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Zuzana Tulpová, Ming-Cheng Luo, Helena Toegelová, Paul Visendi, Satomi Hayashi, Petr Vojta, Etienne Paux, Andrzej Kilian, Michaël Abrouk, Jan Bartoš, Marián Hajdúch, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning...
March 8, 2018: New Biotechnology
Ya'nan Jin, Shanshan Zhai, Wenjia Wang, Xihan Ding, Zhifu Guo, Liping Bai, Shu Wang
Adverse environmental conditions limit various aspects of plant growth, productivity, and ecological distribution. To get more insights into the signaling pathways under low temperature, we identified 10 C-repeat binding factors ( CBFs ), 9 inducer of CBF expression ( ICEs ) and 10 cold-responsive ( CORs ) genes from Aegilops - Triticum composite group under cold stress. Conserved amino acids analysis revealed that all CBF, ICE, COR contained specific and typical functional domains. Phylogenetic analysis of CBF proteins from Triticeae showed that these CBF homologs were divided into 11 groups...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Abdulqader Jighly, Reem Joukhadar, Sukhwinder Singh, Francis C Ogbonnaya
Whole genome duplication (WGD) is an evolutionary phenomenon, which causes significant changes to genomic structure and trait architecture. In recent years, a number of studies decomposed the additive genetic variance explained by different sets of variants. However, they investigated diploid populations only and none of the studies examined any polyploid organism. In this research, we extended the application of this approach to polyploids, to differentiate the additive variance explained by the three subgenomes and seven sets of homoeologous chromosomes in synthetic allohexaploid wheat (SHW) to gain a better understanding of trait evolution after WGD...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Lei Yan, Zhenshan Liu, Huanwen Xu, Xiaoping Zhang, Aiju Zhao, Fei Liang, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
BACKGROUND: Common wheat is a typical allohexaploid species (AABBDD) derived from the interspecific crossing between allotetraploid wheat (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD). Wide variation in grain size and shape observed among Aegilops tauschii can be retained in synthetic allohexaploid wheats, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, the natural and resynthesized allohexaploid wheats with near-identical AB genomes and different D genomes (TAA10 and XX329) were employed for analysis...
February 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Mahbube Arabbeigi, Ahmad Arzani, Mohammad Mahdi Majidi, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei, Prasenjit Saha
Aegilops cylindrica , a salt-tolerant gene pool of wheat, is a useful plant model for understanding mechanism of salt tolerance. A salt-tolerant USL26 and a salt-sensitive K44 genotypes of A. cylindrica , originating from Uremia Salt Lake shores in Northwest Iran and a non-saline Kurdestan province in West Iran, respectively, were identified based on screening evaluation and used for this work. The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression patterns of four genes related to ion homeostasis in this species...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Ryo Nishijima, Chisa Tanaka, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Cuticular wax on the aerial surface of plants has a protective function against many environmental stresses. The bluish-whitish appearance of wheat leaves and stems is called glaucousness. Most modern cultivars of polyploid wheat species exhibit the glaucous phenotype, while in a wild wheat progenitor, Ae. tauschii, both glaucous and non-glaucous accessions exist. Iw2, a wax inhibitor locus on the short arm of chromosome 2D, is the main contributor to this phenotypic variation in Ae. tauschii, and the glaucous/non-glaucous phenotype of Ae...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
Marian Brestic, Marek Zivcak, Pavol Hauptvogel, Svetlana Misheva, Konstantina Kocheva, Xinghong Yang, Xiangnan Li, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev
Assessment of photosynthetic traits and temperature tolerance was performed on field-grown modern genotype (MG), and the local landrace (LR) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as well as the wild relative species (Aegilops cylindrica Host.). The comparison was based on measurements of the gas exchange (A/ci, light and temperature response curves), slow and fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, and some growth and leaf parameters. In MG, we observed the highest CO2 assimilation rate [Formula: see text] electron transport rate (Jmax) and maximum carboxylation rate [Formula: see text]...
January 30, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Imad Shams, Olga Raskina
Transposable elements (TE) and tandem repeats (TR) compose the largest fraction of the plant genome. The abundance and repatterning of repetitive DNA underlie intrapopulation polymorphisms and intraspecific diversification; however, the dynamics of repetitive elements in ontogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we addressed the genotype-specific and tissue-specific abundances and dynamics of the Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy, and LINE retrotransposons and species-specific Spelt1 tandem repeat in wild diploid goatgrass, Aegilops speltoides Tausch...
January 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Reza Hesami, Azam Salimi, Seyed Majid Ghaderian
In the current study, soils of Tang-e Douzan mine, located in Isfahan, Iran, were collected and analyzed for soluble, exchangeable, and total amounts of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg. The maximum Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg concentrations in soils were 2500, 1100, 59, 43,800, and 1320 mg/kg for total metals, 86, 83, 6.3, 4650, and 48 mg/kg for their exchangeable fractions, and 59, 3.7, 0.53, 430, and 6.4 mg/kg for their soluble fractions, respectively. All specimens collected, including 69 plant species, were analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guanghui Yang, Zhenshan Liu, Lulu Gao, Kuohai Yu, Man Feng, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Zhaorong Hu, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni, Mingming Xin
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent-of-origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid (Aegilops spp.), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat (Triticum spp.) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52...
