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Wanli Guo, Tianlong Chen, Nazim Hussain, Guoping Zhang, Lixi Jiang
Rice is more sensitive to salinity, particularly at its early vegetative and later productive stages. Wild plants growing in harsh environments such as wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau adapt to the adverse environment with allelic variations at the loci responsible for stressful environment, which could be used for rice genetic improvement. In this study, we overexpressed HsCBL8 encoding a calcium-sensor calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein in rice. The gene was isolated from XZ166, a wild-barley (Hordeum spontanum) line originated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anna Piasecka, Aneta Sawikowska, Anetta Kuczyńska, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Krzysztof Mikołajczak, Karolina Krystkowiak, Kornelia Gudyś, Justyna Guzy-Wróbelska, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Kachlicki
Determination of the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to diversity of their structures and complexity of interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of the metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information on the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed the level as a result of drought stress...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yu Kokubo, Miho Nishizaka, Naoki Ube, Yukinori Yabuta, Shin-Ichi Tebayashi, Kotomi Ueno, Shin Taketa, Atsushi Ishihara
The Poaceae is a large taxonomic group consisting of approximately 12,000 species and is classified into 12 subfamilies. Gramine and benzoxazinones (Bxs), which are biosynthesized from the tryptophan pathway, are well-known defensive secondary metabolites in the Poaceae. We analyzed the presence or absence of garamine and Bxs in 64 species in the Poaceae by LC-MS/MS. We found that Hordeum brachyantherum and Hakonechloa macra accumulated gramine, but the presence of gramine was limited to small groups of species...
November 17, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ping Yang, Antje Habekuß, Bernhard J Hofinger, Kostya Kanyuka, Benjamin Kilian, Andreas Graner, Frank Ordon, Nils Stein
Two distinct patterns of sequence diversity for the recessive alleles of two host factors HvPDIL5 - 1 and HvEIF4E indicated the adaptive selection for bymovirus resistance in cultivated barley from East Asia. Plant pathogens are constantly challenging plant fitness and driving resistance gene evolution in host species. Little is known about the evolution of sequence diversity in host recessive resistance genes that interact with plant viruses. Here, by combining previously published and newly generated targeted re-sequencing information, we systematically analyzed natural variation in a broad collection of wild (Hordeum spontaneum; Hs) and domesticated barleys (Hordeum vulgare; Hv) using the full-length coding sequence of the two host factor genes, HvPDIL5-1 and HvEIF4E, conferring recessive resistance to the agriculturally important Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV)...
November 9, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Jordan A Hein, Mark E Sherrard, Kirk P Manfredi, Tilahun Abebe
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organs of the cereal spike (ear) provide assimilate for grain filling, but their response to drought is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the drought response of individual organs of the barley spike (awn, lemma, and palea) and compared them with a vegetative organ (fifth leaf). Understanding differences in physiological and metabolic responses between the leaf and spike organs during drought can help us develop high yielding cultivars for environments where terminal drought is prevalent...
November 9, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Agata Cieśla, Filip Mituła, Lucyna Misztal, Olga Fedorowicz-Strońska, Sabina Janicka, Małgorzata Tajdel-Zielińska, Małgorzata Marczak, Maciej Janicki, Agnieszka Ludwików, Jan Sadowski
Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vlado Ličina, Milica Fotirić Akšić, Zorica Tomić, Ivana Trajković, Svetlana Antić Mladenović, Milena Marjanović, Jörg Rinklebe
The contemporary reclamation method in an opencast coal mine closure comprises the use of the preserved surface soil layer (SSL) before mining, and can be directly returned to the areas being rehabilitated. The present study emphasizes a risk in the use of such a SSL in mine rehabilitation due to the possible excessive amount of heavy metals which usually derives from a metal-rich sediment or fluvial character of overburden material. This indication was approved by the bioassessment of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in root and aerial parts of maize (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum sativum), white clover (Trifolium repens), pasture (Poales sp...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
XinZhong Zhang, BaoJian Guo, GuoFang Lan, HongTao Li, Shen Lin, Jun Ma, Chao Lv, RuGen Xu
Cleistogamous and chasmogamous are two opposing phenomena for flowering in barley. Cleistogamy limits the rate of outcrossing, and increases the cost of producing hybrid barley seeds. Selecting chasmogamous lines with a large glume opening angle (GOA) is essential for the utilization of barley heterosis. In the current study, 247 DH lines derived from a cross between Yangnongpi7 and Yang0187 were used to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the GOA in different environments using SSR markers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qiufang Shen, Liangbo Fu, Fei Dai, Lixi Jiang, Guoping Zhang, Dezhi Wu
BACKGROUND: Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.) has been confirmed to contain elite accessions in tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. However, molecular mechanisms underlying genotypic difference of salt tolerance in wild barley are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions (XZ26 and XZ169), differing greatly in salt tolerance, were used to determine changes of ionomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles in the shoots exposed to salt stress at seedling stage...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
H J Yuan, Y L Wang, Z X Wei, Q J Xu, X Q Zeng, Y W Tang, T S Nyima
The abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway is known as one of the most important signaling pathways in plants and is mediated by multiple regulators. The genes SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF are relevant to both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. To elucidate the profile of these genes from Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.), we collected available sequences from RNA-Seq data, together with NCBI data from five other model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa, and Sorghum bicolor)...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hemasundar Alavilli, Jay Prakash Awasthi, Gyana R Rout, Lingaraj Sahoo, Byeong-Ha Lee, Sanjib Kumar Panda
We characterized an aquaporin gene HvPIP2;5 from Hordeum vulgare and investigated its physiological roles in heterologous expression systems, yeast and Arabidopsis, under high salt and high osmotic stress conditions. In yeast, the expression of HvPIP2;5 enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under high salt and high osmotic conditions. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing HvPIP2;5 also showed better stress tolerance in germination and root growth under high salt and high osmotic stresses than the wild type (WT). HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants were able to survive and recover after a 3-week drought period unlike the control plants which wilted and died during stress treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nicolas Blavet, Jana Uřinovská, Hana Jeřábková, Ivo Chamrád, Jan Vrána, René Lenobel, Jana Beinhauer, Marek Šebela, Jaroslav Doležel, Beáta Petrovská
Proteins are the most abundant component of the cell nucleus, where they perform a plethora of functions, including the assembly of long DNA molecules into condensed chromatin, DNA replication and repair, regulation of gene expression, synthesis of RNA molecules and their modification. Proteins are important components of nuclear bodies and are involved in the maintenance of the nuclear architecture, transport across the nuclear envelope and cell division. Given their importance, the current poor knowledge of plant nuclear proteins and their dynamics during the cell's life and division is striking...
