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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#1
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#2
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430019/characterization-of-rph24-a-gene-conferring-adult-plant-resistance-to-puccinia-hordei-in-barley
#3
Laura A Ziems, Lee T Hickey, Gregory J Platz, Jerome D Franckowiak, Peter M Dracatos, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park
We identified Rph24 as a locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) controlling adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei. The locus was previously reported as a quantitative trait locus in barley line ND24260-1 and named qRphND. We crossed ND24260-1 to the leaf-rust-susceptible standard Gus and determined inheritance patterns in the progeny. For the comparative marker frequency analysis (MFA), resistant and susceptible tails of the F2 were genotyped with Diversity Arrays Technology genotyping-by-sequencing (DArT-Seq) markers...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429296/diurnal-changes-in-transcript-and-metabolite-levels-during-the-iron-deficiency-response-of-rice
#4
Jamie Selby-Pham, Adrian Lutz, Laura T Moreno-Moyano, Berin A Boughton, Ute Roessner, Alexander A T Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly susceptible to iron (Fe) deficiency due to low secretion levels of the mugineic acid (MA) family phytosiderophore (PS) 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) into the rhizosphere. The low levels of DMA secreted by rice have proved challenging to measure and, therefore, the pattern of DMA secretion under Fe deficiency has been less extensively studied relative to other graminaceous monocot species that secrete high levels of PS, such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412605/brachytic-1-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-encodes-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-heterotrimeric-g-protein
#5
Ai Ito, Ayumi Yasuda, Kosuke Yamaoka, Minase Ueda, Akira Nakayama, Suguru Takatsuto, Ichiro Honda
Physiological and molecular biological analysis of the dwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant brachytic 1 (brh1) was conducted. The root responses of brh1 to brassinolide were weaker than those of wild type, but the responses of leaf segments of dark-grown plants were not. Responses of brh1 to gibberellin A3 were similar to or slightly stronger than those of wild type. Endogenous levels of these hormones in young seedlings were not clearly different between brh1 and wild type. Skotomorphogeneses of brh1 were similar to those of wild type...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409525/rare-pyrenophora-teres-hybridization-events-revealed-by-development-of-sequence-specific-pcr-markers
#6
Barsha Poudel, Simon R Ellwood, Alison C Testa, Mark McLean, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata cause net form and spot form, respectively, of net blotch on barley (Hordeum vulgare). The two forms reproduce sexually, producing hybrids with genetic and pathogenic variability. Phenotypic identification of hybrids is challenging because lesions induced by hybrids on host plants resemble lesions induced by either P. teres f. teres or P. teres f. maculata. In this study, 12 sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction markers were developed based on expressed regions spread across the genome...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402316/effect-of-anaerobic-digestion-and-liming-on-plant-availability-of-phosphorus-in-iron-and-aluminium-precipitated-sewage-sludge-from-primary-wastewater-treatment-plants
#7
Emilio Alvarenga, Anne Falk Øgaard, Lasse Vråle
More efficient plant utilisation of the phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge is required because rock phosphate is a limited resource. To meet environmental legislation thresholds for P removal from wastewater (WW), primary treatment with iron (Fe) or aluminium (Al) coagulants is effective. There is also a growing trend for WW treatment plants (WWTPs) to be coupled to a biogas process, in order to co-generate energy. The sludge produced, when stabilised, is used as a soil amendment in many countries. This study examined the effects of anaerobic digestion (AD), with or without liming as a post-treatment, on P release from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludges originating from primary WWTPs...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399711/effects-of-microwaves-on-the-reduction-of-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-parasiticus-on-brown-rice-oryza-sativa-l-and-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#8
Seung-Hun Lee, Shin Young Park, Kye-Hwan Byun, Hyang Sook Chun, Sang-Do Ha
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are primary pathogen molds on brown rice and barley. This study investigated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) (2,450 MHz, 700 W, 10-50 sec) on inactivation of A. flavus and A. parasiticus (7-8 log) on brown rice and barley and the quality of these samples. The counts of both strains were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the stepwise increase in MWI treatment time. The log reductions of A. flavus on brown rice and barley were 0.05 and 0.04 after 10 sec; 1...
April 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398875/vulnerability-of-barley-to-african-pathotypes-of-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-and-sources-of-resistance
#9
Brian Joel Steffenson, Austin Joel Case, Zacharias A Pretorius, Vicky Coetzee, Frederick Kloppers, Hao Zhou, Yuan Chai, Ruth Wanyera, Godwin Macharia, Bhavani Sridhar, Stefania Grando
The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g. TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threaten wheat production on a global scale. While intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley even though pathotypes like TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390704/development-of-electrostatic-based-bioavailability-models-for-interpreting-and-predicting-differential-phytotoxicity-and-uptake-of-metal-mixtures-across-different-soils
#10
Hao Qiu, Erkai He
Metals are ubiquitous and normally co-occur as mixtures in soil, but there remains much to do regarding the development of appropriate models which incorporate mixture interactions and bioavailability to estimate their phytotoxicity and phytoaccumulation. Here, we developed a probability-based electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) and a Langmuir-type electrostatic uptake model (EUM) to predict and normalize toxicity and uptake of zinc-copper mixtures in Hordeum vulgare L. in different soils. For model development, the electrical potential (ψ0) and metal ion activities ({M(2+)}0) at the cell-membrane surface was computed based on plant physiological properties and soil solution chemistry...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386988/a-new-proteinaceous-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-identified-in-ascomycete-fungi-induces-cell-death-in-solanaceae
#11
Barbara Franco-Orozco, Adokiye Berepiki, Olaya Ruiz, Louise Gamble, Lucie L Griffe, Shumei Wang, Paul R J Birch, Kostya Kanyuka, Anna Avrova
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris...
