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Owen Duncan, Josua Trösch, Ricarda Fenske, Nicolas L Taylor, A Harvey Millar
Yield and quality improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a focus in efforts to meet new demands from population growth and changing human diets. As the complexity of the wheat genome is unravelled, determining how it is used to build the protein machinery of wheat plants is a key next step in explaining detailed aspects of wheat growth and development. The specific functions of wheat organs during vegetative development and the role of metabolism, protein degradation and remobilisation in driving grain production are the foundations of crop performance and have recently become accessible through studies of the wheat proteome...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yuri N Clement, Varune Mahase, Annelise Jagroop, Kelly Kissoon, Aarti Maharaj, Prashant Mathura, Chrys Mc Quan, Divya Ramadhin, Cherrista Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161700.].
2016: PloS One
Linda Millyard, Jack Lee, Cunjin Zhang, Gary Yates, Ari Sadanandom
Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici commonly known as Septoria), the causal agent of Septoria Leaf Blotch (STB), is considered one of the major threats to European wheat production. Previous studies have shown the importance of ubiquitination in plant defence against a multitude of pathogens. However the ubiquitination machinery in wheat is under studied, particularly E2 enzymes that have the ability to control the ubiquitination and thereby the fate of many different target proteins. In this study we identify an E2 enzyme, Triticum aestivum Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 4 (TaU4) that functions in wheat defence against Septoria...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Xu Han, Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. RESULTS: The effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Oon Ha Shin, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
BACKGROUND: The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. RESULTS: The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Angelica Giancaspro, Stefania L Giove, Daniela Zito, A Blanco, Agata Gadaleta
Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Michał Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska
In this paper, we highlight the affinity between the genomes of key representatives of the Pooideae subfamily, revealed at the chromosomal level by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The analyses were conducted using labeled probes from each species to hybridize with chromosomes of every species used in this study based on a "round robin" rule. As a result, the whole chromosomes or chromosome regions were distinguished or variable types of signals were visualized to prove the different levels of the relationships between genomes used in this study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Vijay Gahlaut, Vandana Jaiswal, Anuj Kumar, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
TFs involved in drought tolerance in plants may be utilized in future for developing drought tolerant cultivars of wheat and some other crops. Plants have developed a fairly complex stress response system to deal with drought and other abiotic stresses. These response systems often make use of transcription factors (TFs); a gene encoding a specific TF together with -its target genes constitute a regulon, and take part in signal transduction to activate/silence genes involved in response to drought. Since, five specific families of TFs (out of >80 known families of TFs) have gained widespread attention on account of their significant role in drought tolerance in plants, TFs and regulons belonging to these five multi-gene families (AP2/EREBP, bZIP, MYB/MYC, NAC and WRKY) have been described and their role in improving drought tolerance discussed in this brief review...
