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Nickolay A Shmakov, Gennadiy V Vasiliev, Natalya V Shatskaya, Alexey V Doroshkov, Elena I Gordeeva, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Albinism in plants is characterized by lack of chlorophyll and results in photosynthesis impairment, abnormal plant development and premature death. These abnormalities are frequently encountered in interspecific crosses and tissue culture experiments. Analysis of albino mutant phenotypes with full or partial chlorophyll deficiency can shed light on genetic determinants and molecular mechanisms of albinism. Here we report analysis of RNA-seq transcription profiling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Li Lin, Fei Chen, Yue Cai, Zhong-Hua Chen, Fangbin Cao
Genotypic differences in cadmium (Cd) transport in developing grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were investigated using detached ears cultured in a nutrient solution containing 0.5 and 5 μM Cd. Cd concentration in each part of the ear in W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulation genotype) was much less than in Zhenong8 (a high accumulator) with 0.5 μM Cd treatment. However, Cd concentration in W6nk2 grains increased with an increase in external Cd level and was similar to Zhenong8 with 5 μM Cd treatment...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kosala Ranathunge, Yangmin X Kim, Friedrich Wassmann, Tino Kreszies, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. METHODS: Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS)...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
Mahwish Ejaz, Maria von Korff
Ambient temperature has a large impact on reproductive development and grain yield in temperate cereals. However, little is known about the genetic control of development under different ambient temperatures. Here, we demonstrate that in barley (Hordeum vulgare), high ambient temperatures accelerate or delay reproductive development depending on the photoperiod response gene PHOTOPERIOD1 (Ppd-H1) and its upstream regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (HvELF3). A natural mutation in Ppd-H1 prevalent in spring barley delayed floral development and reduced the number of florets and seeds per spike, while the wild-type Ppd-H1 or a mutant Hvelf3 allele accelerated floral development and maintained the seed number under high ambient temperatures...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
Abdur Rashid, Thomas Baldwin, Michael Gines, Phil Bregitzer, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N₂ grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing...
December 22, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Artem Pankin, Maria von Korff
Five major cereals such as wheat, rice, maize, barley and sorghum were among the first Neolithic crops that facilitated the establishment of the early agricultural societies. Since then they have remained the staple source of calories for the majority of the human population. Ample archaeological and molecular evidence has provided important insights into the domestication history of cereals but the debates on the origin of cereal crops are still far from resolved. Here, we review the recent advances in applying genome sequencing technologies for deciphering the history of cereal domestication...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Kai Yang, Ying Zhu, Ranran Shan, Yanqiu Shao, Chao Tian
Sanitary landfill persists as a predominant sludge disposal method in particular in China. In this study, successive subsurface sludge samples (0.3 m deep) were collected from a bioreactor landfill unit where an anaerobic process took place during a 500 d period. The sludge samples were analyzed for total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and their species distributions, together with selected sludge chemical properties. In addition, the sludge samples were subjected to phytotoxicity testing...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Damian Gruszka, Anna Janeczko, Michal Dziurka, Ewa Pociecha, Jana Oklestkova, Iwona Szarejko
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid phytohormones, which regulate various processes of morphogenesis and physiology-from seed development to regulation of flowering and senescence. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that BRs take part in regulation of physiological reactions to various stress conditions, including drought. Many of the physiological functions of BRs are regulated by a complicated, and not fully elucidated network of interactions with metabolic pathways of other phytohormones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hoon Kim, Hee-Do Hong, Kwang-Soon Shin
We recently isolated an immunostimulating polysaccharide (BLE-P-I), which possesses a large proportion of arabinoxylan, from young barley leaves. In the present study, to elucidate the structural details of BLE-P-I, it was fractionated into enzyme-resistant fraction (BLE-P-I-X1) and arabinoxylan-rich oligosaccharide fraction (BLE-P-I-X2) after endo-xylanase hydrolysis. Commercial wheat arabinoxylan was also fractionated into WAX-XI and WAX-X2 after the same treatment. BLE-P-I-X2 consisted of arabinose and xylose, including 11 types of neutral glycosidic linkages, whereas WAX-X2 had less, with 6 types of linkages...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lovreet S Shergill, Jenna Malone, Peter Boutsalis, Christopher Preston, Gurjeet Gill
BACKGROUND: Acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance has been identified by herbicide resistance screening in eight populations obtained from cropping regions of South Australia. This study aimed to quantify the level of resistance and characterize the molecular basis of resistance to ACCase and ALS-inhibitors in these H. glaucum populations. RESULTS: H. glaucum populations from the Upper-North region were highly resistant (RI > 12) to the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides quizalofop and haloxyfop and less resistant (RI = 2 to 12) to cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicide clethodim, and some Mid-North populations had a low level of resistance (RI = 2 to 6) to the sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide mesosulfuron...
