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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433217/comparison-of-chemical-color-stability-and-phenolic-composition-from-pericarp-of-nine-colored-corn-unique-varieties-in-a-beverage-model
#1
Sage Haggard, Diego Luna-Vital, Leslie West, John A Juvik, Laura Chatham, Michael Paulsmeyer, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
The objective was to compare the chemical stability and color of nine unique anthocyanin-rich colored corn varieties named/coded as V1, V2, V3… V9. Extracts were added to a beverage model and stored at 4 °C, 22°C, or 32°C for 12weeks. After 12 weeks of storage at 32°C, variety V6 [high condensed form (CF), high cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G)] had the longest anthocyanin half-life, based on the quantification by HPLC. V3 [high pelargonidin (Pg), high acylated form (C3-mal)] and V5 (high CF, high C3G, high C3-mal) had the most favorable hue...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433204/protection-of-color-and-chemical-degradation-of-anthocyanin-from-purple-corn-zea-mays-l-by-zinc-ions-and-alginate-through-chemical-interaction-in-a-beverage-model
#2
Diego Luna-Vital, Regina Cortez, Paulina Ongkowijoyo, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
Anthocyanin-rich purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW) has the potential to be used as a natural pigment in beverages. However, it has a limited shelf-life in aqueous solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effect of zinc ion (Zn2+) and alginate on color and chemical stability of anthocyanins from colored corn (PCW) in a beverage model for 12weeks. PCW was incorporated to Kool-Aid® Invisible™ along with ZnCl2 and/or alginate. Individual ANC were quantified through HPLC, and color stability was evaluated through the CIE-L*a*b* color system...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402221/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potential-mechanisms-for-different-grain-size-between-natural-and-resynthesized-allohexaploid-wheats-with-near-identical-aabb-genomes
#3
Lei Yan, Zhenshan Liu, Huanwen Xu, Xiaoping Zhang, Aiju Zhao, Fei Liang, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
BACKGROUND: Common wheat is a typical allohexaploid species (AABBDD) derived from the interspecific crossing between allotetraploid wheat (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD). Wide variation in grain size and shape observed among Aegilops tauschii can be retained in synthetic allohexaploid wheats, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, the natural and resynthesized allohexaploid wheats with near-identical AB genomes and different D genomes (TAA10 and XX329) were employed for analysis...
February 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397987/fingerprinting-and-characterization-of-anthocyanins-in-94-colored-wheat-varieties-and-blue-aleurone-and-purple-pericarp-wheat-crosses
#4
Stephanie Krüger, Gertrud E Morlock
Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393510/sweet11-and-15-as-key-players-in-seed-filling-in-rice
#5
Jungil Yang, Dangping Luo, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Joon-Seob Eom
Despite the relevance of seed-filling mechanisms for crop yield, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of the transport processes that supply the caryopsis with sugars. We hypothesized that SWEET sucrose transporters may play important roles in nutrient import pathways in the rice caryopsis. We used a combination of mRNA quantification, histochemical analyses, translational promoter-reporter fusions and analysis of knockout mutants created by genomic editing to evaluate the contribution of SWEET transporters to seed filling...
February 2, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386547/the-preference-choices-of-conopomorpha-sinensis-bradley-lepidoptera-gracilariidae-for-litchi-based-on-its-host-surface-characteristics-and-volatiles
#6
Xiang Meng, Junjie Hu, Yanhua Li, Jianqing Dai, Mingfang Guo, Gecheng Ouyang
Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is a host-specific pest of Litchi chinensis and Euphoria longan. Here, we demonstrated that C. sinensis has evolved special physical and chemical mechanisms for host plant location that enable it to survive and reproduce. Females favored laying their eggs on the convex surface of litchi fruit that had particular volatile characteristics. Experiments using a H-type olfactometer showed that female C. sinensis were attracted to litchi flowers, tender shoots, immature fruits, and mature fruits, with the highest attraction rate to mature fruits (74...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378007/autophagy-controls-resource-allocations-and-protein-storage-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-seeds
#7
Julien Di Berardino, Anne Marmagne, Adeline Berger, Kohki Yoshimoto, Gwendal Cueff, Fabien Chardon, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Michèle Reisdorf-Cren
Autophagy is essential for nutrient recycling and plays a fundamental role in seed production and grain filling in plants. Autophagy participates in nitrogen remobilization at the whole plant level, and the seeds of autophagy mutants present abnormal C and N contents relative to wild type (WT). It is well known that autophagy genes are induced in leaves during senescence. The increased expression of autophagy genes in seeds has never been reported so far. We show here that most of the ATG genes are induced during seed maturation in Arabidopsis siliques and that ATG8f is the most highly expressed among them...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371663/high-resolution-spatiotemporal-transcriptome-mapping-of-tomato-fruit-development-and-ripening
#8
Yoshihito Shinozaki, Philippe Nicolas, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Qiyue Ma, Daniel J Evanich, Yanna Shi, Yimin Xu, Yi Zheng, Stephen I Snyder, Laetitia B B Martin, Eliel Ruiz-May, Theodore W Thannhauser, Kunsong Chen, David S Domozych, Carmen Catalá, Zhangjun Fei, Lukas A Mueller, James J Giovannoni, Jocelyn K C Rose
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an established model for studying fruit biology; however, most studies of tomato fruit growth and ripening are based on homogenized pericarp, and do not consider the internal tissues, or the expression signatures of individual cell and tissue types. We present a spatiotemporally resolved transcriptome analysis of tomato fruit ontogeny, using laser microdissection (LM) or hand dissection coupled with RNA-Seq analysis. Regulatory and structural gene networks, including families of transcription factors and hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, are defined across tissue and developmental spectra...
