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Huifang Wang, Zhaorong Hu, Ke Huang, Yao Han, Aiju Zhao, Haiming Han, Long Song, Chaofeng Fan, Run Li, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
Common wheat is an allohexaploid (BBAADD) that originated from the hybridization and polyploidization of the diploid Aegilops tauschii (DD) with the allotetraploid Triticum turgidum (BBAA). Phenotypic changes often arise with the formation and evolution of allopolyploid wheat, but little is known about their evolution in different wheat species with varying ploidy levels. Here, we reported that the lateral root number on the primary root (LRNPR) of synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats (BBAADD) is significantly higher than that of their allotetraploid (BBAA) and diploid progenitors (AA and SS) but much lower than that of their diploid progenitors (DD)...
June 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
C L Doolette, T L Read, C Li, K G Scheckel, E Donner, P M Kopittke, J K Schjoerring, E Lombi
Foliar application of zinc (Zn) to crops is an effective way to increase the grain concentration of Zn. However, the development of more efficient foliar Zn fertilisers is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding the distribution, mobility and speciation of Zn in leaves once it is taken up by the plant. We performed an experiment using radiolabelled Zn (65Zn), and in situ time resolved elemental imaging using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), to investigate the behaviour of two commonly used Zn foliar fertilisers (Zn sulfate and ZnEDTA) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sana Tounsi, Kaouthar Feki, Mohamed Najib Saïdi, Sahar Maghrebi, Faiçal Brini, Khaled Masmoudi
HKT transporters which mediate Na+ -specific transport or Na+ -K+ co-transport, play an important role in protecting plants from salinity stress by preventing Na+ -over-accumulation in leaves. In this work, a 1508-bp genomic fragment upstream of the TmHKT1;4-A1 translated sequence from Triticum monococcum has been isolated, cloned, and designated as the ''PrTmHKT1;4-A1'' promoter. Sequence analysis of ''PrTmHKT1;4-A1'' revealed the presence of cis-regulatory elements which could be required for abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) responsiveness...
June 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Maegala Nallapan Maniyam, Abdul Latif Ibrahim, Anthony E G Cass
In the present study, locally isolated Rhodococcus strains were attempted as biological tools for methyl red removal, a mutagenic azo dye posing threat to the environment if left untreated. Rhodococcus strain UCC 0016 demonstrated superior methyl red-decolourizing activity of 100% after 24 hours at static condition in comparison to Rhodococcus strain UCC 0008 which recorded 65% decolourization after 72 hours. Optimization of physicochemical parameters at 30 °C, pH 7 and supplementing glucose as the carbon source resulted in improved methyl red-decolourizing activity at static condition and reduced the time taken to achieve complete decolourization by 80%...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Pedro Campos, Fernando Borie, Pablo Cornejo, Juan A López-Ráez, Álvaro López-García, Alex Seguel
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Panfeng Guan, Lahu Lu, Lijia Jia, Muhammad Rezaul Kabir, Jinbo Zhang, Tianyu Lan, Yue Zhao, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Major advances in wheat production are needed to address global food insecurity under future climate conditions, such as high temperatures. The grain yield of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a quantitatively inherited complex trait that is strongly influenced by interacting genetic and environmental factors. Here, we conducted global QTL analysis for five yield-related traits, including spike yield, yield components and plant height (PH), in the Nongda3338/Jingdong6 doubled haploid (DH) population using a high-density SNP and SSR-based genetic map...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel Z Skinner, Brian Bellinger, William Hiscox, Gregory L Helms
The ability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to develop freezing tolerance through cold acclimation is a complex rait that responds to many environmental cues including day length and temperature. A large part of the freezing tolerance is conditioned by the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene regulon. We investigated whether the level of freezing tolerance of 12 winter wheat lines varied throughout the day and night in plants grown under a constant low temperature and a 12-hour photoperiod. Freezing tolerance was significantly greater (P<0...
2018: PloS One
Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira, César Benito, Henrique Guedes-Pinto, Paula Martins-Lopes
Recently, members of MATE family have been implicated in aluminium (Al) tolerance by facilitating citrate efflux in plants. The aim of the present work was to perform a molecular characterisation of the MATE2 gene in bread wheat. Here, we cloned a member of the MATE gene family in bread wheat and named TaMATE2, which showed the typical secondary structure of MATE-type transporters maintaining all the 12 transmembrane domains. The amplification in Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines revealed that TaMATE2 is located on the long arm of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Shihab Uddin, Markus Löw, Shahnaj Parvin, Glenn J Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Garry O'Leary, Michael Tausz
Through stimulation of root growth, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may facilitate access of crops to sub-soil water, which could potentially prolong physiological activity in dryland environments, particularly because crops are more water use efficient under elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]). This study investigated the effect of drought in shallow soil versus sub-soil on agronomic and physiological responses of wheat to e[CO2] in a glasshouse experiment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown in split-columns with the top (0-30 cm) and bottom (31-60 cm; 'sub-soil') soil layer hydraulically separated by a wax-coated, root-penetrable layer under ambient [CO2] (a[CO2], ∼400 μmol mol-1) or e[CO2] (∼700 μmol mol-1) [CO2]...