October 13, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Anshu Gupta, R Paulraj
Landfills are considered the most widely practiced method for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 95% of the total MSW collected worldwide is disposed off in landfills. Leachate produced from Municipal solid waste landfills may contain a number of pollutants and leachates are known to pose a potential environmental risk for surface as well as ground water. In the present study chemical analysis and toxicity assessment of landfill leachate have been carried out. Leachate samples were collected from Ghazipur landfill site, New Delhi...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jonathan J Powell, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jiri Stiller, Paul J Berkman, Donald M Gardiner, John M Manners, Robert J Henry, Kemal Kazan
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allopolyploid species containing three ancestral genomes. Therefore, three homoeologous copies exist for the majority of genes in the wheat genome. Whether different homoeologs are differentially expressed (homoeolog expression bias) in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is poorly understood. In this study, we applied a RNA-seq approach to analyze homoeolog-specific global gene expression patterns in wheat during infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum, which causes crown rot disease in cereals...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Heleen Olaerts, Chiara Roye, Liesbeth J A Derde, Georges Sinnaeve, Walter Rodrigo Meza, Bernard Bodson, Christophe M Courtin
To obtain detailed knowledge on possible changes in the properties of starch, proteins and arabinoxylan as a result of field preharvest sprouting (PHS), three wheat varieties were harvested at maturity and several weeks later when severe PHS had occurred. Falling Number values of flour dropped from 306 to 147 s (Sahara), 382 to 155 s (Forum) and 371 to 230 s (Tobak). Blocking of α-amylase activity demonstrated that the decline in Falling Number and changes in RVA pasting and gelation properties were not caused by changes in intrinsic starch properties as a result of PHS...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wei Zeng, Berit Ebert, Harriet T Parsons, Carsten Rautengarten, Antony Bacic, Joshua L Heazlewood
The Golgi apparatus is an essential component in the plant secretory pathway. The enrichment of Golgi membranes from plant tissue is fundamental to the study of this structurally complex organelle. The utilization of density centrifugation for the enrichment of Golgi membranes is still the most widely employed isolation technique. Generally, the procedure requires optimization depending on the plant tissue being employed. Here we provide a detailed enrichment procedure that has previously been used to characterize cell wall biosynthetic complexes from wheat seedlings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zaheer Ahmed, Hui Yang, Yong-Bi Fu
Timely prediction of seed viability loss over long-term storage represents a challenge in management and conservation of ex situ plant genetic resources. However, little attention has been paid to study the process of seed deterioration and seed aging signals under storage. An attempt was made here to investigate morphological and molecular changes in the scutellum and aleurone sections of naturally or artificially aged wheat seeds using TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. Twelve wheat genotypes or samples exposed to natural ageing (NA) or accelerated ageing (AA) were assayed and these samples had germination rates ranging from 11 to 93%...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hossein Ramshini, Tahere Mirzazadeh, Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam, Reza Amiri
A primary concern of modern plant breeding is that genetic diversity has decreased during the past century. This study set out to explore changes in genetic variation during 84 years of breeding by investigating the germination-related traits, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting and osmotic stress tolerance of 30 Iranian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Seeds were planted under control and osmotic stress (-2, -4 and -6 bar) in three replications. The ISSR experiment was carried out using 32 different primers...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Shuiqing Zhang, Shaomin Huang, Jianwei Li, Doudou Guo, Shan Lin, Guoan Lu
BACKGROUND: The carbon sequestration potential is affected by cropping system and management practices, but soil organic carbon(SOC) sequestration potential under fertilizations remains unclear in north China. This study examined SOC change, total C input to soil, and via integration of these estimates over years, C sequestration efficiency (CSE, the ratio of SOC change over C input) under no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen fertilizer alone (N) or combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NP, NK, PK, NPK), or chemical fertilizers combined with low or high (1...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hongping Chang, Dandan Chen, Jason Kam, Terese Richardson, Janneke Drenth, Xinhong Guo, C Lynne McIntyre, Shoucheng Chai, Anne L Rae, Gang-Ping Xue
Q-type C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are plant-specific DNA-binding proteins containing a conserved QALGGH motif. This study investigated the function of abiotic stress-inducible and predominantly root-expressed Triticum aestivum ZFPs (TaZFP22, TaZFP34 and TaZFP46) with a focus on TaZFP34. Expression of TaZFP34 in roots was upregulated by high salinity, dehydration, oxidative and cold stresses. Overexpression of TaZFP34 in wheat roots resulted in an increased root-to-shoot ratio, a phenomenon observed during plant adaptation to drying soil...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Juan Chen, Lei Fan, Ya Du, Weining Zhu, Ziqin Tang, Na Li, Dapeng Zhang, Linsheng Zhang
Drought stress is a major factor limiting wheat growth and productivity. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are tolerant to water-related stress. To reveal the regulatory mechanisms of LEA proteins under drought stress, we cloned a novel group 3 LEA gene, namely, TaDlea3, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Shaanhe 6. Subcellular localization assay showed that TaDlea3 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that TaDlea3 expression was induced by drought stress...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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