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Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
María-Dolores Rey, Graham Moore, Azahara C Martín
Karyotypes of three accessions of <i>Hordeum chilense</i> (H1, H16 and H7), <i>Hordeum vulgare</i> and <i>Triticum aestivum</i> were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of fourteen repetitive sequences were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the aim of identifying inter- and intra-species polymorphisms. The (AG)12 and 4P6 probes only produced hybridization signals in wheat, the BAC7 probe only hybridized to the centromeric region of <i>H...
March 15, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Artem Pankin, Janine Altmüller, Christian Becker, Maria von Korff
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an established model to study domestication of the Fertile Crescent cereals. Recent molecular data suggested that domesticated barley genomes consist of the ancestral blocks descending from multiple wild barley populations. However, the relationship between the mosaic ancestry patterns and the process of domestication itself remained unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we identified candidate domestication genes using selection scans based on targeted resequencing of 433 wild and domesticated barley accessions...
March 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Karim C Piacentini, L O Rocha, G D Savi, L Carnielli-Queiroz, F G Almeida, E Minella, B Corrêa
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil...
March 9, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sameh Dbira, Mohamad Al Hassan, Pietro Gramazio, Ali Ferchichi, Oscar Vicente, Jaime Prohens, Monica Boscaiu
Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought) in nine accessions of "Ardhaoui" barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Visnja Orescanin, Robert Kollar, Karlo Nad, Ivan Halkijevic, Marin Kuspilic
The purpose of this study was development of the optimal conditions for the inertization of the polluted marine sediments using groundwater treatment sludge highly enriched in iron and aluminum. For that purpose fine-grained sediment (>85% clay and silt fraction) highly enriched in copper and zinc was amended with the waste sludge (from 10% to 50%). The sample with the optimum percentage of the waste sludge was further subjected the thermal treatment at 200-800°C. The efficiency of the treatment was determined by the leaching tests and toxicity testing using Hordeum vulgare L...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Miriam E Szurman-Zubrzycka, Justyna Zbieszczyk, Marek Marzec, Janusz Jelonek, Beata Chmielewska, Marzena M Kurowska, Milena Krok, Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Justyna Guzy-Wrobelska, Damian Gruszka, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Magdalena Stolarek, Piotr Tylec, Paweł Sega, Sabina Lip, Monika Kudełko, Magdalena Lorek, Małgorzata Gorniak-Walas, Anna Malolepszy, Nina Podsiadlo, Katarzyna P Szyrajew, Anete Keisa, Zodwa Mbambo, Elena Todorowska, Marek Gaj, Zygmunt Nita, Wanda Orlowska-Job, Miroslaw Maluszynski, Iwona Szarejko
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the Hor TILLUS ( Hor deum - TILL ING- U niversity of S ilesia) population created for spring barley cultivar "Sebastian" after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 ) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Khaled M Hazzouri, Basel Khraiwesh, Khaled M A Amiri, Duke Pauli, Tom Blake, Mohammad Shahid, Sangeeta K Mullath, David Nelson, Alain L Mansour, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, Michael Purugganan, Khaled Masmoudi
Sodium (Na+ ) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5 -like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2 . In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xin Xu, Rajiv Sharma, Alessandro Tondelli, Joanne Russell, Jordi Comadran, Florian Schnaithmann, Klaus Pillen, Benjamin Kilian, Luigi Cattivelli, William T B Thomas, Andrew J Flavell
A collection of 379 Hordeum vulgare cultivars, comprising all combinations of spring and winter growth habits with two and six row ear type, was screened by genome wide association analysis to discover alleles controlling traits related to grain yield. Genotypes were obtained at 6,810 segregating gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and corresponding field trial data were obtained for eight traits related to grain yield at four European sites in three countries over two growth years. The combined data were analyzed and statistically significant associations between the traits and regions of the barley genomes were obtained...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Haiyang Wang, Lana Shabala, Meixue Zhou, Sergey Shabala
Salinity stress-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated oxidative damage is one of the major factors limiting crop production in saline soils. However, the causal link between ROS production and stress tolerance is not as straightforward as one may expect, as ROS may also play an important signaling role in plant adaptive responses. In this study, the causal relationship between salinity and oxidative stress tolerance in two cereal crops-barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum )-was investigated by measuring the magnitude of ROS-induced net K⁺ and Ca2+ fluxes from various root tissues and correlating them with overall whole-plant responses to salinity...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
Interspecific or introgressive hybridization is one of the driving forces in plant speciation, producing allopolyploids or diploids with rearranged genomes. The process of karyotype reshaping following homoploid interspecific hybridization has not been studied experimentally. Interspecific hybridization is widely used in plant breeding to increase genetic diversity and introgress new traits. Numerous introgression stocks were developed for hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD). Double monosomic lines, containing one alien chromosome from the tertiary gene pool of wheat and one homoeologous wheat chromosome, represent a simplified model for studying chromosome rearrangements caused by interspecific hybridization...
