring process underlying changing aphid biology and ecology under drought are rare. To address the issue, we collected the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), clones from moist, semiarid, and arid areas of northwestern China and genotyped them with microsatellite markers...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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