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Ashutosh K Pandey, Annesha Ghosh, Madhoolika Agrawal, S B Agrawal
Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is a phytotoxic air pollutant causing a substantial damage to plants and agriculture worldwide. Plant productivity is affected by several environmental factors, which interact with each other. Studies related to interactions involving O3 and different levels of nitrogen (N) are still rare and elusive. In the present study we grew two wheat cultivars (HD2967 and Sonalika) in open top chambers (OTC) under ambient (AO) and elevated O3 (EO) (ambient + 20 ppb O3 ) and provided two levels of N fertilization; (a) recommended nitrogen (RN), (b) 1...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jitendra Kumar, Samatha Gunapati, Shahryar F Kianian, Sudhir P Singh
Drought tolerance is a complex trait that is governed by multiple genes. The study presents differential transcriptome analysis between drought-tolerant (Triticum aestivum Cv. C306) and drought-sensitive (Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711) genotypes, using Affymetrix GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array. Both genotypes exhibited diverse global transcriptional responses under control and drought conditions. Pathway analysis suggested significant induction or repression of genes involved in secondary metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport in C306, as compared to WL711...
April 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Cody Millar, Dyan Pratt, Dave Schneider, Jeffrey J McDonnell
RATIONALE: The stable isotope ratios of water (δ2 H and δ18 O values) have been widely used to trace water in plants in a variety of physiological, ecohydrological, biogeochemical and hydrological studies. In such work, the analyte must first be extracted from samples, prior to isotopic analysis. While cryogenic vacuum distillation is currently the most widely used method in the literature, a variety of extraction-collection-analysis methods exist. A formal inter-method comparison on plant tissues has yet to be carried out...
April 12, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Kareem A Mosa, Sameh Soliman, Ali El-Keblawy, Muna Abdalla Ali, Hessa Ali Hassan, Aysha Ali Bin Tamim, Moza Mohamed Al-Ali
Commercially available herbal and medicinal plants-based products are susceptible to substitution or contamination with other unlabeled or undesired materials. This will reduce the quality of the product, and may lead to intoxication and allergy. DNA Barcoding is a molecular technology that allows the identification of plant materials at the species level, by sequencing short stretches of standardized gene sequences from nuclear or organelle genome in an easy, rapid, accurate and cost-effective manner. The aim of this research is to apply DNA barcoding to investigate the authenticity of commercially available herbal and medicinal plant-based products within the UAE markets...
April 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Sabiha Sultana, Sanjoy Kumar Adhikary, Md Monirul Islam, Sorder Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman
Leaf blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major constraint to wheat production, causing significant yield reduction resulting in severe economic impact. The present study characterizes to determine and compare pathogenic variability exist/not based on components of leaf blotch disease development and level of aggressiveness due to agroclimatic condition of B. sorokiniana in wheat. A total of 169 virulent isolates of B. sorokiniana isolated from spot blotch infected leaf from different wheat growing agroclimate of Bangladesh...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
M Djanaguiraman, D L Boyle, R Welti, S V K Jagadish, P V V Prasad
BACKGROUND: High temperature is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. Variation in levels of a wide range of lipids, including stress-related molecular species, oxidative damage, cellular organization and ultrastructural changes were analyzed to provide an integrated view of the factors that underlie decreased photosynthetic rate under high temperature stress. Wheat plants of cultivar Chinese Spring were grown at optimum temperatures (25/15 °C, maximum/minimum) until the onset of the booting stage...
