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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934849/nanospecific-phytotoxicity-of-cuo-nanoparticles-in-soils-disappeared-when-bioavailability-factors-were-considered
#1
Hao Qiu, Erik Smolders
Bioavailability-modifying factors such as soil type and aging have only rarely been considered in assessing toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles in soil. Here, we examined the toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) of CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) relative to CuO bulk particles (CuO-BPs) and Cu acetate (Cu(OAc)2) in six different soils with or without aging. The set up allows identifying whether or not NPs-derived colloidal Cu in soil porewater contributes to toxicity. Ultrafiltration (50 kDa) was performed together with geochemical modeling to determine {Cu2+} (free Cu2+ activity in soil porewater)...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928763/comparative-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-ssiia-associated-with-grain-amylopectin-content-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#2
Xiangyun Fan, Juan Zhu, Wenbin Dong, Yuandong Sun, Chao Lv, Baojian Guo, Rugen Xu
Amylopectin concentration in barley endosperm has important effects on grain quality and end-use. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis together with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify markers linked to grain amylopectin content respectively using a doubled haploid (DH) population of 178 lines and a collection of 185 diverse barley germplasms both genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). A stable QTL on chromosome 7H and 11 associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899504/horizontal-natural-product-transfer-a-potential-source-of-alkaloidal-contaminants-in-phytopharmaceuticals
#3
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Melanie Nowak, Heiko Kima, Dirk Selmar
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that nicotine and pyrrolizidine alkaloids that leach out from decomposing plant material (donor plants) are subsequently taken up by the roots of acceptor plants and translocated into their leaves. Furthermore, it is well established that plant roots take up xenobiotics, generally by simple diffusion, and that this passive import depends on the physico-chemical properties of the substances. HYPOTHESIS: Based on the well-known uptake of xenobiotics, we assumed that in analogy, the uptake of alkaloids, which are leached out from plant material (donor plants) represents a quite general feature of plant biology...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878591/mutations-in-the-gene-of-the-g%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-are-the-cause-for-the-brachytic1-semi-dwarf-phenotype-in-barley-and-applicable-for-practical-breeding
#4
Ilka Braumann, Christoph Dockter, Sebastian Beier, Axel Himmelbach, Finn Lok, Udda Lundqvist, Birgitte Skadhauge, Nils Stein, Shakhira Zakhrabekova, Ruonan Zhou, Mats Hansson
BACKGROUND: Short-culm mutants have been widely used in breeding programs to increase lodging resistance. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), several hundreds of short-culm mutants have been isolated over the years. The objective of the present study was to identify the Brachytic1 (Brh1) semi-dwarfing gene and to test its effect on yield and malting quality. RESULTS: Double-haploid lines generated through a cross between a brh1.a mutant and the European elite malting cultivar Quench, showed good malting quality but a decrease in yield...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873199/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-the-hbsyr1-gene-encoding-a-syntaxin-related-protein-in-tibetan-hulless-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-var-nudum-hk-f
#5
Q J Xu, Y L Wang, Z X Wei, H J Yuan, X Q Zeng, N Tashi
Tibetan barley is a staple food for the natives of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Drought causes a reduction in barley production. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a gene encoding a syntaxin-associated protein was cloned from the leaves of a drought-resistant variety of barley, "Himalaya 10"; its expression was evaluated during drought stress and rehydration via real-time PCR. The cloned HbSYR1 cDNA sequence was 1300 bp in length, and included an 840-bp open reading frame that encoded 279 amino acids. Sequence analysis predicted the molecular weight of the encoded protein to be 42...
August 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857316/evolutionary-modes-of-short-interspersed-nuclear-element-sine-family-emergence-in-grasses
#6
Anja Kögler, Thomas Schmidt, Torsten Wenke
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for the de novo or improvement of annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855281/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-stem-rust-resistance-in-hordeum-vulgare-subsp-%C3%A2-spontaneum
#7
Ahmad H Sallam, Priyanka Tyagi, Gina Brown-Guedira, Gary J Muehlbauer, Alex Hulse, Brian J Steffenson
Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 years. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp...
August 30, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853866/layered-double-hydroxides-potential-release-on-demand-fertilizers-for-plant-zinc-nutrition
#8
Sandra López-Rayo, Ahmad Imran, Hans Christian Bruun Hansen, Jan Schjoerring, Jakob Magid
A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake of Zn by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Antonia) was evaluated in short- (8 weeks), medium- (11 weeks) and long-term (28 weeks) experiments in quartz sand and in a calcareous soil enriched with Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs. The Zn release rate of the Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs was described by a first-order kinetics equation showing maximum release at pH 5...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836669/vacuolar-processing-enzyme-4-contributes-to-maternal-control-of-grain-size-in-barley-by-executing-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pericarp
#9
Volodymyr Radchuk, Van Tran, Ruslana Radchuk, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, Diana Weier, Joerg Fuchs, David Riewe, Goetz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Eberhard Munz, Nicolas Heinzel, Hardy Rolletschek, Manuel Martinez, Ljudmilla Borisjuk
The angiosperm embryo and endosperm are limited in space because they grow inside maternal seed tissues. The elimination of cell layers of the maternal seed coat by programmed cell death (PCD) could provide space and nutrition to the filial organs. Using the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed as a model, we elucidated the role of vacuolar processing enzyme 4 (VPE4) in cereals by using an RNAi approach and targeting the enzymatic properties of the recombinant protein. A comparative characterization of transgenic versus wild-type plants included transcriptional and metabolic profiling, flow cytometry, histology and nuclear magnetic imaging of grains...