December 15, 2016: Pest Management Science
Simone Rankl, Benet Gunsé, Tina Sieper, Christoph Schmid, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Peter Schröder
While colonizing the rhizosphere, bacterial intra- and inter-specific communication is accomplished by N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) in a density-dependent manner. Moreover, plants are naturally exposed to AHLs and respond with tissue-specificity. In the present study, we investigated the influence of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-dodecanoyl-d/l-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) on growth and root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and identified initial reactions in root cells after AHL exposures using physiological, staining, and electrophysiological methods...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Y W Zeng, J Du, X M Yang, X Y Pu, L X Wang, J Z Yang, L J Du, T Yang, S M Yang, Z H Sun
Mineral elements in barley (Hordeum vulgare) play an important physiological role in global human health. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for concentration of nine mineral elements in barley grain and grass powder were detected in a population of 193 recombinant inbred lines of the barley cross Ziguangmangluoerling x Schooner and the parents. We observed large genetic variation contributing to element concentrations in both grains and grass powder. The mean K, Ca, and Fe concentrations in grass powder were 6...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xiaoyan Quan, Jianbin Zeng, Zhigang Han, Guoping Zhang
In a previous study, we identified the low-nitrogen (LN) tolerant accessions from the Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum). In this study, two wild barley genotypes (XZ149, LN-tolerant and XZ56, LN-sensitive) and a barley cultivar ZD9 (H. vulgare) were used to determine the LN tolerant mechanism underlying the wild barley in the ionomic and physiological aspects. XZ149 exhibited higher LN tolerance with highest relative dry weight and N accumulation among three barley genotypes under LN stress...
December 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chris J Stevens, Charlene Murphy, Rebecca Roberts, Leilani Lucas, Fabio Silva, Dorian Q Fuller
The period from the late third millennium BC to the start of the first millennium AD witnesses the first steps towards food globalization in which a significant number of important crops and animals, independently domesticated within China, India, Africa and West Asia, traversed Central Asia greatly increasing Eurasian agricultural diversity. This paper utilizes an archaeobotanical database (AsCAD), to explore evidence for these crop translocations along southern and northern routes of interaction between east and west...
October 2016: Holocene
Shuyao Tang, Ling Qiu, Zhiqiang Xiao, Shulan Fu, Zongxiang Tang
Oligonucleotide probes that can be used for non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) analysis are convenient tools for identifying chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives. New oligonucleotide probes, Oligo-HvT01, Oligo-pTa71-1, Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2, Oligo-s120.3, Oligo-275.1, Oligo-275.2, Oligo-k566 and Oligo-713, were designed based on the repetitive sequences HVT01, pTa71, pTa-s120, pTa-275, pTa-k566 and pTa-713. All these probes can be used for ND-FISH analysis and some of them can be used to detect polymorphisms of wheat chromosomes...
December 5, 2016: Genes
Sebastian Jaenicke, Boyke Bunk, Daniel Wibberg, Cathrin Spröer, Lena Hersemann, Jochen Blom, Anika Winkler, Sarah Schatschneider, Stefan P Albaum, Roland Kölliker, Alexander Goesmann, Alfred Pühler, Jörg Overmann, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter
We report here the complete 4.7-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens DSM 18974(T), which causes black chaff disease on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome data of this X. translucens type strain will improve our understanding of this bacterial species.
December 1, 2016: Genome Announcements
Jolanta Kwasniewska, Arita Kus, Monika Swoboda, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska
The temporal and spatial properties of DNA replication in plants related to DNA damage and mutagenesis is poorly understood. Experiments were carried out to explore the relationships between DNA replication, chromatin structure and DNA damage in nuclei from barley root tips. We quantitavely analysed the topological organisation of replication foci using pulse EdU labelling during the S phase and its relationship with the DNA damage induced by mutagenic treatment with maleic hydrazide (MH), nitroso-N-methyl-urea (MNU) and gamma ray...
December 2016: Mutation Research
Wanli Guo, Tianlong Chen, Nazim Hussain, Guoping Zhang, Lixi Jiang
Rice is more sensitive to salinity, particularly at its early vegetative and later productive stages. Wild plants growing in harsh environments such as wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau adapt to the adverse environment with allelic variations at the loci responsible for stressful environment, which could be used for rice genetic improvement. In this study, we overexpressed HsCBL8 encoding a calcium-sensor calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein in rice. The gene was isolated from XZ166, a wild-barley (Hordeum spontanum) line originated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anna Piasecka, Aneta Sawikowska, Anetta Kuczyńska, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Krzysztof Mikołajczak, Karolina Krystkowiak, Kornelia Gudyś, Justyna Guzy-Wróbelska, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Kachlicki
Determination of the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to diversity of their structures and complexity of interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of the metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information on the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed the level as a result of drought stress...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yu Kokubo, Miho Nishizaka, Naoki Ube, Yukinori Yabuta, Shin-Ichi Tebayashi, Kotomi Ueno, Shin Taketa, Atsushi Ishihara
The Poaceae is a large taxonomic group consisting of approximately 12,000 species and is classified into 12 subfamilies. Gramine and benzoxazinones (Bxs), which are biosynthesized from the tryptophan pathway, are well-known defensive secondary metabolites in the Poaceae. We analyzed the presence or absence of garamine and Bxs in 64 species in the Poaceae by LC-MS/MS. We found that Hordeum brachyantherum and Hakonechloa macra accumulated gramine, but the presence of gramine was limited to small groups of species...
November 17, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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