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Dijun Chen, Rongli Shi, Jean-Michel Pape, Kerstin Neumann, Daniel Arend, Andreas Graner, Ming Chen, Christian Klukas
Background: Image-based high-throughput phenotyping technologies have been rapidly developed in plant science recently and they provide a great potential to gain more valuable information than traditionally destructive methods. Predicting plant biomass is regarded as a key purpose for plant breeders and ecologist. However, it is a great challenge to find a predictive biomass model across experiments. Results: In the present study, we constructed four predictive models to examine the quantitative relationship between image-based features and plant biomass accumulation...
January 16, 2018: GigaScience
Upendra M Sainju, Andrew W Lenssen, Brett L Allen, William B Stevens, Jalal D Jabro
Information on the long-term effect of management practices on soil C and N stocks is lacking. An experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA to examine the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on annualized crop residue (stems + leaves) returned to the soil and grain yield, and soil total C (STC) and total N (STN) stocks at the 0-120 cm depth. Tillage practices were no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotations were continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
December 2017: Heliyon
Valeriya Vavilova, Irina Konopatskaia, Anastasia E Kuznetsova, Alexandr Blinov, Nikolay P Goncharov
BACKGROUND: In rice, a variant of DEP1 gene results in erect panicle architecture, well-developed vascular bundles, an increase in the number of grains per panicle and a consequent increase in the grain yield. Interestingly, DEP1 homologs are present in the other cereals including species of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare), even though they do not produce panicles but spikes. In barley, HvDEP1 alleles do not differ between strains of various ear types and geographic origins, while in at least three OsDEP1 variants have been described...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
Qiufang Shen, Jiahua Yu, Liangbo Fu, Liyuan Wu, Fei Dai, Lixi Jiang, Dezhi Wu, Guoping Zhang
In our previous study, Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.) has been found to be rich in the elite accessions with strong abiotic stress tolerance, including salt stress tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance underlying the wild barley remains to be elucidated. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions, XZ26 (salt-tolerant) and XZ169 (salt-sensitive), were used to investigate ionomic, metabolomic and proteomic responses in roots when exposed to 0, 200 (moderate) and 400 mM (high) salinity...
December 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Adriana Arigò, Petr Česla, Petra Šilarová, Maria Luisa Calabrò, Lenka Česlová
Complete characterizations of free and bonded phenolic compounds, presented in four cultivars of barley from two regions of Czech Republic, were achieved, using optimized solvent extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimization of extraction of free polyphenols was performed using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The intra-day and extra-day precision of developed method were below 6% and 12%, respectively. The isolation of polyphenols bonded to the cell wall structure was carried out by a hydrolysis process...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mariona Martínez, Maria-Jose Motilva, Maria-Carmen López de Las Hazas, Maria-Paz Romero, Katerina Vaculova, Iziar A Ludwig
In the present study, 27 barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in two geographic origins (Czech Republic and Spain) were analysed for their contents of β-glucan, tocols and phenolic compounds (free and bound). The samples included hulled, hull-less and coloured genotypes. The results showed that concentrations of β-glucan range from 2.40 to 7.42g/100g. Total tocol content of the barley samples ranged between 39.9 and 81.6μg/g. A total of 64 compounds were identified in the barley samples. These included 19 phenolic acids and aldehydes, 9 flavan 3-ols, 9 flavone glycosides, and 27 anthocyanins...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Arunkumar Ramu, Suresh Kathiresan, Hemavardhini Ramadoss, Anandhi Nallu, Ramachandran Kaliyan, Theerthu Azamuthu
Gramine, a natural indole alkaloid found in Hordeum vulgare has been possesses anti-mutagenic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gramine on inflammation and proliferation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene(DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase phosphorylation trigged PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK signaling that activates NF-κB and STAT3. In contrast, gramine suppressed EGFR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and simultaneously inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK phosphorylation, thereby blockage NF-κB and STAT3 nuclear translocation...
