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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801748/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-transgenic-wheat-and-sorghum-events-expressing-the-barley-alanine-aminotransferase
#1
Pamela A Peña, Truyen Quach, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Natalya Nersesian, Ismail M Dweikat, Madhavan Soundararajan, Tom Clemente
The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements...
August 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801593/genetic-variations-of-hvp5cs1-and-their-association-with-drought-tolerance-related-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#2
Yanshi Xia, Ronghua Li, Guihua Bai, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Michael Baum, Guijun Yan, Peiguo Guo
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene1 (P5CS1) is the key gene involved in the biosynthesis of proline and is significantly induced by drought stress. The exploration of genetic variation in HvP5CS1 may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of drought adaptation in barley. In the current study, 41 polymorphisms including 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 25 insertions/deletions (indels) were detected in HvP5CS1 among 287 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions collected worldwide, with 13 distinct haplotypes identified in the barley collection...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791211/development-and-characterization-of-polymorphic-est-based-ssr-markers-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare
#3
Won-Sam Jo, Hye-Yeong Kim, Kyung-Min Kim
In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790145/inter-chromosomal-transfer-of-immune-regulation-during-infection-of-barley-with-the-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#4
Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony Ve Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P Wise
Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes 2HL and 1HS...
August 8, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769936/genetic-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-yield-affecting-traits-in-a-barley-doubled-haploid-population-derived-from-clipper-%C3%A3-sahara-3771
#5
Fatemeh Vafadar Shamasbi, Seyed Hossein Jamali, Behzad Sadeghzadeh, Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani
Many traits play essential roles in determining crop yield. Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Hordeum vulgare L., but the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. To understand genetic basis controlling morphological traits affecting yield, a barley doubled haploid population (146 individuals) derived from Clipper × Sahara 3771 was used to map chromosome regions underlying days to awn appearance, plant height, fertile spike number, flag leaf length, spike length, harvest index, seed number per plant, thousands kernel weight, and grain yield...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763829/f-group-bzips-in-barley-a-role-in-zn-deficiency
#6
Ahmad Zulhilmi Nazri, Jonathan H C Griffin, Kerry A Peaston, Douglas G A Alexander-Webber, Lorraine E Williams
Zinc (Zn) deficiency negatively impacts the development and health of plants and affects crop yield. When experiencing low Zn, plants undergo an adaptive response to maintain Zn homeostasis. We provide further evidence for the role of F-group transcription factors, AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23, in responding to Zn deficiency in Arabidopsis and demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of this response. Despite their economic importance, the role of F-group bZIPs in cereal crops is largely unknown. Here we provide new insights by functionally characterizing these in barley (Hordeum vulgare), demonstrating an expanded number of F-group bZIPs (seven) compared to Arabidopsis...
August 1, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758687/root-hairs-enable-high-transpiration-rates-in-drying-soils
#7
Andrea Carminati, John B Passioura, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Mutez A Ahmed, Peter R Ryan, Michelle Watt, Emmanuel Delhaize
Do root hairs help roots take up water from the soil? Despite the well-documented role of root hairs in phosphate uptake, their role in water extraction is controversial. We grew barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas) and its root-hairless mutant brb in a root pressure chamber, whereby the transpiration rate could be varied whilst monitoring the suction in the xylem. The method provides accurate measurements of the dynamic relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction. The relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction was linear in wet soils and did not differ between genotypes...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758681/high-resolution-synchrotron-imaging-shows-that-root-hairs-influence-rhizosphere-soil-structure-formation
#8
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Timothy S George, Lawrie K Brown, Annette Raffan, Laura J Cooper, Muhammad Naveed, Anthony G Bengough, Ian Sinclair, Paul D Hallett, Tiina Roose
In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755320/evaluation-of-the-mature-grain-phytase-candidate-hvpaphy_a-gene-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-using-crispr-cas9-and-talens
#9
Inger B Holme, Toni Wendt, Javier Gil-Humanes, Lise C Deleuran, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling...
July 28, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751906/observation-of-extensive-chromosome-axis-remodeling-during-the-diffuse-phase-of-meiosis-in-large-genome-cereals
#10
Isabelle Colas, Benoit Darrier, Mikel Arrieta, Sybille U Mittmann, Luke Ramsay, Pierre Sourdille, Robbie Waugh
The production of balanced fertile haploid gametes requires the faithful separation of paired (synapsed) chromosomes toward the end of meiotic prophase I (desynapsis). This involves the timely dissolution of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene-diplotene transition, a stage traditionally referred to as the "diffuse stage." In species with large genomes such as, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) we know most about the early stages of meiotic prophase I. There, synapsis initiates at the telomeric ends of chromosomes and progresses toward the centromeric regions through the ordered assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751243/changes-in-protein-abundance-and-activity-induced-by-drought-during-generative-development-of-winter-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#11
Gabriela Gołębiowska-Pikania, Przemysław Kopeć, Ewa Surówka, Franciszek Janowiak, Monika Krzewska, Ewa Dubas, Anna Nowicka, Joanna Kasprzyk, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Sabina Malaga, Tomasz Hura, Iwona Żur
The present study investigated drought-induced changes in proteome profiles of ten DH lines of winter barley, relatively varied in water deficit tolerance level. Additionally, the parameters describing the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and the activity of the antioxidative system were analysed. Water deficit (3-week growth in soil with water content reduced to ca. 35%) induced significant changes in leaf water relations and reduced photosynthetic activity, probably due to decreased stomatal conductance...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744298/poaceae-vs-abiotic-stress-focus-on-drought-and-salt-stress-recent-insights-and-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Simone Landi, Jean-Francois Hausman, Gea Guerriero, Sergio Esposito
Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719910/correlating-the-genetic-and-physical-map-of-barley-chromosome-3h-revealed-limitations-of-the-fish-based-mapping-of-nearby-single-copy-probes-caused-by-the-dynamic-structure-of-metaphase-chromosomes
#13
Fernanda O Bustamante, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Jörg Fuchs, Sebastian Beier, Andreas Houben
Genetic maps are based on the recombination frequency of molecular markers which often show different positions in comparison to the corresponding physical maps. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to terminal and interstitial regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on mitotic metaphase chromosomes was performed with 16 genomic single-copy probes derived from fingerprinted BAC contigs. Long genetic distances at subterminal regions translated into short physical distances, confirming that recombination events occur more often at distal regions of chromosome 3H...