April 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371280/response-of-the-rhizosphere-prokaryotic-community-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-to-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-in-open-top-chambers
#12
Márton Szoboszlay, Astrid Näther, Esther Mitterbauer, Jürgen Bender, Hans-Joachim Weigel, Christoph C Tebbe
The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2 ] on the diversity and composition of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the rhizosphere of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated in a field experiment, using open-top chambers. Rhizosphere samples were collected at anthesis (flowering stage) from six chambers with ambient [CO2 ] (approximately 400 ppm) and six chambers with elevated [CO2 ] (700 ppm). The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified from the extracted DNA and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument...
March 30, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370696/micrornas-contribute-to-enhanced-salt-adaptation-of-the-autopolyploid-hordeum-bulbosum-compared-to-its-diploid-ancestor
#13
Beibei Liu, Genlou Sun
Several studies have shown that autopolyploid can tolerate abiotic stresses better than its diploid ancestor. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly known. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate the target gene expression post-transcriptionally and play a critical role in the response to abiotic stresses. Duplication of the whole genome can result in the expansion of miRNA families, and the innovative miRNA-target interaction is important for adaptive responses to various environments...
March 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358825/nature-s-patchwork-how-water-sources-and-soil-salinity-determine-the-distribution-and-structure-of-halophytic-plant-communities-in-arid-environments-of-the-eastern-pamir
#14
Monika Mętrak, Łukasz Chachulski, Dovutsho Navruzshoev, Paweł Pawlikowski, Elżbieta Rojan, Marcin Sulwiński, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355249/barley-hordeum-vulgare-in-the-okhotsk-culture-5th-10th-century-ad-of-northern-japan-and-the-role-of-cultivated-plants-in-hunter-gatherer-economies
#15
Christian Leipe, Elena A Sergusheva, Stefanie Müller, Robert N Spengler, Tomasz Goslar, Hirofumi Kato, Mayke Wagner, Andrzej W Weber, Pavel E Tarasov
This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347767/characterization-of-a-new-udp-sugar-pyrophosphorylase-from-hordeum-vulgare-barley
#16
Claudia Wahl, Markus Spiertz, Lothar Elling
The broad substrate spectrum of UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases from plant salvage pathways is of high interest for the synthesis of expensive nucleotide sugars by straightforward enzyme cascade reactions in combination with monosaccharide kinases. We here present a new UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Hordeum vulgare with favorable biochemical properties like broad pH and temperature tolerances as well as a broad substrate spectrum and high synthesis stability. Enzyme properties were determined and reaction conditions were optimized by high-through-put multiplexed capillary electrophoresis analysis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339194/systematic-evaluation-of-chronic-metal-mixture-toxicity-to-three-species-and-implications-for-risk-assessment
#17
Charlotte Nys, Liske Versieren, Katherine I Cordery, Ronny Blust, Erik Smolders, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low-level effects, i.e., the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. The toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338908/metabolite-profiling-of-barley-flag-leaves-under-drought-and-combined-heat-and-drought-stress-reveals-metabolic-qtls-for-metabolites-associated-with-antioxidant-defense
#18
Sven Eduard Templer, Alexandra Ammon, David Pscheidt, Otilia Ciobotea, Christian Schuy, Christopher McCollum, Uwe Sonnewald, Anja Hanemann, Jutta Förster, Frank Ordon, Maria von Korff, Lars Matthias Voll
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the most stress-tolerant crops; however, not much is known about the genetic and environmental control of metabolic adaptation of barley to abiotic stresses. We have subjected a genetically diverse set of 81 barley accessions, consisting of Mediterranean landrace genotypes and German elite breeding lines, to drought and combined heat and drought stress at anthesis. Our aim was to (i) investigate potential differences in morphological, physiological, and metabolic adaptation to the two stress scenarios between the Mediterranean and German barley genotypes and (ii) identify metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337069/detection-of-alien-genetic-introgressions-in-bread-wheat-using-dot-blot-genomic-hybridisation
#19
María-Dolores Rey, Pilar Prieto
Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315831/evaluating-methods-of-updating-training-data-in-long-term-genomewide-selection
#20
Jeffrey L Neyhart, Tyler Tiede, Aaron J Lorenz, Kevin P Smith
Genomewide selection is hailed for its ability to facilitate greater genetic gains per unit time. Over breeding cycles, the requisite linkage disequilibrium (LD) between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and markers is expected to change as a result of recombination, selection, and drift, leading to a decay in prediction accuracy. Previous research has identified the need to update the training population using data that may capture new LD generated over breeding cycles, however optimal methods of updating have not been explored...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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