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Zhaoan Sun, Qing Chen, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Bo Qu, Fanqiao Meng
Understanding the rhizodeposited carbon (C) dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is crucial for soil fertility and C sequestration. Pot-grown winter wheat was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 at the key growth stages. 14 C in the shoots, roots and soil was measured at 5 or 2 days after 14 C-labelling (DAL 5/2) at each growth stage and at harvest. The 14 C in the shoots increased from 4% of the net 14 C recovered (shoots + roots + soil) during tillering to 53% at harvest. Approximately 14-34% of the net 14 C recovered was incorporated into the soil...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dan Wang, Quang Toan Dinh, Tran Thi Anh Thu, Fei Zhou, Wenxiao Yang, Mengke Wang, Weiwei Song, Dongli Liang
To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1...
February 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Yang, Fuping Jiang, Chuanxin Ma, Yu-Kui Rui, Mengmeng Rui, Adeel Muhammad, Weidong Cao, Baoshan Xing
Due to the rapid development of nanotechnology, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are inadvertently released into environment and may pose a potential threat to ecosystem. However, information for food quality and safety in NP treated crops is limited. In the present study, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in different concentrations of Ag NP amended soil (20, 200, and 2000 mg•kg-1) for four months. At harvest, physiological parameters, Ag and micronutrients (Fe, Cu, and Zn) content, as well as amino acid and protein contents were measured...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
Owing to the ever-increasing environmental and health impacts associated with the discharge of dye-based effluents, effective remediation of industrial waste has become a top priority for the industrialists and environmental fraternity, around the world. In this context, plant-based peroxidases represent a suitable bio-remediating agent for the effective treatment of original dyes or dye-based colored wastewater effluents. In the present study, horseradish peroxidase was entrapped on a polyacrylamide gel and investigated its potential for the degradation and detoxification of an azo dye, methyl orange...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Klaudia Goriewa-Duba, Adrian Duba, Michał Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska, Urszula Wachowska, Marian Wiwart
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) relies on fluorescent-labeled probes to detect specific DNA sequences in the genome, and it is widely used in cytogenetic analyses. The aim of this study was to determine the karyotype of T. aestivum and T. spelta hybrids and their parental components (three common wheat cultivars and five spelt breeding lines), to identify chromosomal aberrations in the evaluated wheat lines, and to analyze the distribution of polymorphisms of repetitive sequences in the examined hybrids...
2018: PloS One
Laura E Dixon, Julian R Greenwood, Stefano Bencivenga, Peng Zhang, James Cockram, Gregory Mellers, Kerrie Ramm, Colin Cavanagh, Steve M Swain, Scott Andrew Boden
The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L...
February 14, 2018: Plant Cell
Asif Naeem, Muhammad Aslam, Asma Lodhi
BACKGROUND: The negative effect of soil applied phosphorus (P) on zinc (Zn) uptake by plants and concentration in food grains could be a possible reason of low dietary intake of Zn. Likewise its critical role in plant tolerance to other abiotic stresses, potassium (K) was thought to retrieve P induced decrease in grain Zn concentration of wheat. To test the above hypothesis, effect of K application (50 mg kg-1 soil) on Zn concentration in shoot/grains and its shoot-to-grain translocation was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L, cv Galaxy 2013) under low and optimal supply of both P (10 and 50 mg kg-1 ) and Zn (0 and 5 mg kg-1 )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Şükrü Serter Çatav, Tuncer Okan Genç, Müjgan Kesik Oktay, Köksal Küçükakyüz
Boron (B) toxicity, which occurs in semi-arid and arid environments, can adversely affect the growth and yield of many plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of boric acid (3, 6, 9 and 12 mM) on growth, oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters in root and shoot tissues of wheat seedlings. Our results indicate that B stress inhibits root and shoot growth of wheat in a concentration-dependent manner, and leads to increases in TBARS and H2O2 contents in shoot tissue...
February 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yi-Min Wang, Dong-Mei Zhou, Xu-Yin Yuan, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Yi Li
Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling roots to the mixtures of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and humic acids (HA) were investigated using the solution culture experiments, focusing on the interaction patterns between multiple metals and their influences on root proton release. A concentration-addition multiplication (CA) model was introduced into the modeling analysis. In comparison with metal ion activities in bulk-phase solutions, the incorporation of ion activities at the root cell membrane surfaces (CMs) (denoted as {Cu2+}0 and {Cd2+}0) into the CA model could significantly improve their correlation with RRE (relative root elongation) from 0...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Alok Kumar, Jai Prakash Jaiswal, Netrapal Sharma, Supriya Gupta, Anil Kumar
Increasing nutritional value of cereals is one of the important research and breeding objectives to overcome malnutrition in developing countries. The synthesis of grain seed proteins during grain filling is controlled by several mechanisms including transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications. In the current investigation, transcript abundance analysis of three allelic variants of seed storage protein activator (Spa A, Spa B and Spa D) and NAM-B1 affecting seed nutrient concentration was carried out in two genotypes (UP 2672 and HS 540) of bread wheat differing in grain protein content...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Miao Liu, Qiang Zhao, Feng Qi, Jiri Stiller, Shican Tang, Jiashun Miao, Jan Vrána, Kateřina Holušová, Dengcai Liu, Jaroslav Doležel, John M Manners, Bin Han, Chunji Liu
Sequence comparison between spelt and common wheat reveals that the former has huge potential in enriching the genetic variation of the latter. Genetic variation is the foundation of crop improvement. By comparing genome sequences of a Triticum spelta accession and one of its derived hexaploid lines with the sequences of the international reference genotype Chinese Spring, we detected variants more than tenfold higher than those present among common wheat (T. aestivum L) genotypes. Furthermore, different from the typical 'V-shaped' pattern of variant distribution often observed along wheat chromosomes, the sequence variation detected in this study was more evenly distributed along the 3B chromosome...