April 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Demi T Djajadi, Mads M Jensen, Marlene Oliveira, Anders Jensen, Lisbeth G Thygesen, Manuel Pinelo, Marianne Glasius, Henning Jørgensen, Anne S Meyer
Background: Lignin is known to hinder efficient enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose in biorefining processes. In particular, nonproductive adsorption of cellulases onto lignin is considered a key mechanism to explain how lignin retards enzymatic cellulose conversion in extended reactions. Results: Lignin-rich residues (LRRs) were prepared via extensive enzymatic cellulose degradation of corn stover ( Zea mays subsp. mays L.), Miscanthus  ×  giganteus stalks (MS) and wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hongen Liu, Zhiwei Shi, Jinfeng Li, Peng Zhao, Shiyu Qin, Zhaojun Nie
Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace element for humans and animals, and Se fertilization is an efficient way to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops, thus enhance the beneficiary effects of Se in human and animal health. Due to the similarity of physical and chemical properties between phosphate () and selenite (), phosphorus (P) supply often significantly impacts the absorption of Se in plants, but little is known about how P supply influences the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hongjin Wang, Hongjun Zhang, Bin Li, Zhihui Yu, Guangrong Li, Jie Zhang, Zujun Yang
As an important relative of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L), Dasypyrum breviaristatum contains novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) encoded by Glu-1Vb genes. We identified new wheat- D. breviaristatum chromosome introgression lines including chromosomes 1Vb and 1Vb L.5Vb L by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with molecular markers. We found that chromosome changes occurred in the wheat- D. breviaristatum introgression lines and particularly induced the deletion of 5BS terminal repeats and formation of a new type of 5B-7B reciprocal translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shisheng Chen, Wenjun Zhang, Stephen Bolus, Matthew N Rouse, Jorge Dubcovsky
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is a devastating foliar disease. The Ug99 race group has combined virulence to most stem rust (Sr) resistance genes deployed in wheat and is a threat to global wheat production. Here we identified a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein (NLR) completely linked to the Ug99 resistance gene Sr21 from Triticum monococcum. Loss-of-function mutations and transgenic complementation confirmed that this gene is Sr21. Sr21 transcripts were significantly higher at high temperatures, and this was associated with significant upregulation of pathogenesis related (PR) genes and increased levels of resistance at those temperatures...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Daoud A M, Hemada M M, Saber N, El-Araby A A, Moussa L
This paper aims to determine the most tolerant growth stage(s) of wheat to salinity stress with the addition of silicon. The aim was to investigate whether saline water could be used instead of good quality water for irrigation without implicating a greater risk to crop production. Local wheat cv. Gimmiza 11 was germinated and grown in sand cultures. Four different NaCl salinity levels were used as treatments: 0, 60, 90 and 120 mM. This was in the presence of 0 and 0.78 mM Si which added as sodium meta- silicate (Na₂SiO₃·9H₂O)...
April 3, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Xiaopeng Zhao, Yang Jiang, Xueyuan Gu, Cheng Gu, J Anita Taylor, Les J Evans
Continual efforts have been made to determine a simple and universal method of estimating heavy metal phytoavailability in terrestrial systems. In the present study, a mechanism-based multi-surface model (MSM) was developed to predict the partition of Ni(II) in soil-solution phases and its bioaccumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 19 Chinese soils with a wide range of soil properties. MSM successfully predicted the Ni(II) dissolution in 0.01 M CaCl2 extracting solution (R2  = 0.875). The two-site model for clay fraction improved the prediction, particularly for alkaline soils, because of the additional consideration of edge sites...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Megan J Lewien, Timothy D Murray, Kendra L Jernigan, Kimberly A Garland-Campbell, Arron H Carter
Eyespot, caused by the soil-borne necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis, is a disease of major economic significance for wheat, barley and rye. Pacific Northwest (PNW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in areas of high rainfall and moderate winters is most vulnerable to infection. The objective of this research was to identify novel genomic regions associated with eyespot resistance in winter wheat adapted to the PNW. Two winter wheat panels of 469 and 399 lines were compiled for one of the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of eyespot resistance in US winter wheat germplasm...