January 25, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370763/ubiquitin-related-genes-are-differentially-expressed-in-isogenic-lines-contrasting-for-pericarp-cell-size-and-grain-weight-in-hexaploid-wheat
#9
Jemima Brinton, James Simmonds, Cristobal Uauy
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to increase global crop production. Identifying and combining specific genes controlling distinct biological processes holds the potential to enhance crop yields. Transcriptomics is a powerful tool to gain insights into the complex gene regulatory networks that underlie such traits, but relies on the availability of a high-quality reference sequence and accurate gene models. Previously, we identified a grain weight QTL on wheat chromosome 5A (5A QTL) which acts during early grain development to increase grain length through cell expansion in the pericarp...
January 25, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358809/effects-of-osmotic-dehydration-treatment-on-volatile-compound-myristicin-content-and-antioxidants-property-of-nutmeg-myristica-fragrans-pericarp
#10
Nurain Rahman, Tan Bee Xin, Hanisah Kamilah, Fazilah Ariffin
The effects of osmotic dehydration (OD) treatment on volatile compound (myristicin) content and the antioxidant capacity of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) were studied. Fresh nutmeg pericarps were treated with varying sugar concentrations (60, 70, 80%) with different soaking periods at ambient temperature. The OD-treated nutmeg extracts were analyzed for myristicin content via Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were analyzed using Follin-Ciocalteu and a free radical scavenging activity assay...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351247/b-type-and-complex-a-b-type-epicatechin-trimers-isolated-from-litchi-pericarp-aqueous-extract-show-high-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activity
#11
Yihui Gong, Fang Fang, Xin Zhang, Bin Liu, Honghui Luo, Zhen Li, Xuelian Zhang, Zhaoqi Zhang, Xuequn Pang
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit is known for its rich source of phenolics. Litchi pericarp contains high levels of epicatechin that may form oligomers of various lengths. Except for several A or B type epicatechin dimers, other soluble oligomers have rarely been identified in the pericarp. Here, bioassay-guided column fractionation was applied to isolate bioactive phenolics from aqueous pericarp extract. A fraction (S3) was obtained by two rounds of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and showed higher antioxidant activity and inhibition on the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) than Litchi anthocyanins...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329845/viscoelastic-behaviour-of-masa-from-corn-flours-obtained-by-nixtamalization-with-different-calcium-sources
#12
David Santiago-Ramos, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, José Juan Véles-Medina
The viscoelastic characteristics of nixtamalized corn masa were assessed by the dynamic oscillatory test. Masa samples were prepared with flours obtained by nixtamalization with different calcium sources: Ca(OH)2 (traditional), wood ashes (classic), CaCO3 (ecological), CaSO4 (ecological), CaCl2 (ecological), and Ca(C2H5COO)2 (ecological). A sample cooking without calcium source was used as control. Storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli were higher in masa from traditional and classic processes indicating a more elastic and viscous masa...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322080/data-on-a-single-oral-dose-of-camu-camu-myrciaria-dubia-pericarp-extract-on-flow-mediated-vasodilation-and-blood-pressure-in-young-adult-humans
#13
Tadayoshi Miyashita, Ryosuke Koizumi, Takao Myoda, Yoshimasa Sagane, Koichi Niwa, Toshihiro Watanabe, Kazuhiro Minami
This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design). Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303957/splice-variants-of-the-castor-wri1-gene-upregulate-fatty-acid-and-oil-biosynthesis-when-expressed-in-tobacco-leaves
#14
Xia-Jie Ji, Xue Mao, Qing-Ting Hao, Bao-Ling Liu, Jin-Ai Xue, Run-Zhi Li
The plant-specific WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a member of the AP2/EREBP class of transcription factors that positively regulate oil biosynthesis in plant tissues. Limited information is available for the role of WRI1 in oil biosynthesis in castor bean (Ricinus connunis L.), an important industrial oil crop. Here, we report the identification of two alternatively spliced transcripts of RcWRI1, designated as RcWRI1-A and RcWRI1-B. The open reading frames of RcWRI1-A (1341 bp) and RcWRI1-B (1332 bp) differ by a stretch of 9 bp, such that the predicted RcWRI1-B lacks the three amino acid residues "VYL" that are present in RcWRI1-A...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299990/aqueous-extract-of-argania-spinosa-l-fruits-ameliorates-diabetes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Mohamed Eddouks, Hebi Morad