August 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832657/inheritance-analysis-and-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-qtl-controlling-individual-anthocyanin-compounds-in-purple-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-grains
#10
Xiao-Wei Zhang, Qian-Tao Jiang, Yu-Ming Wei, Chunji Liu
Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801748/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-transgenic-wheat-and-sorghum-events-expressing-the-barley-alanine-aminotransferase
#11
Pamela A Peña, Truyen Quach, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Natalya Nersesian, Ismail M Dweikat, Madhavan Soundararajan, Tom Clemente
The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements...
August 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801593/genetic-variations-of-hvp5cs1-and-their-association-with-drought-tolerance-related-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#12
Yanshi Xia, Ronghua Li, Guihua Bai, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Michael Baum, Guijun Yan, Peiguo Guo
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene1 (P5CS1) is the key gene involved in the biosynthesis of proline and is significantly induced by drought stress. The exploration of genetic variation in HvP5CS1 may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of drought adaptation in barley. In the current study, 41 polymorphisms including 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 25 insertions/deletions (indels) were detected in HvP5CS1 among 287 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions collected worldwide, with 13 distinct haplotypes identified in the barley collection...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791211/development-and-characterization-of-polymorphic-est-based-ssr-markers-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare
#13
Won-Sam Jo, Hye-Yeong Kim, Kyung-Min Kim
In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790145/inter-chromosomal-transfer-of-immune-regulation-during-infection-of-barley-with-the-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#14
Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony Ve Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P Wise
Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes 2HL and 1HS...
August 8, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769936/genetic-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-yield-affecting-traits-in-a-barley-doubled-haploid-population-derived-from-clipper-%C3%A3-sahara-3771
#15
Fatemeh Vafadar Shamasbi, Seyed Hossein Jamali, Behzad Sadeghzadeh, Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani
Many traits play essential roles in determining crop yield. Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Hordeum vulgare L., but the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. To understand genetic basis controlling morphological traits affecting yield, a barley doubled haploid population (146 individuals) derived from Clipper × Sahara 3771 was used to map chromosome regions underlying days to awn appearance, plant height, fertile spike number, flag leaf length, spike length, harvest index, seed number per plant, thousands kernel weight, and grain yield...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763829/f-group-bzips-in-barley-a-role-in-zn-deficiency
#16
Ahmad Zulhilmi Nazri, Jonathan H C Griffin, Kerry A Peaston, Douglas G A Alexander-Webber, Lorraine E Williams
Zinc (Zn) deficiency negatively impacts the development and health of plants and affects crop yield. When experiencing low Zn, plants undergo an adaptive response to maintain Zn homeostasis. We provide further evidence for the role of F-group transcription factors, AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23, in responding to Zn deficiency in Arabidopsis and demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of this response. Despite their economic importance, the role of F-group bZIPs in cereal crops is largely unknown. Here we provide new insights by functionally characterizing these in barley (Hordeum vulgare), demonstrating an expanded number of F-group bZIPs (seven) compared to Arabidopsis...
August 1, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758687/root-hairs-enable-high-transpiration-rates-in-drying-soils
#17
Andrea Carminati, John B Passioura, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Mutez A Ahmed, Peter R Ryan, Michelle Watt, Emmanuel Delhaize
Do root hairs help roots take up water from the soil? Despite the well-documented role of root hairs in phosphate uptake, their role in water extraction is controversial. We grew barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas) and its root-hairless mutant brb in a root pressure chamber, whereby the transpiration rate could be varied whilst monitoring the suction in the xylem. The method provides accurate measurements of the dynamic relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction. The relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction was linear in wet soils and did not differ between genotypes...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758681/high-resolution-synchrotron-imaging-shows-that-root-hairs-influence-rhizosphere-soil-structure-formation
#18
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Timothy S George, Lawrie K Brown, Annette Raffan, Laura J Cooper, Muhammad Naveed, Anthony G Bengough, Ian Sinclair, Paul D Hallett, Tiina Roose
In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755320/evaluation-of-the-mature-grain-phytase-candidate-hvpaphy_a-gene-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-using-crispr-cas9-and-talens
#19
Inger B Holme, Toni Wendt, Javier Gil-Humanes, Lise C Deleuran, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling...
July 28, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751906/observation-of-extensive-chromosome-axis-remodeling-during-the-diffuse-phase-of-meiosis-in-large-genome-cereals
#20
Isabelle Colas, Benoit Darrier, Mikel Arrieta, Sybille U Mittmann, Luke Ramsay, Pierre Sourdille, Robbie Waugh
The production of balanced fertile haploid gametes requires the faithful separation of paired (synapsed) chromosomes toward the end of meiotic prophase I (desynapsis). This involves the timely dissolution of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene-diplotene transition, a stage traditionally referred to as the "diffuse stage." In species with large genomes such as, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) we know most about the early stages of meiotic prophase I. There, synapsis initiates at the telomeric ends of chromosomes and progresses toward the centromeric regions through the ordered assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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