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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#1
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638436/in-vivo-label-free-mapping-of-the-effect-of-a-photosystem-ii-inhibiting-herbicide-in-plants-using-chlorophyll-fluorescence-lifetime
#2
Elizabeth Noble, Sunil Kumar, Frederik G Görlitz, Chris Stain, Chris Dunsby, Paul M W French
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand and improve the mode of action of agrochemicals, it is useful to be able to visualize their uptake and distribution in vivo, non-invasively and, ideally, in the field. Here we explore the potential of plant autofluorescence (specifically chlorophyll fluorescence) to provide a readout of herbicide action across the scales utilising multiphoton-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging, wide-field single-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and single point fluorescence lifetime measurements via a fibre-optic probe...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637252/wheat-seed-weight-and-quality-differ-temporally-in-sensitivity-to-warm-or-cool-conditions-during-seed-development-and-maturation
#3
M Nasehzadeh, R H Ellis
Background and aims: Short periods of extreme temperature may affect wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed weight, but also quality. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature during seed development and maturation was investigated. Methods: Plants of 'Tybalt' grown at ambient temperature were moved to growth cabinets at 29/20 °C or 34/20 °C (2010), or 15/10 °C or 34/20 °C (2011), for successive 7-d periods from 7 DAA (days after anthesis) onwards, and also 7-65 DAA in 2011...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636827/chromosome-identification-by-new-molecular-markers-and-genomic-in-situ-hybridization-in-the-i-triticum-secale-thinopyrum-i-trigeneric-hybrids
#4
Yi Dai, Yamei Duan, Dawn Chi, Huiping Liu, Shuai Huang, Wenguang Cao, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
It is very important to use chromosome-specific markers for identifying alien chromosomes in filial generation of distant hybridization. The chromosome-specific markers of rye and <i>Th. elongatum</i> as well as genomic <i>in situ</i> hybridization were used to identify the alien chromosomes and to know chromosome composition in eight lines which derived from the crossing between Triticum trititrigia (AABBEE) and tricitale (AABBRR). The results shown four lines contained of all rye chromosomes but no Th...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633642/prediction-and-analysis-of-three-gene-families-related-to-leaf-rust-puccinia-triticina-resistance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Fred Y Peng, Rong-Cai Yang
BACKGROUND: The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens...
June 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633101/assessment-of-environmental-and-health-risks-in-former-polymetallic-ore-mining-and-smelting-area-slovakia-spatial-distribution-and-accumulation-of-mercury-in-four-different-ecosystems
#6
Július Árvay, Lenka Demková, Martin Hauptvogl, Miloslav Michalko, Daniel Bajčan, Radovan Stanovič, Ján Tomáš, Miroslava Hrstková, Pavol Trebichalský
Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633086/beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-in-overcoming-drought-stress-in-wheat-seedlings
#7
Guibin Cui, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Shudong Liu, Fengli Sun, Chao Zhang, Yajun Xi
Melatonin plays an important role in abiotic stress in plant, but its role in wheat drought tolerance is less known. To verify its role, wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yan 995') at 60% and 40% of field capacity were treated with 500 μM melatonin in this study. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the drought tolerance of wheat seedlings, as demonstrated by decreased membrane damage, more intact grana lamella of chloroplast, higher photosynthetic rate, and maximum efficiency of photosystem II, as well as higher cell turgor and water holding capacity in melatonin-treated seedlings...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628250/grain-subproteome-responses-to-nitrogen-and-sulfur-supply-in-diploid-wheat-triticum-monococcum-ssp-monococcum
#8
Titouan Bonnot, Emmanuelle Bancel, David Alvarez, Marlène Davanture, Julie Boudet, Marie Pailloux, Michel Zivy, Catherine Ravel, Pierre Martre
Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling...
June 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626005/the-auxin-biosynthetic-tryptophan-aminotransferase-related-tatar2-1-3a-increases-wheat-grain-yield
#9
An Shao, Wenying Ma, Xueqiang Zhao, Mengyun Hu, Xue He, Wan Teng, Hui Li, Yiping Tong
Controlling the major auxin biosynthetic pathway to manipulate the auxin content could be a target for genetic engineering of crops with desired traits, but little progress had been made because low or high auxin contents often cause developmental inhibition. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to identify the tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1/tryptophan aminotransferase-related (TAA1/TAR) genes that function in the tryptophan-dependent pathway of auxin biosynthesis...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624908/development-and-validation-of-kasp-markers-for-the-greenbug-resistance-gene-gb7-and-the-hessian-fly-resistance-gene-h32-in-wheat
#10
Chor-Tee Tan, Hangjin Yu, Yan Yang, Xiangyang Xu, Mingshun Chen, Jackie C Rudd, Qingwu Xue, Amir M H Ibrahim, Lisa Garza, Shichen Wang, Mark E Sorrells, Shuyu Liu
Greenbug and Hessian fly are important pests that decrease wheat production worldwide. We developed and validated breeder-friendly KASP markers for marker-assisted breeding to increase selection efficiency. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] are two major destructive insect pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout wheat production regions in the USA and worldwide. Greenbug and Hessian fly infestation can significantly reduce grain yield and quality. Breeding for resistance to these two pests using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is the most economical strategy to minimize losses...
