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Elżbieta Skiba, Wojciech M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impact of two widely used commercial herbicides, i.e. Aminopielik D 450 SL and Chwastox 300 SL, on the uptake and translocation of selected heavy metals in wheat plants Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in the laboratory pot experiments was investigated. Mineral-humus, loamy sand soil representative for the central part of Poland was applied. Bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms of Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn were determined. Transfer coefficients, translocation, and bioaccumulation factors illustrating metal migration in the plant were investigated...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Yaqi Xu, Jun Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Zhongkun Du, Jinhua Wang, Kai Wei
Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered environmentally friendly solvents and are widely applied in various fields; however, some researchers have noted the toxicity of ILs to plants cultivated in nutrient solution. To evaluate the toxicities of ILs to wheat seedlings in soil, the natural growth environment of plants, a study was performed using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions: 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8mim]BF4)...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Dew Kumari Sharma, Anna Maria Torp, Eva Rosenqvist, Carl-Otto Ottosen, Sven B Andersen
Despite the fact that Fv/Fm (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II) is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL) and the potential candidate genes linked to Fv/Fm for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Three bi-parental F2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan) selected for high Fv/Fm with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany) selected for lowest Fv/Fm out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert King, Martin Urban, Rebecca P Lauder, Nichola Hawkins, Matthew Evans, Amy Plummer, Kirstie Halsey, Alison Lovegrove, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Jason J Rudd
Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected...
October 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Brandon White, Brenda S Tubana, Tapasya Babu, Henry Mascagni, Flavia Agostinho, Lawrence E Datnoff, Steve Harrison
Field studies were established on the alluvial floodplain soils in Louisiana, from 2013 to 2015, to evaluate the effect of silicate slag applications on productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum), under sufficient and high nitrogen (N) application rates. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications consisting of twelve treatments: a factorial combination of two N (101 and 145 kg N ha(-1)) and five silicate slag rates (0, 1, 2, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha(-1)), and two control plots (with and without lime)...
October 11, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Meng Zhang, Guang-Qiang Zhang, Han-Han Kang, Shu-Mei Zhou, Wei Wang
High salinity is one of the most severe environmental stresses and limits the growth and yield of diverse crop plants. We isolated a gene named TaPUB1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv HF9703) that encodes a novel protein containing a U-box domain, the precursor RNA processing 19p (Prp19) superfamily and WD-40 repeats. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that TaPUB1 transcript accumulation was up-regulated by high salinity, drought and phytohormones, suggesting that it plays a role in the abiotic-related defense response...
July 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chengliang Sun, Lijuan Liu, Weiwei Zhou, Lingli Lu, Chongwei Jin, Xianyong Lin
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils is a primary factor limiting plant growth and crop yield worldwide. Considerable genotypic variation in resistance to Al toxicity has been observed in many crop species. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Al phytotoxicity is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological mechanisms which are yet to be fully characterized. To elucidate the physiological and molecular basis of Al toxicity in wheat, we performed a detailed analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) under Al stress in one Al-tolerant (Jian-864) and one Al-sensitive (Yang-5) genotype...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Margherita G De Biasi, Rosita Marabottini, Anna Rita Paolacci, Mario Ciaffi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Maurizio Badiani
Seedlings of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn] were exposed to zinc nutrition and to ozone (O3) in a factorial combination: adequate (+Zn treatment) or no Zn (-Zn) in the nutrient solution, followed by exposure to either ozone-free air (filtered air, FA) or to 150 nL L(-1) ozone (O3) for 4 h. Although omitting Zn from the nutrient solution failed to impose a genuine Zn deficiency, -Zn*FA durum wheat seedlings showed a typical deficiency behaviour, i.e. Zn mobilisation from root to shoot...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wenjing Ouyang, Paul C Struik, Xinyou Yin, Jianchang Yang
Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Galina A Semenova, Irina R Fomina, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Valery Yu Lyubimov, Ekaterina S Nadezhkina, Tamara I Balakhnina
The ultrastructure of mesophyll cells was studied in leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Trizo" seedlings after two weeks of growth on soil contaminated by Pb and/or Se. The soil treatments: control; (Pb1) 50mgkg(-1); (Pb2) 100mgkg(-1); (Se1) 0.4mgkg(-1); (Se2) 0.8mgkg(-1); (Pb1+Se1); (Pb1+Se2); (P2+Se1); and (Pb2+Se2) were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. The (Se1)-plants showed enhanced growth and biomass production; (Pb1+Se1)-plants did not lag behind the controls, though O2 evolution decreased; chlorophyll content did not differ statistically in these treatments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yuan Zong, Xinyuan Xi, Shiming Li, Wenjie Chen, Bo Zhang, Dengcai Liu, Baolong Liu, Daowen Wang, Huaigang Zhang
Recently the TaMYC1 gene encoding bHLH transcription factor has been isolated from the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome and shown to co-locate with the Pp3 gene conferring purple pericarp color. As a functional evidence of TaMYC1 and Pp3 being the same, higher transcriptional activity of the TaMYC1 gene in colored pericarp compared to uncolored one has been demonstrated. In the current study, we present additional strong evidences of TaMYC1 to be a synonym of Pp3. Furthermore, we have found differences between dominant and recessive Pp3(TaMyc1) alleles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Na Li, Shuai Zhang, Yajun Liang, Yuhong Qi, Juan Chen, Weining Zhu, Linsheng Zhang
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic proteins with key roles in environmental stress responses. In this study, we performed the first survey of the LEA proteome in seedling leaves from two wheat genotypes subjected to drought stress, i.e., Shaanhe 6 (SH, drought-tolerant) and Zhengyin 1 (ZY, drought-sensitive). After isolating the LEA subpopulation by treating total soluble proteins with heating combined with 1% trichloroacetic acid treatment that was assessed by Western blotting of dehydrins, label-free proteomic analysis identified 38 LEA proteins or homologues belonging to seven LEA subfamilies in the two genotypes...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Adnan Riaz, Naveenkumar Athiyannan, Sambasivam K Periyannan, Olga Afanasenko, Olga P Mitrofanova, Gregory J Platz, Elizabeth A B Aitken, Rod J Snowdon, Evans S Lagudah, Lee T Hickey, Kai P Voss-Fels
Thirteen potentially new leaf rust resistance loci were identified in a Vavilov wheat diversity panel. We demonstrated the potential of allele stacking to strengthen resistance against this important pathogen. Leaf rust (LR) caused by Puccinia triticina is an important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the deployment of genetically resistant cultivars is the most viable strategy to minimise yield losses. In this study, we evaluated a diversity panel of 295 bread wheat accessions from the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (St Petersburg, Russia) for LR resistance and performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 10,748 polymorphic DArT-seq markers...