December 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Karolina Chwialkowska, Urszula Korotko, Joanna Kosinska, Iwona Szarejko, Miroslaw Kwasniewski
Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications and DNA methylation, mutually regulate chromatin structure, maintain genome integrity, and affect gene expression and transposon mobility. Variations in DNA methylation within plant populations, as well as methylation in response to internal and external factors, are of increasing interest, especially in the crop research field. Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) is one of the most commonly used methods for assessing DNA methylation changes in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
E V Evtushenko, E A Elisafenko, S S Gatzkaya, Y A Lipikhina, A Houben, A V Vershinin
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3), a key component of the centromere, shows considerable variability between species within taxa. We determined the molecular structure and phylogenetic relationships of CENH3 in 11 Secale species and subspecies that possess distinct pollination systems and are adapted to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. The rye (Secale cereale) genome encodes two paralogous CENH3 genes, which differ in intron-exon structure and are transcribed into two main forms of the protein, αCENH3 and βCENH3...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marika Turek, Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Ewa Różycka-Sokołowska, Bernard Marciniak, Małgorzata Deska, Joanna Skalik, Piotr Bałczewski
This study shows the design, synthesis and evaluation of eco(phyto)toxic and herbicidal activities of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), derived from haloacetic acids, in context of the search for safer alternatives to the commonly used herbicide, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate). The structure of the investigated QASs refers to the heteroatom sequence in the anion of glyphosate in which the (P-C)-N nitrogen atom was replaced by one or more halogens (F, Cl). The ecotoxicity of the synthesized QASs was tested against luminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® test) and the crustaceans Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit F™)...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Devin W Cochrane, Jay K Shah, Kim H Hebelstrup, Abir U Igamberdiev
Class 1 plant hemoglobins (phytoglobins) are upregulated during low-oxygen stress and participate in metabolism and cell signaling via modulation of the levels of nitric oxide (NO). We studied the effects of overexpression and knockdown of the class 1 phytoglobin gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under low-oxygen stress. The overexpression of phytoglobin reduced the amount of NO released, while knockdown significantly stimulated NO emission. It has previously been shown that NO inhibits aconitase activity, so decreased aconitase activity in knockdown plants acts as a biomarker for high internal NO levels...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Alexandra de Sousa, Manuel Azenha, Ana Cunha, Ruth Pereira, Fernanda Fidalgo
This work was designed to assess the potential role of silicon dioxide nanomaterial (nano-SiO2) in enhancing barley's tolerance to nickel oxide nanomaterial (nano-NiO). For this purpose, plants were grown for 14days under nano-NiO (120mgkg-1) single and co-exposure with nano-SiO2 (3mgkg-1). The exposure of barley to nano-NiO caused a significant decrease in growth-related parameters and induced a negative response on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, upon nano-SiO2 co-exposure, the inhibitory effects of nano-NiO were partially reduced, with lower reductions in fresh and dry biomass, and with the recovery of the photosynthesis-related parameters...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Damian Gruszka, Anna Janeczko, Michal Dziurka, Ewa Pociecha, Jozsef Fodor
Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Fernando Maia de Oliveira, João Benhur Mokochinski, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Pedro Pablo González-Borrero
This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
Qijun Xu, Xingquan Zeng, Bin Lin, Zeqing Li, Hongjun Yuan, Yulin Wang, Zhasang, Nyima Tashi
BACKGROUND: Clarifying genetic diversity in a large germplasm resource plays important roles in experimental designs that provides flexible utility in fundamental research and breeding in crops. However, the work is limited due to small collections of barley that are insufficient representatives. RESULTS: In the present study, we collected 562 hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions with worldwide geographic origins and evaluated their genetic variability and relatedness based on 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genetics
Muhammad B Gill, Fanrong Zeng, Lana Shabala, Guoping Zhang, Yun Fan, Sergey Shabala, Meixue Zhou
Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell's ability to maintain membrane potential (MP) is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring this trait...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sevda Haghi Kia, Miroslava Jurkechova, Kyriaki Glynou, Meike Piepenbring, Jose G Maciá-Vicente
Plant symbioses with fungal root endophytes span a continuum from mutualistic to parasitic outcomes, and are highly variable depending on the genotype of each symbiont. The abiotic context in which interactions occur also seems to influence the outcome of plant-endophyte symbioses, but we lack understanding of its relative importance. We aimed to assess if changes in abiotic variables determine the effects of fungal root endophytes on plant growth. We used in vitro co-cultivation assays to test the impact of a selection of endophytic strains from diverse lineages on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, Microthlaspi erraticum and Hordeum vulgare along gradients of nutrient availability, light intensity or substrate's pH...
November 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Therése Bengtsson, Inger Åhman, Outi Manninen, Lars Reitan, Therese Christerson, Jens Due Jensen, Lene Krusell, Ahmed Jahoor, Jihad Orabi
The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luján Cejas, Nelson Romano, Ana Moretti, Pablo Mobili, Marina Golowczyc, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
Malt sprout (MS), a by-product of the malt industry obtained by removing rootlets and sprouts from the seed of germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), was used as culture, dehydration and storage medium of three strains of lactobacilli: Lactobacillus salivarius CM-CIDCA 1231B and CM-CIDCA 1232Y and Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. The three strains were grown in MS and MS supplemented with 20% w/v fructo-oligosaccharides (MS FOS). Bacterial growth was determined by registering the decrease of pH and by plate counting...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mark A Adams, Thomas N Buckley, William T Salter, Nina Buchmann, Carola H Blessing, Tarryn L Turnbull
In nonagricultural systems, the relationship between intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi ) and leaf nitrogen (Narea ) is known to be stronger for legumes than for nonlegumes. We tested whether these relationships are retained for major agricultural legumes and nonlegumes. We compared the response to N nutrition of WUEi (and its component parts, photosynthesis (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gs )) for legumes Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lupinus alba and Vicia faba, nonlegume dicots Brassica napus and Helianthus annus, and nonlegume cereals Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum...
November 27, 2017: New Phytologist
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