June 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624682/effect-of-the-fungus-piriformospora-indica-on-physiological-characteristics-and-root-morphology-of-wheat-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#11
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter
This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623839/expression-profiles-of-genes-for-mitochondrial-respiratory-energy-dissipating-systems-and-antioxidant-enzymes-in-wheat-leaves-during-de-etiolation
#12
Elena V Garmash, Ilya O Velegzhaninov, Olga I Grabelnych, Olga A Borovik, Ekaterina V Silina, Victor K Voinikov, Tamara K Golovko
Mitochondrial respiratory components participate in the maintenance of chloroplast functional activity. This study investigates the effects 48h de-etiolation of spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L., var. Irgina) on the expression of genes that encode energy-dissipating respiratory components and antioxidant enzymes under continuous light conditions. The expression of AOX1a following the prolonged darkness exhibited a pattern indicating a prominent dependence on light. The expression of other respiratory genes, including NDA2, NDB2, and UCP1b, increased during de-etiolation and dark-to-light transition; however, changes in the expression of these genes occurred later than those in AOX1a expression...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622963/commentary-on-characteristics-of-cadmium-uptake-and-membrane-transport-in-roots-of-intact-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-reported-by-lian-zhen-li-chen-tu-willie-j-g-m-peijnenburg-yong-ming-luo
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620758/transcriptome-analysis-of-drought-responsive-genes-regulated-by-hydrogen-sulfide-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-leaves
#14
Hua Li, Min Li, Xingliang Wei, Xia Zhang, Ruili Xue, Yidan Zhao, Huijie Zhao
Drought is an environmental factor that deeply impacts wheat yield and quality. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a known regulator of drought resistance in plants. To preliminarily elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of H2S on drought tolerance, the effects of H2S on drought-responsive genes were investigated by transcriptome analysis. As a result, a total of 7552 transcripts not only responded to drought stress but also exhibited differential expression relative to the polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment (P) and the NaHS pretreatment with PEG treatment (SP)...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620398/genome-wide-association-study-of-grain-architecture-in-wild-wheat-aegilops-tauschii
#15
Sanu Arora, Narinder Singh, Satinder Kaur, Navtej S Bains, Cristobal Uauy, Jesse Poland, Parveen Chhuneja
Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of Triticum aestivum, encompasses huge diversity for various traits of potential economic importance such as yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, quality and nutrition. In the present study, variation for grain size in Ae. tauschii germplasm was studied and its genetic basis dissected using genome-wide association study (GWAS). Grain length, width, and weight evaluated in 177 Ae. tauschii accessions over 3 years showed near normal distribution with 1.74-, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619368/preliminary-evidence-for-associations-between-molecular-markers-and-quantitative-traits-in-a-set-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-and-breeding-lines
#16
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Shilan Nasri, Sahar Dashchi, Sorour Arzhang, Iraj Bernousi, Hossein Abbasi Holasou
The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic...
June 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615669/differential-effects-of-a-post-anthesis-heat-stress-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grain-proteome-determined-by-itraq
#17
Yufeng Zhang, Jiajia Pan, Xiuwen Huang, Dandan Guo, Hongyao Lou, Zhenghong Hou, Meng Su, Rongqi Liang, Chaojie Xie, Mingshan You, Baoyun Li
Heat stress, a major abiotic stressor of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), often results in reduced yield and decreased quality. In this study, a proteomic method, Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation Isobaric (iTRAQ), was adopted to analyze the protein expression profile changes among wheat cultivar Jing411 under heat stress. Results indicated that there were 256 different proteins expressed in Jing411 under heat stress. According to the result of gene annotation and functional classification, 239 proteins were annotated by 856 GO function entries, including growth and metabolism proteins, energy metabolism proteins, processing and storage proteins, defense-related proteins, signal transduction, unknown function proteins and hypothetical proteins...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614658/effects-of-cultivar-and-nitrogen-nutrition-on-the-lipid-composition-of-wheat-flour
#18
Byoung Min, Irene Gonzalez-Thuillier, Stephen J Powers, Peter Wilde, Peter R Shewry, Richard P Haslam
Despite being minor components of flour, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lipids contribute to grain processing. They are particularly important for bread making where they adsorb to the surface of gas bubbles formed during the proving stage of bread making, stabilizing the gas cells and improving gas retention within the dough. This contributes to the volume and texture of the loaf. However, little is understood about how their amount, composition and properties vary in response to genotype (G), environment (E) or G x E interactions...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613409/molecular-cloning-and-characterizations-of-xylanase-inhibitor-protein-from-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#19
Xinyu Liu, Yakun Zhang, Zhaohui Wei, Hongge Chen, Xincheng Jia
Xylanase inhibitor proteins (XIPs) were regarded to inhibit the activity of xylanases during baking and gluten-starch separation processes. To avoid the inhibition to xylanases, it is necessary to define the conditions under which the inhibition takes place. In this study, we cloned the XIP gene from 2 different variety of Triticum aestivum, that is, Zhengmai 9023 and Zhengmai 366, and investigated the properties of XIP protein expressed by Pichia pastoris. The results showed that the 2 XIP genes (xip-9023 and xip-366) were highly homologous with only 3 nucleotide differences...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613230/oligonucleotides-and-nd-fish-displaying-different-arrangements-of-tandem-repeats-and-identification-of-dasypyrum-villosum-chromosomes-in-wheat-backgrounds
#20
Zhiqiang Xiao, Shuyao Tang, Ling Qiu, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu
Oligonucleotide probes and the non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) technique are widely used to analyze plant chromosomes because they are convenient tools. New oligonucleotide probes, Oligo-Ku, Oligo-3B117.1, Oligo-3B117.2, Oligo-3B117.2.1, Oligo-3B117.3, Oligo-3B117.4, Oligo-3B117.5, Oligo-3B117.6, Oligo-pTa71A-1, Oligo-pTa71A-2, Oligo-pTa71B-1, Oligo-pTa71B-2, Oligo-pTa71C-1, Oligo-pTa71C-2, Oligo-pTa71C-3 and Oligo-pTa71D were designed based on the repetitive sequences KU.D15.15, pSc119...
June 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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