October 4, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hyeon-Hui Ki, Barun Poudel, Ji-Hyun Lee, Young-Mi Lee, Dae-Ki Kim
Triticum aestivum sprouts (TA) contain significant amounts of chlorophyll, minerals, enzymes, and other functional entities. Furthermore, TA extracts have been shown to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective effects and are believed to help blood flow, digestion, and general detoxification of the body. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of a dichloromethane fraction of TA (TDF) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study was done by examining cancer cells growth, morphological changes, cell cycles, expressions of death receptors and apoptosis-linked proteins in wide range of human cancer cell lines...
September 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Adriana-Maria Hiller, Stefan Willers
Cinnamon rolls triggered anaphylactic reaction. The genesis could be wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis Two case reports from our Department of Allergology illustrate the wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA), which is a relatively rare, yet potentially fatal form of food allergy. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the most commonly grown crop world-wide, and some individuals cannot tolerate it due to wheat hypersensitivity. The most dangerous reaction is the anaphylaxis due to harmful immune responses to various parts of the wheat proteins...
October 2, 2017: Läkartidningen
Emad A Farahat, Tarek M Galal, Omar E Elawa, Loutfy M Hassan
The present study evaluated the effect of untreated wastewater irrigation and its health risks in Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) cultivated at south Cairo, Egypt. Morphological measurements (stem and root lengths, number of leaves per plant, and dry weights of main organs) as well as soil, irrigation water, and plant analyses for nutrients and heavy metals were conducted in polluted and unpolluted sites. Wastewater irrigations leads to reduction in the morphological traits of the plants and reduced its vegetative biomass and yield production, with more negative impacts on maize than wheat...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Taoran Shi, Kai Tian, Huanyu Bao, Xueping Liu, Fuyong Wu
To investigate intraspecific variations of foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), leaves of six varieties including Changwu 521 (CW), Hedong TX-006 (HD), Jiaomai 266 (JM), Xiaoyan 22 (XY), Yunong 949 (YN), and Zhongmai 175 (ZM) were exposed to three levels of (0, 0.25, and 1.5 mg L(-1)) mixture of six selected PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene). After 10 consecutive days of application, all the six selected PAHs (Σ6 PAHs) were determined in the leaves of the six varieties of the winter wheat...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mohamed Awad, Ragab M Fahmy, Kareem A Mosa, Mohamed Helmy, Fawzy A El-Feky
The Egyptian flora is rich with a large number of Triticum plants, which are very difficult to discriminate between in the early developmental stages. This study assesses the significance of using two DNA Barcoding loci (matK and rbcL) in distinguishing between 18 different Triticum accessions in Egypt. We isolated and sequenced 15 rbcL and six matK fragments, but our analysis of the resultant sequences demonstrated a limited ability of matK and rbcL in distinguishing between Triticum accessions. Therefore, we pursued a bioinformatics approach to determine the most useful loci which may be used as DNA barcodes for the Triticum spp...
September 12, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Jian Wang, Chang Wang, Shoumin Zhen, Xiaohui Li, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat-related genomes may carry new glutenin genes with the potential for quality improvement of breadmaking. In this study, we estimated the gluten quality properties of the wheat line CNU609 derived from crossing between Chinese Spring (CS, Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) and the wheat-Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) 1U(1B) substitution line, and investigated the function of 1U-encoded low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). RESULTS: The main quality parameters of CNU609 were significantly improved due to introgression of the 1U genome, including dough development time, stability time, farinograph quality number, gluten index, loaf size and inner structure...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Aman Kumar, Monika Garg, Navneet Kaur, Venkatesh Chunduri, Saloni Sharma, Swati Misser, Ashish Kumar, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Quan-Wen Dou, Raj K Gupta
The protein content and its type are principal factors affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum) end product quality. Among the wheat proteins, glutenin proteins, especially, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of processing quality. Wheat and its primary gene pool have limited variation in terms of HMW-GS alleles. Wild relatives of wheat are an important source of genetic variation. For improvement of wheat processing quality its wild relative Thinopyrum elongatum with significant potential was utilized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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