February 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Elhussein F Mourad, Mohamed S Sarhan, Hassan-Sibroe A Daanaa, Mennatullah Abdou, Ahmed T Morsi, Mohamed R Abdelfadeel, Hend Elsawey, Rahma Nemr, Mahmoud El-Tahan, Mervat A Hamza, Mohamed Abbas, Hanan H Youssef, Abdelhadi A Abdelhadi, Wafaa M Amer, Mohamed Fayez, Silke Ruppel, Nabil A Hegazi
In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures...
February 23, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Joanna Jaskowiak, Oliver Tkaczyk, Michal Slota, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Iwona Szarejko
Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a widely accepted indicator of Al stress. Al toxicity is affected by many factors including the culture medium, pH, Al concentration and the duration of the treatment. However, Al can act differently in different species and still Al toxicity in barley deserves study. Since the mechanism of Al toxicity is discussed we cytogenetically describe the effects of different doses of bioavailable Al on the barley nuclear genome-mitotic activity, cell cycle profile and DNA integrity...
2018: PloS One
Dongmei Li, Zhimin Yang, Xinchun Liu, Zhen Song, Zongyun Feng, Yang He
As an important plateau cereal crop, hulless barley is the principal food for the Tibetan people in China. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is considered as the key enzyme for starch biosynthesis in plants. In this study, cDNAs encoding the small subunit (SSU I) and large subunit (LSU I) of AGPase were isolated from hulless barley. The results showed that SSU I and LSU I were 1438 and 1786 bp in length with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1419 and 1572 bp. The ORF-encoded polypeptides of 472 and 523 amino acids were having calculated molecular masses of 52...
February 19, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Ron J Okagaki, Allison Haaning, Hatice Bilgic, Shane Heinen, Arnis Druka, Micha Bayer, Robbie Waugh, Gary J Muehlbauer
The shoot apical and axillary meristems control shoot development, effectively influencing lateral branch and leaf formation. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) uniculm2 (cul2) mutation blocks axillary meristem development and mutant plants lack lateral branches (tillers) that normally develop from the crown. A genetic screen for cul2 suppressors recovered two recessive alleles of ELIGULUM-A (ELI-A) that partially rescued the cul2 tillering phenotype. Mutations in ELI-A produce shorter plants with fewer tillers and disrupt the leaf blade-sheath boundary, producing liguleless leaves and reduced secondary cell wall development in stems and leaves...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Amanda L Buchanan, Cerruti R R Hooks
Winter cover crop mulches can diversify agricultural habitats and provide a range of benefits for crop production and pest management. Here we report the influence of strip tilled winter cover crop mulches on arthropod abundance in organic vegetable plots. Crookneck squash (Cucurbita pepo L.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) was direct seeded into mowed and strip tilled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poales: Poaceae), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.; Fabales: Fabaceae), a barley + crimson clover mixture, or a no-cover crop control...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Bharati Pandey, Abhinav Grover, Pradeep Sharma
BACKGROUND: The WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in diverse plant processes play critical roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Genome-wide divergence analysis of WRKY gene family in Hordeum vulgare provided a framework for molecular evolution and functional roles. So far, the crystal structure of WRKY from barley has not been resolved; moreover, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of WRKY domain is pre-requisites for exploring the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms...
February 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Gianluca Picariello, Luigia Di Stasio, Gianfranco Mamone, Giuseppe Iacomino, Antonella Venezia, Nunzia Iannaccone, Pasquale Ferranti, Raffaele Coppola, Francesco Addeo
Enzymatic dough improvers (DIs) are increasingly used as baking co-adjuvants. Herein, an array of techniques, including Western blotting, PCR, electrophoresis-based and shotgun proteomics, was addressed to identify the enzymes in six commercial DI preparations. In particular, this work sought to exclude the possible undeclared use of amylolytic enzymes from porcine (or other animal origin) pancreas in DIs. PCR-amplified mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene region and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were the targets of DNA-based and protein methods, respectively, both assuring a limit of detection lower than 0...
March 2018: Food Research International
Yi Zhou, Gaofeng Zhou, Sue Broughton, Sharon Westcott, Xiaoqi Zhang, Yanhao Xu, Le Xu, Chengdao Li, Wenying Zhang
Tiller angle, an important agronomic trait, contributes to crop production and plays a vital role in breeding for plant architecture. A barley line V-V-HD, which has prostrate tillers during vegetative growth and erect tillers after booting, is considered the ideal type for repressing weed growth and increasing leaf area during early growth. Genetic analysis identified that the prostrate trait in V-V-HD is controlled by a single gene. A double haploid population with 208 lines from V-V-HD × Buloke was used to map the prostrate growth gene...
2018: PloS One
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