November 4, 2016: Nucleus
Georgina Guzmán-Rangel, Liske Versieren, Hao Qiu, Erik Smolders
Zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) are typically present as mixed contaminants in mining-impacted areas, however, their joined effects have rarely been evaluated. The present study was set-up to test if Zn(2+) and H2 AsO4(-) (further: As) mixture toxicity to plants is additive or if interactions occur. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation was measured in resin buffered nutrient solutions. The design included ranges of single element concentrations and combinations at three different Ca(2+) concentrations (0.5, 2...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sevda Haghi Kia, Kyriaki Glynou, Thomas Nau, Marco Thines, Meike Piepenbring, Jose G Maciá-Vicente
Plants associate through their roots with fungal assemblages that impact their abundance and productivity. Non-mycorrhizal endophytes constitute an important component of such fungal diversity, but their implication in ecosystem processes is little known. Using a selection of 128 root-endophytic strains, we defined functional groups based on their traits and plant interactions with potential to predict community assembly and symbiotic association processes. In vitro tests of the strains' interactions with Arabidopsis thaliana, Microthlaspi erraticum and Hordeum vulgare showed a net negative effect of fungal colonization on plant growth...
November 1, 2016: ISME Journal
Hiroshi Hisano, Mai Tsujimura, Hideya Yoshida, Toru Terachi, Kazuhiro Sato
BACKGROUND: Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Aleksandra Swida-Barteczka, Katarzyna Kruszka, Aleksandra Grabowska, Andrzej Pacak, Artur Jarmolowski, Marzena Kurowska, Iwona Szarejko, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
MicroRNAs are short molecules of 21-24 nt in length. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms and regulate gene expression by guiding posttranscriptional silencing of mRNAs. In plants, they are key players in signal transduction, growth and development, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important monocotyledonous crop plant. Drought is the world's main cause of loss in cereal production. We have constructed a high-throughput Real-Time RT-qPCR platform for parallel determination of 159 barley primary microRNAs' levels...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Florian Leplat, Pai Rosager Pedas, Søren Kjærsgaard Rasmussen, Søren Husted
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Michał Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska
In this paper, we highlight the affinity between the genomes of key representatives of the Pooideae subfamily, revealed at the chromosomal level by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The analyses were conducted using labeled probes from each species to hybridize with chromosomes of every species used in this study based on a "round robin" rule. As a result, the whole chromosomes or chromosome regions were distinguished or variable types of signals were visualized to prove the different levels of the relationships between genomes used in this study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Jannatul Ferdous, Ryan Whitford, Martin Nguyen, Chris Brien, Peter Langridge, Penny J Tricker
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing crop yield. Since the discovery of plant microRNAs (miRNAs), considerable progress has been made in clarifying their role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including drought. miR827 was previously reported to confer drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. We examined barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Golden Promise') plants over-expressing miR827 for plant performance under drought. Transgenic plants constitutively expressing CaMV-35S::Ath-miR827 and drought-inducible Zm-Rab17::Hv-miR827 were phenotyped by non-destructive imaging for growth and whole plant water use efficiency (WUEwp)...
October 11, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Chun-Mei Wang, Zeng-Run Xia, Guo-Qiang Wu, Hui-Jun Yuan, Xin-Rui Wang, Jin-Hua Li, Fu-Ping Tian, Qian Zhang, Xin-Qiang Zhu, Jiong-Jie He, Tanweer Kumar, Xiao-Li Wang, Jin-Lin Zhang
Hordeum brevisubulatum, called as wild barley, is a useful monocotyledonous halophyte for soil improvement in northern China. Although previously studied, its main salt tolerance mechanism remained controversial. The current work showed that shoot Na(+) concentration was increased rapidly with stress time and significantly higher than in wheat during 0-168h of 100mM NaCl treatment. Similar results were also found under 25 and 50mM NaCl treatments. Even K(+) was increased from 0.01 to 50mM in the cultural solution, no significant effect was found on tissue Na(+) concentrations...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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