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María C Calderón, María-Dolores Rey, Antonio Martín, Pilar Prieto
Understanding the system of a basic eukaryotic cellular mechanism like meiosis is of fundamental importance in plant biology. Moreover, it is also of great strategic interest in plant breeding since unzipping the mechanism of chromosome specificity/pairing during meiosis will allow its manipulation to introduce genetic variability from related species into a crop. The success of meiosis in a polyploid like wheat strongly depends on regular pairing of homologous (identical) chromosomes and recombination, processes mainly controlled by the Ph1 locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tetsuya Ishikawa, Sergey Shabala
Control of xylem Na+ loading has often been named as the essential components of salinity tolerance mechanism. However, it is less clear to what extent the difference in this trait may determine differential salinity tolerance between species. In this study barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. CM72) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Dongjin) plants were grown under two levels of salinity. Na+ and K+ concentrations in the xylem sap, and shoot and root tissues were measured at different time points after stress onset. Salt-exposed rice plants prevented xylem Na+ loading for several days, but failed to control this process in the longer term, ultimately resulting in a massive Na+ shoot loading...
May 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Svetlana Sushkova, Irina Deryabkina, Elena Antonenko, Ridvan Kizilkaya, Vishnu Rajput, Galina Vasilyeva
The involvement of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causes its potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The aim of this article is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination in model experiment with Haplic Chernozem and that spiked with various doses of BaP (20, 200, 400 and 800μgkg-1 ) equivalent to 1, 10, 20 and 40 levels of maximal permissible concentrations (MPC) planted with spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum)...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xinkun Hu, Shoufen Dai, Zhongping Song, Dongyang Xu, Zhaojin Wen, Yuming Wei, Dengcai Liu, Youliang Zheng, Zehong Yan
Nine novel high-molecular-weight prolamins (HMW-prolamins) were isolated from Leymus multicaulis and L. chinensis. Based on the structure of the repetitive domains, all nine genes were classified as D-hordeins but not high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) that have been previously isolated in Leymus spp. Four genes, Lmul 1.2, 2.4, 2.7, and Lchi 2.5 were verified by bacterial expression, whereas the other five sequences (1.3 types) were classified as pseudogenes. The four Leymus D-hordein proteins had longer N-termini than those of Hordeum spp...
May 10, 2018: Genetica
Dorothee Wozny, Katharina Kramer, Iris Finkemeier, Ivan F Acosta, Maarten Koornneef
Genes controlling differences in seed longevity between two barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions were identified by combining quantitative genetics 'omics' technologies in Near Isogenic Lines (NILs). The NILs were derived from crosses between the spring barley landraces L94 from Ethiopia and Cebada Capa from Argentina. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis on mature, non-aged seeds of the two parental lines and the L94 NILs by RNA-sequencing and total seed proteomic profiling identified the UDP-glycosyltransferase MLOC_11661...
May 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Rajiv K Tripathi, Phil Bregitzer, Jaswinder Singh
The SQUAMOSA-promoter binding like (SPL) gene family encodes transcription factors that have been shown in many species to influence plant growth and development, but information about these genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is limited. This study identified 17 barley SPL genes, within eight distinct groups, that are orthologs of SPL genes described in Arabidopsis, wheat, and rice. Sixteen barley SPLs undergo alternative splicing. Seven SPLs contain a putative miR156 target site and the transcript levels of the miR156-targeted HvSPLs (HvSPL3, 13 and 23) were lower in vegetative than in reproductive phase but this was true also for some SPL genes such as HvSPL6 that were not regulated by miR156...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Panrong Ren, Yaxiong Meng, Baochun Li, Xiaole Ma, Erjing Si, Yong Lai, Juncheng Wang, Lirong Yao, Ke Yang, Xunwu Shang, Huajun Wang
A lack of phosphorus (P) in plants can severely constrain growth and development. Barley, one of the earliest domesticated crops, is extensively planted in poor soil around the world. To date, the molecular mechanisms of enduring low phosphorus, at the transcriptional level, in barley are still unclear. In the present study, two different barley genotypes (GN121 and GN42)-with contrasting phosphorus efficiency-were used to reveal adaptations to low phosphorus stress, at three time points, at the morphological, physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome level...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Visnja Orescanin, Ksenija Durgo, Ivanka Lovrencic Mikelic, Ivan Halkijevic, Marin Kuspilic
The purpose of this work was to assess the risk to the environment arising from the electroplating sludge from both chemical and toxicological point of view. Both approaches were used for the assessment of the treatment efficiency which consisted of CaO based solidification followed by thermal treatment at 400°C. The elemental composition was determined in the bulk samples and the leachates of untreated sludge. The toxicity of the leachate was determined using two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (Caco-2 and SW 480) and Hordeum vulgare L...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Ricardo Iván Alcalá-Briseño, Ryo Okada, Favio Herrera, Rodrigo A Valverde
Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), also called guar, is a drought-tolerant annual legume. We conducted investigations to characterize a large dsRNA (~13-14 kbp) detected in a symptomless cluster bean genotype. The dsRNA was gel-purified and used for Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Reads were assembled, and BLASTx search results showed sequence similarity with viruses classified within the family Endornaviridae. The complete sequence of the putative endornavirus consisted of 12,895 nt and contained an open reading frame which coded for a polyprotein of 4,207 aa with conserved domains for methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Virology
Gwendolyn K Kirschner, Yvonne Stahl, Jafargholi Imani, Maria von Korff, Rüdiger Simon
The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin control development and maintenance of plant meristems and stem cell systems. Fluorescent protein reporter lines that monitor phytohormone controlled gene expression programmes have been widely used to study development and differentiation in the model species Arabidopsis, but equivalent tools are still missing for the majority of crop species. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop plant, but knowledge on these important phytohormones in regard to the barley root and shoot stem cell niches is still negligible...