January 3, 2018: Plant Cell
Valeriya Vavilova, Irina Konopatskaia, Anastasia E Kuznetsova, Alexandr Blinov, Nikolay P Goncharov
BACKGROUND: In rice, a variant of DEP1 gene results in erect panicle architecture, well-developed vascular bundles, an increase in the number of grains per panicle and a consequent increase in the grain yield. Interestingly, DEP1 homologs are present in the other cereals including species of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare), even though they do not produce panicles but spikes. In barley, HvDEP1 alleles do not differ between strains of various ear types and geographic origins, while in at least three OsDEP1 variants have been described...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
Dong Cao, Guangji Ye, Yuan Zong, Bo Zhang, Wenjie Chen, Baolong Liu, Huaigang Zhang
The red coleoptile trait can help monocotyledonous plants withstand stresses, and key genes responsible for the trait have been isolated from Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu, and Triticum monococcum, but no corresponding research has been reported for Aegilops tauschii. In this research, transcriptome analysis was performed to isolate the candidate gene controlling the white coleoptile trait in Ae. tauschii. There were 5348 upregulated, differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) and 4761 downregulated DEGs in red coleoptile vs...
December 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Olga Raskina
In wild plant populations, chromosome rearrangements lead to the wide intraspecific polymorphisms in the abundance and patterns of highly repetitive DNA. However, despite the large amount of accumulated data, the impact of the complex repetitive DNA fraction on genome reorganization and functioning and the mechanisms balancing and maintaining the structural integrity of the genome are not fully understood. Homologous recombination is thought to play a key role in both genome reshuffling and stabilization, while the contribution of nonhomologous recombination seems to be undervalued...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Xingwei Zheng, Xiaohua Li, Chuan Ge, Jianzhong Chang, Mengmeng Shi, Jianli Chen, Linyi Qiao, Zhijian Chang, Jun Zheng, Jiancheng Zhang
Flowering is crucial for reproductive success in flowering plant. The CCT domain-containing genes widely participate in the regulation of flowering process in various plant species. So far, the CCT family in common wheat is largely unknown. Here, we characterized the structure, organization, molecular evolution and expression of the CCT genes in Aegilops tauschii, which is the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Twenty-six CCT genes (AetCCT) were identified from the full genome of A. tauschii and these genes were distributed on all 7 chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
E D Badaeva, A S Ruban, A A Shishkina, S N Sibikeev, A E Druzhin, S A Surzhikov, A Yu Dragovich
Aegilops columnaris is a tetraploid species originated from Ae. umbellulata (2n=2x=14, UU) and a yet unknown diploid grass species. Although Ae. columnaris possesses some agronomically valuable traits, such as heat and drought tolerance and resistance to pests, it has never been used in wheat breeding because of difficulties in producing hybrids and a lack of information on the relationships between Ae. columnaris and common wheat chromosomes. In this paper, we report the development of 57 wheat - Ae. columnaris introgressive lines covering 8 of the14 chromosomes of Aegilops...
February 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Julie King, Surbhi Grewal, Cai-Yun Yang, Stella Hubbart Edwards, Duncan Scholefield, Stephen Ashling, John A Harper, Alexandra M Allen, Keith J Edwards, Amanda J Burridge, Ian P King
Background and Aims: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been through a severe genetic bottleneck as a result of its evolution and domestication. It is therefore essential that new sources of genetic variation are generated and utilized. This study aimed to generate genome-wide introgressed segments from Aegilops speltoides. Introgressions generated from this research will be made available for phenotypic analysis. Methods: Aegilops speltoides was crossed as the male parent to T...
February 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Andrey B Shcherban, Elena A Salina
The TaHOX-1 gene of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. (BAD-genome) encodes transcription factor (HD-Zip I) which is characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) with an adjacent Leucine zipper (LZ) motif. This gene can play a role in adapting plant to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, salinity etc., which strongly affect wheat production. However, it's both functional role in stress resistance and divergence during wheat evolution has not yet been elucidated. This data in brief article is associated with the research paper "Structural and functional divergence of homoeologous copies of the TaHOX-1 gene in polyploid wheats and their diploid ancestors"...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Elahe Tavakol
Among the available reverse genetic approaches for studying gene function, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has several advantages. It allows rapid characterization of gene function independent of stable transformation, which is basically difficult to achieve in monocots, and offers the potential to silence individual or multiple genes of a gene family. In order to establish a VIGS system in Aegilops tauschii, modified vectors derived from Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were used for silencing a phytoene desaturase gene that provides a convenient visual reporter for silencing...
January 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Shigeo Takumi
The ability to cause reproductive isolation often varies among individuals within a plant species. We addressed whether such polymorphism influenced speciation of the allopolyploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome) by evaluating the expression of pre-pollination (outcrossing potential) and post-pollination (crossability) barriers in Aegilops tauschii Coss. (the D genome progenitor). In total, 201 Ae. tauschii accessions representing the entire natural habitat range of the species were used for anther length measurement and artificial crosses with a Triticum turgidum L...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Danielle Keidar, Chen Doron, Khalil Kashkush
Here, we show that Au SINE elements have strong associations with protein-coding genes in wheat. Most importantly Au SINE insertion within introns causes allelic variation and might induce intron retention. The impact of transposable elements (TEs) on genome structure and function is intensively studied in eukaryotes, especially in plants where TEs can reach up to 90% of the genome in some cases, such as in wheat. Here, we have performed a genome-wide in-silico analysis using the updated publicly available genome draft of bread wheat (T...
November 21, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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