July 19, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711792/regulation-of-proline-biosynthesis-and-resistance-to-drought-stress-in-two-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-genotypes-of-different-origin
#14
Hanna Bandurska, Justyna Niedziela, Małgorzata Pietrowska-Borek, Katarzyna Nuc, Tamara Chadzinikolau, Dominika Radzikowska
Drought is considered the main abiotic stress factor that inhibits growth of crop plants (including barley), limiting yield in many regions worldwide. Predicted climate changes show that in future the frequency and intensity of drought events will rise, so crops that are resistant to this stress are in demand. One of the adaptive metabolic responses to drought is the accumulation of proline. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 10-day drought on tissue dehydration and proline biosynthesis in leaves as well as in roots of barley genotypes of different origin: the Syrian breeding line Cam/B1/CI and the German cultivar Maresi...
July 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711791/labeled-azospirillum-brasilense-wild-type-and-excretion-ammonium-strains-in-association-with-barley-roots
#15
Adrian Richard Schenberger Santos, Rafael Mazer Etto, Rafaela Wiegand Furmam, Denis Leandro de Freitas, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira Santos, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Ricardo Antônio Ayub, Maria Berenice Reynaud Steffens, Carolina Weigert Galvão
Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A...
July 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710720/starch-accumulation-in-hulless-barley-during-grain-filling
#16
Xu-Guang Zheng, Jun-Cang Qi, Hong-Shan Hui, Li-Hao Lin, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. RESULTS: The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706533/inhibition-of-histone-h3k9-methylation-by-bix-01294-promotes-stress-induced-microspore-totipotency-and-enhances-embryogenesis-initiation
#17
Eduardo Berenguer, Ivett Bárány, María-Teresa Solís, Yolanda Pérez-Pérez, María C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
Microspore embryogenesis is a process of cell reprogramming, totipotency acquisition and embryogenesis initiation, induced in vitro by stress treatments and widely used in plant breeding for rapid production of doubled-haploids, but its regulating mechanisms are still largely unknown. Increasing evidence has revealed epigenetic reprogramming during microspore embryogenesis, through DNA methylation, but less is known about the involvement of histone modifications. In this study, we have analyzed the dynamics and possible role of histone H3K9 methylation, a major repressive modification, as well as the effects on microspore embryogenesis initiation of BIX-01294, an inhibitor of histone methylation, tested for the first time in plants, in Brassica napus and Hordeum vulgare...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706292/genome-wide-survey-indicates-diverse-physiological-roles-of-the-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-genes
#18
Yunqiang Yang, Qiuli Wang, Qian Chen, Xin Yin, Min Qian, Xudong Sun, Yongping Yang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are crucial calcium sensors that play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes, as well as protective responses to environmental stress. Here, we identified 28 CDPK genes from barley and cloned 5 new, full-length CDPK genes, MLOC_58648a, MLOC_19618a, MLOC_71733a, AK249361a and MLOC_4965a, using their expressed sequence tags. Phylogenetic and gene structural analyses revealed that the CDPK could be divided into four subgroups. Significant site-specific altered constraints and a high evolutionary rate may have contributed to the functional divergences among CDPK gene subfamilies...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698232/genome-wide-sequence-and-expression-analysis-of-the-nac-transcription-factor-family-in-polyploid-wheat
#19
Philippa Borrill, Sophie A Harrington, Cristobal Uauy
Many important genes in agriculture correspond to transcription factors which regulate a wide range of pathways from flowering to responses to disease and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 5,776 transcription factors in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and classified them into gene families. We further investigated the NAC family exploring the phylogeny, C-terminal domain conservation and expression profiles across 308 RNA-seq samples. Phylogenetic trees of NAC domains indicated that wheat NACs divided into eight groups similar to rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare)...
July 11, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697758/identification-of-qtls-controlling-grain-protein-concentration-using-a-high-density-snp-and-ssr-linkage-map-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#20
Chaofeng Fan, Huijie Zhai, Huifang Wang, Yafei Yue, Minghu Zhang, Jinghui Li, Shaozhe Wen, Ganggang Guo, Yawen Zeng, Zhongfu Ni, Mingshan You
BACKGROUND: Grain protein concentration (GPC) is a major determinant of quality in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Breeding barley cultivars with high GPC has practical value for feed and food properties. The aim of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GPC that could be detected under multiple environments. RESULTS: A population of 190 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) deriving from a cross between Chinese landrace ZGMLEL with high GPC (> 20%) and Australian cultivar Schooner was used for linkage and QTL analyses...
July 11, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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