INTRODUCTION: The argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. Argan-based preparations have been widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for their biological properties including diabetes especially argan oil. However, the antihypergycemic effect of the pericarp of A. spinosa fruit has never been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose and daily oral administration for seven days of aqueous extract of pericarp of Argania spinosa fruit (A...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299588/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-amides-from-the-zanthoxylum-genus-from-culinary-curiosities-to-probes-for-chemical-biology
#16
REVIEW
Jason J Chruma, Douglas J Cullen, Lydia Bowman, Patrick H Toy
Covering up to February 2017The pericarps of several species from the Zanthoxylum genus, a.k.a. the "prickly ash", have long been used for culinary purposes throughout Asia, most notably in the Sichuan (previously Szechuan) cuisine of Southwestern China, due to the unique tingling and numbing orosensations arising from a collection of polyunsaturated fatty acid amide (alkamide) constituents. The past decade has experienced dramatically increased academic and industrial interest in these pungent Zanthoxylum-derived alkamides, with a concomitant explosion in studies aimed at elucidating the specific biochemical mechanisms behind several medically-relevant biological activities exhibited by the natural products...
January 4, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284307/diarylheptanoids-from-the-fresh-pericarps-of-juglans-sigillata
#17
Jingjing Liang, Xiaogang Peng, Jia Zhou, Ming Zhou, Hanli Ruan
One new diarylheptanoid (3S)-3', 4″-epoxy-1-(4'-hydroxylphenyl)-7-(3″-hydroxylphenyl) heptane-3-hydroxy (1), together with eleven known ones (2-12), was isolated from the fresh pericarps of Juglans sigillata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in vitro against the growth of human cancer cells lines HT-29 and MCF-7 by MTT assay.
December 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277223/the-roles-of-ros-production-scavenging-system-in-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-pat-griff-maubl-induced-pericarp-browning-and-disease-development-of-harvested-longan-fruit
#18
Junzheng Sun, Hetong Lin, Shen Zhang, Yifen Lin, Hui Wang, Mengshi Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Yihui Chen
Effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production-scavenging system during L. theobromae-induced pericarp browning and disease development of harvested "Fuyan" longans were investigated. Compared with control longans, L. theobromae-inoculated longans exhibited higher pericarp browning index and fruit disease index, higher pericarp O2- generation rate and MDA content. Moreover, L. theobromae infection also resulted in lower contents of pericarp AsA and GSH, lower levels of pericarp DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power...
May 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248787/bamboo-leaf-prickly-ash-extract-a-potential-bio-pesticide-against-oriental-leaf-worm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#19
G Kaleeswaran, D M Firake, R Sanjukta, G T Behere, S V Ngachan
Bamboo-Leaf Prickly Ash, Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) is a versatile and widely distributed plant species in nature. It is an edible plant species, commonly used in daily life for condiments and therapeutic remedies. Besides its bioactive and medicinal properties, different plant parts of the Z. armatum also have insecticidal potential. However, this potential has not been yet determined against many agricultural pests, including leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the contact and oral toxicity and sub-lethal effects (including antifeedent and ovicidal action) of various fractions of pericarp, leaf and seeds of Z...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244752/proteomic-analysis-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-through-signal-transduction-and-sugar-metabolism-in-black-rice-leaf
#20
Linghua Chen, Yining Huang, Ming Xu, Zuxin Cheng, Jingui Zheng
Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3-10 days after flowering (DAF)...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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