2018: PloS One
Shulin Chen, Juan Chen, Fu Hou, Yigao Feng, Ruiqi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Spike architecture mutants in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 28, AABB) have a distinct morphology, with parts of the rachis node producing lateral meristems that develop into ramified spikelete (RSs) or four-rowed spikelete (FRSs). The genetic basis of RSs and FRSs has been analyzed, but little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms of the lateral meristem. We used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to perform a quantitative proteomic analysis of immature spikes harvested from tetraploid near-isogenic lines of wheat with normal spikelete (NSs), FRSs, and RSs and investigated the molecular mechanisms of lateral meristem differentiation and development...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zifeng Guo, Dijun Chen, Thorsten Schnurbusch
Floret development is critical for grain setting in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), but more than 50% of grain yield potential (based on the maximum number of floret primordia) is lost during the stem elongation phase (SEP, from the terminal spikelet stage to anthesis). Dynamic plant (e.g., leaf area, plant height) and floret (e.g., anther and ovary size) growth and its connection with grain yield traits (e.g., grain number and width) are not clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we dissected the SEP into seven stages to investigate plant (first experiment) and floret (second experiment) growth in greenhouse- and field-grown wheat...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jun-Feng Zhang, Yong-Qing Xu, Jia-Min Dong, Li-Na Peng, Xu Feng, Xu Wang, Fei Li, Yu Miao, Shu-Kuan Yao, Qiao-Qin Zhao, Shan-Shan Feng, Bao-Zhong Hu, Feng-Lan Li
Plant expansins are proteins involved in cell wall loosening, plant growth, and development, as well as in response to plant diseases and other stresses. In this study, we identified 128 expansin coding sequences from the wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome. These sequences belong to 45 homoeologous copies of TaEXPs, including 26 TaEXPAs, 15 TaEXPBs and four TaEXLAs. No TaEXLB was identified. Gene expression and sub-expression profiles revealed that most of the TaEXPs were expressed either only in root tissues or in multiple organs...
2018: PloS One
Gioconda Garcia-Santamaria, Duc Hua, Clay Sneller
Information on the genetic control of the quality traits of soft wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) is essential for breeding. Our objective was to identify QTL associated with end-use quality. We developed 150 F4-derived lines from a cross of Pioneer 26R46 × SS550 and tested them in four environments. We measured flour yield (FY), softness equivalent (SE), test weight (TW), flour protein content (FP), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), and solvent retention capacity (SRC) of water (WA), lactic acid (LA), sucrose (SU), sodium carbonate (SO)...
2018: PeerJ
Shamseldeen Eltaher, Ahmed Sallam, Vikas Belamkar, Hamdy A Emara, Ahmed A Nower, Khaled F M Salem, Jesse Poland, Peter S Baenziger
The availability of information on the genetic diversity and population structure in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) breeding lines will help wheat breeders to better use their genetic resources and manage genetic variation in their breeding program. The recent advances in sequencing technology provide the opportunity to identify tens or hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in large genome species (e.g., wheat). These SNPs can be utilized for understanding genetic diversity and performing genome wide association studies (GWAS) for complex traits...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Tong Si, Xiao Wang, Chunzhao Zhao, Mei Huang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Dong Jiang
Systemic wound response (SWR), a well-characterized systemic signaling response, plays crucial roles in plant defense responses. Progress in understanding of the SWR in abiotic stress has also been aided by the researchers. However, the function of SWR in freezing stress remains elusive. In this study, we showed that local mild mechanical wounding enhanced freezing tolerance in newly occurred systemic leaves of wheat plants ( Triticum aestivum L.). Wounding significantly increased the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, net photosynthetic rate, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes under freezing stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bal R Singh, Yadu N Timsina, Ole C Lind, Simone Cagno, Koen Janssens
Nearly half of the world cereal production comes from soils low or marginal in plant available zinc, leading to unsustainable and poor quality grain production. Therefore, the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and application time on zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in wheat grain were investigated. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum var. Krabat) was grown in a growth chamber with 8 and 16 h of day and night periods, respectively. The N rates were 29, 43, and 57 mg N kg-1 soil, equivalent to 80, 120, and 160 kg N ha-1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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