February 9, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Wenjing Liu, Fangjie Xu, Ting Lv, Weiwei Zhou, Yao Chen, Chongwei Jin, Lingli Lu, Xianyong Lin
Aluminum (Al) toxicity associated with acid soils represents one of the biggest limitations to crop production worldwide. The root apex of plants is the major perception site of Al toxicity. In Al stressed wheat primary roots, Al accumulation and loss of plasma membrane integrity were highest in the root apex (0-5mm), and decreased along the root axis (5-25mm). To further understand these responses in wheat, spatial profiles of antioxidant responses to Al along the 0-25mm root tip of two wheat genotypes differing in Al tolerance were analyzed...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rafael da Rosa Couto, Jéssica Faversani, Carlos Alberto Ceretta, Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira, Carina Marchezan, Daniela Basso Facco, Luana Paula Garlet, Jussiane Souza Silva, Jucinei José Comin, Cezar Augusto Bizzi, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, Gustavo Brunetto
Heavy metals and bromine (Br) derived from organic and industrialized fertilizers can be absorbed, transported and accumulated into parts of plants ingested by humans. This study aimed to evaluate in an experiment conducted under no-tillage for 10 years, totaling 14 applications of pig slurry manure (PS), pig deep-litter (PL), dairy slurry (DS) and mineral fertilizer (MF), the heavy metal and Br contents in soil and in whether the grains produced by corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under these conditions could result in risk to human health...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qunying Luo, Garry O'Leary, James Cleverly, Derek Eamus
Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Mahnaz Khataar, Mohammad Hossien Mohhamadi, Farzin Shabani
We studied the effects of soil matric potential and salinity on the water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and yield response factor (Ky), for wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Mahdavi) and bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris cv. COS16) in sandy loam and clay loam soils under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that aeration porosity is the predominant factor controlling WU, WUE, Ky and shoot biomass (Bs) at high soil water potentials. As matric potential was decreased, soil aeration improved, with Bs, WU and Ky reaching maximum value at -6 to -10 kPa, under all salinities...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ge Cheng, Ming-Shun Chen, Lieceng Zhu
12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) plays unique roles in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the current study, we infested two resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Molly' and 'Iris', with an avirulent Hessian fly population and determined the impact of exogenous OPDA application on wheat resistance to the insect under heat stress. We observed that Molly and Iris treated with OPDA solution prior to the heat treatment exhibited significantly enhanced insect resistance. We also measured OPDA concentrations at Hessian fly feeding sites in Molly infested with Hessian flies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zitong Yu, Angela Juhasz, Shahidul Islam, Dean Diepeveen, Jingjuan Zhang, Penghao Wang, Wujun Ma
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) quality is mainly determined by grain storage protein compositions. Sulphur availability is essential for the biosynthesis of the main wheat storage proteins. In this study, the impact of different sulphur fertilizer regimes on a range of agronomically important traits and associated gene networks was studied. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the protein compositions of grains grown under four different sulphur treatments. Results revealed that sulphur supplementation had a significant effect on grain yield, harvest index, and storage protein compositions...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuval Ben-Abu, Avigdor Beiles, Dvir Flom, Eviatar Nevo
BACKGROUND: "Evolution Canyon" (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution-in-action, highlighting the evolutionary processes of biodiversity evolution, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation. A major model organism in ECI is the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (TD), the progenitor of cultivated emmer and durum wheat. TD displays dramatic interslope adaptive evolutionary divergence on the tropical, savannoid-hot and dry south-facing, "African" slope (AS), and on the temperate, forested, cool and humid, north-facing, "European" slope (ES), separated on average by 250 m...
2018: PloS One
Jia Guo, Md Ashraful Islam, Haocheng Lin, Changan Ji, Yinghui Duan, Peng Liu, Qingdong Zeng, Brad Day, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Cyclic nucleotide gated channels (CNGCs) play multifaceted roles in plants, particularly with respect to signaling processes associated with abiotic stress signaling and during host-pathogen interactions. Despite key roles during plant survival and response to environment, little is known about the activity and function of CNGC family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a key stable food around the globe. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of CNGC family in wheat and identified a total 47 TaCNGCs in wheat, classifying these genes into four major groups (I-IV) with two sub-groups (IVa and IVb)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Francesco Giunta, Pasquale De Vita, Anna M Mastrangelo, Gavino Sanna, Rosella Motzo
Phenology has a profound effect on adaptation and productivity of crops. The impact of phenology on tillering and fertility traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf.) was evaluated with the aim of specifying which group of flowering genes (Vrn, Ppd, or eps) was involved in their control. A recombinant inbred line population was grown under four contrasting conditions of vernalization and daylength. Phenotyping was carried out according to robust phenological models dissecting both phenological and yield related traits...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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