2018: PloS One
Luca Sanguigno, Antonella Casamassa, Niccola Funel, Massimiliano Minale, Rodolfo Riccio, Salvatore Riccio, Francesca Boscia, Paola Brancaccio, Luca Emanuele Pollina, Serenella Anzilotti, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Ornella Cuomo
Triticum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine thanks to its properties of accelerating tissue repair. The specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor (TVE-DAMOR) is already present in some pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of decubitus ulcers, skin lesions and burns. It has been recently suggested that this Triticum vulgare extract may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties. In the light of these premises the aim of the present paper was to verify the anti-inflammatory role of TVE, using the LPS-stimulated microglia model of inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Kayla Thomason, Md Ali Babar, John E Erickson, Michael Mulvaney, Chris Beecher, Greg MacDonald
Genetic improvement for stress tolerance requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms and their relationships with different traits. The objective of this study was to demonstrate genetic variability in altered metabolic levels in a panel of six wheat genotypes in contrasting temperature regimes, and to quantify the correlation between those metabolites with different traits. In a controlled environment experiment, heat stress (35:28 ± 0.08°C) was initiated 10 days after anthesis...
2018: PloS One
Vanessa N Kavamura, Rifat Hayat, Ian M Clark, Maike Rossmann, Rodrigo Mendes, Penny R Hirsch, Tim H Mauchline
The effects of fertilizer regime on bulk soil microbial communities have been well studied, but this is not the case for the rhizosphere microbiome. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of fertilization regime on wheat rhizosphere microbiome assembly and 16S rRNA gene-predicted functions with soil from the long term Broadbalk experiment at Rothamsted Research. Soil from four N fertilization regimes (organic N, zero N, medium inorganic N and high inorganic N) was sown with seeds of Triticum aestivum cv...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bin-Bin Guo, Yun-Ji Zhu, Wei Feng, Li He, Ya-Peng Wu, Yi Zhou, Xing-Xu Ren, Ying Ma
Remote sensing techniques can be efficient for non-destructive, rapid detection of wheat nitrogen (N) nutrient status. In the paper, we examined the relationships of canopy multi-angular data with aerial N uptake of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) across different growing seasons, locations, years, wheat varieties, and N application rates. Seventeen vegetation indices (VIs) selected from the literature were measured for the stability in estimating aerial N uptake of wheat under 13 view zenith angles (VZAs) in the solar principal plane (SPP)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fei Xu, Gongqiang Yang, Junmei Wang, Yuli Song, Lulu Liu, Kai Zhao, Yahong Li, Zihang Han
The distribution frequency of pathogenic fungi associated with root and crown rot of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) from 104 fields in the North China Plain was determined during the period from 2013 to 2016. The four most important species identified were Bipolaris sorokiniana (24.0% from roots; 33.7% from stems), Fusarium pseudograminearum (14.9% from roots; 27.8% from stems), Rhizoctonia cerealis (1.7% from roots; 4.4% from stems), and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (9.8% from roots; 4.4% from stems)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Saqib, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Irfan Sohail, Mahnoor Shafiq, Farhan Hafeez
Cadmium (Cd)-contamination of agricultural soils has been receiving attention worldwide due to its entry into food crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Little is known regarding the use of organic carbon (OC) sources in alleviating Cd toxicity in cereals. The current experiment was aimed to study the effects of different OC sources on the Cd accumulation by wheat. A pot study was conducted to determine the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB), farmyard manure (FYM), and lignite (LT) either alone or in combination on crop growth, Cd bioavailability and health risk assessment...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xuye Du, Huinan Wang, Jiefang He, Bin Zhu, Juan Guo, Wenqian Hou, Qingbei Weng, Xiaocun Zhang
In graminaceous plants, nicotianamine (NA) is an important component of metal acquisition. NA is synthesized from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) catalyzed by nicotianamine synthase (NAS). Here, eight Triticum monococcum NAS (TmNAS) genes were cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that TmNAS genes had high sequence identity with those from Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Hordeum vulgare. Phylogenetic analysis showed that NAS genes were classified into two distinct groups, e...
June 6, 2018: Gene
Matthew J Milner, Rhian M Howells, Melanie Craze, Sarah Bowden, Neil Graham, Emma J Wallington
BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, and is required in large quantities by elite varieties of crops to maintain yields. Approximately 70% of global cultivated land suffers from P deficiency, and it has recently been estimated that worldwide P resources will be exhausted by the end of this century, increasing the demand for crops more efficient in their P usage. A greater understanding of how plants are able to maintain yield with lower P inputs is, therefore, highly desirable to both breeders and farmers...
June 8, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Haiyong Xia, Yanfang Xue, Dunyi Liu, Weilin Kong, Yanhui Xue, Yanyan Tang, Jin Li, Dong Li, Peipei Mei
To alleviate human zinc (Zn) deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha-1 ) to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose) on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and carbon (C), as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars ("Jinan 17," "Jimai 20," "Jimai 22," and "Luyuan 502") under field conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Clément Bouton, Robert C King, Hongxin Chen, Kasi Azhakanandam, Stéphane Bieri, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Kostya Kanyuka
Rapid and cost-effective virus-derived transient expression systems for plants are invaluable in elucidating gene function and are particularly useful in plant species for which transformation-based methods are unavailable or are too time- and labor-demanding, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). The virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) previously described for these species are incapable of expressing free recombinant proteins of &gt;150-250 amino acids (aa), are not suited for high-throughput screens, and have other limitations...
June 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
Chunwu Yang, Zongze Yang, Long Zhao, Fasheng Sun, Bao Liu
BACKGROUND: It is known that hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has stronger adaptability to many stressful environments than its tetraploid wheat progenitor. However, the physiological basis and evolutionary course to acquire these enhanced adaptabilities by common wheat remain understudied. Here, we aimed to investigate whether and by what means tolerance to low-nitrogen manifested by common wheat may emerge immediately following allohexaploidization. RESULTS: We compared traits related to nitrogen (N) metabolism in a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6×, BBAADD) mimicking natural common wheat, together with its tetraploid (BBAA, 4×) and diploid (DD, 2×) parents...
June 7, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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