2018: PloS One
Hayam I A Elsawy, Ahmad Mohammad M Mekawy, Mahmoud A Elhity, Sherif M Abdel-Dayem, Maha Nagy Abdelaziz, Dekoum V M Assaha, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka
Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered a salt tolerant crop species, productivity of barley is affected differently by ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses resulting from a salty rhizosphere. The current study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of salt tolerance in two barley cultivars, Giza128 and Giza126. The two cultivars were exposed to 200 mM NaCl hydroponically for 12 days. Although both cultivars accumulated a large amount of Na+ in their leaves with similar concentrations, the growth of Giza128 was much better than that of Giza126, as measured by maintaining a higher dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and plant height...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Runhong Gao, Guimei Guo, Chunyan Fang, Saihua Huang, Jianmin Chen, Ruiju Lu, Jianhua Huang, Xiaorong Fan, Chenghong Liu
In vitro mutagenesis via isolated microspore culture provides an efficient way to produce numerous double haploid (DH) lines with mutation introduction and homozygosity stabilization, which can be used for screening directly. In this study, 356 DH lines were produced from the malt barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Hua-30 via microspore mutagenic treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate or pingyangmycin during in vitro culture. The lines were subjected to field screening under high nitrogen (HN) and low nitrogen (LN) conditions, and the number of productive tillers was used as the main screening index...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Koan Sik Woo, Hyun-Joo Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Jee Yeon Ko, Byong Won Lee, Byoung Kyu Lee
This study aimed to compare the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barley at different proportion (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%), and using different cooking methods. The grains used in this experiment are barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Huinchalssal) and Samkwang rice. The rice-barley mixture was cooked using general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. The quality characteristics such as water binding capacity, pasting characteristic, water solubility, and swelling power of different proportions of barley were evaluated...
March 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Sébastien Bélanger, Stéphanie Paquet-Marceau, Juan Enrique Díaz Lago, François Belzile
In barley, semi-dwarf varieties are attractive for their superior harvest index and lodging resistance, but many semi-dwarf barley genotypes suffer from poor spike emergence. We performed a genetic characterization of a semi-dwarf line (ND23049) that combines short stature, strong stiff culms and adequate spike emergence. We developed a doubled haploid (DH) population derived by crossing ND23049 and the cultivar CLE253. A subset of 88 DH lines and parents were characterized for plant height in 2013 and 2014 and genotyped...
April 15, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Jolanta Kwasniewska, Karolina Zubrzycka, Arita Kus
Replication errors that are caused by mutagens are critical for living cells. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution of a DNA replication pattern on chromosomes of the H. vulgare 'Start' variety using pulse 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling, as well as its relationship to the DNA damage that is induced by mutagenic treatment with maleic hydrazide (MH) and γ ray. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a study of the effects of mutagens on the DNA replication pattern in chromosomes, as well as the first to use EdU labeling for these purposes...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Deepesh R Bista, Scott A Heckathorn, Dileepa M Jayawardena, Sasmita Mishra, Jennifer K Boldt
Climate change will increase drought in many regions of the world. Besides decreasing productivity, drought also decreases the concentration (%) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) in plants. We investigated if decreases in nutrient status during drought are correlated with decreases in levels of nutrient-uptake proteins in roots, which has not been quantified. Drought-sensitive ( Hordeum vulgare , Zea mays ) and -tolerant grasses ( Andropogon gerardii ) were harvested at mid and late drought, when we measured biomass, plant %N and P, root N- and P-uptake rates, and concentrations of major nutrient-uptake proteins in roots (NRT1 for NO₃, AMT1 for NH₄, and PHT1 for P)...
March 30, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hideyuki Takahashi, Sayaka Kikuchi-Fujisaki, Chiharu Yoshida, Hidetoshi Yamada, Tetsuro Yamashita, Naotake Konno, Takumi Takeda
Gentiobiose, a β-1,6-linked glycosyl disaccharide, accumulates abundantly in Gentianaceae and is involved in aspects of plant development, such as fruits ripening and release of bud dormancy. However, the mechanisms regulating the amount of gentio- oligosaccharide accumulation in plants remains obscure. This study aimed to identify an enzyme that modulates gentio-oligosaccharide amount in gentian ( Gentiana triflora ). A protein responsible for gentiobiose hydrolysis, GtGen3A, was identified by partial purification and its peptide sequence analysis...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Sebastian R G A Blaser, Steffen Schlüter, Doris Vetterlein
X-ray CT is a powerful technology to study root growth in soil in-situ. Root systems can be studied in its true 3D geometry over time. Hence, the same plant can be scanned multiple times during development. A downside is the potential of X-rays to interfere with biological processes and therefore plant growth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of cumulative X-ray dose on Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare during a growth period of 17 days. One control treatment without X-ray scanning was compared to two treatments being scanned every two and four days, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Md Mahafizur Rahman, Elias Flory, Hans-Werner Koyro, Zainul Abideen, Adam Schikora, Christian Suarez, Sylvia Schnell, Massimiliano Cardinale
The importance of the plant microbiome for host fitness has led to the concept of the "plant holobiont". Seeds are reservoirs and vectors for beneficial microbes, which are very intimate partners of higher plants with the potential to connect plant generations. In this study, the endophytic seed microbiota of numerous barley samples, representing different cultivars, geographical sites and harvest years, was investigated. Cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses, microscopy, functional plate assays, greenhouse assays and functional prediction were used, with the aim of assessing the composition, stability and function of the barley seed endophytic bacterial microbiota...
March 13, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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