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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105957/identification-of-nuclear-genes-controlling-chlorophyll-synthesis-in%C3%A2-barley-by-rna-seq
#1
Nickolay A Shmakov, Gennadiy V Vasiliev, Natalya V Shatskaya, Alexey V Doroshkov, Elena I Gordeeva, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Albinism in plants is characterized by lack of chlorophyll and results in photosynthesis impairment, abnormal plant development and premature death. These abnormalities are frequently encountered in interspecific crosses and tissue culture experiments. Analysis of albino mutant phenotypes with full or partial chlorophyll deficiency can shed light on genetic determinants and molecular mechanisms of albinism. Here we report analysis of RNA-seq transcription profiling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087660/the-morphophysiological-dormancy-in-amborella-trichopoda-seeds-is-a-pleisiomorphic-trait-in-angiosperms
#2
Bruno Fogliani, Gildas Gâteblé, Matthieu Villegente, Isabelle Fabre, Nicolas Klein, Nicolas Anger, Carol C Baskin, Charlie P Scutt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda, the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. METHODS: Drupes of A...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063362/production-of-enzymes-by-a-newly-isolated-bacillus-sp-tmf-1-in-solid-state-fermentation-on-agricultural-by-products-the-evaluation-of-substrate-pretreatment-methods
#3
Abdalla Ali Salim, Sanja Grbavčić, Nataša Šekuljica, Andrea Stefanović, Sonja Jakovetić Tanasković, Nevena Luković, Zorica Knežević-Jugović
Study on potential of different agro-industrial waste residues for supporting the growth of newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 strain under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was conducted aiming to produce several industrially valuable enzymes. Since the feasibility of the initial study was confirmed, further objectives included evaluation of several pretreatments of the studied agricultural by-products (soybean meal, sunflower meal, maize bran, maize pericarp, olive oil cake and wheat bran) on the microbial productivity as means of enhancing the yields of produced proteases, α-amylases, cellulases and pectinases...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058480/everyman-s-prostate-phantom-kiwi-fruit-substitute-for-human-prostates-at-magnetic-resonance-imaging-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#4
Ullrich G Mueller-Lisse, Sophie Murer, Ulrike L Mueller-Lisse, Marissa Kuhn, Juergen Scheidler, Michael Scherr
OBJECTIVES: To apply an easy-to-assemble phantom substitute for human prostates in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: Kiwi fruit were fixed with gel hot and cold compress packs on two plastic nursery pots, separated by a plastic plate, and submerged in tap water inside a 1-L open-spout plastic watering can for T2WI (TR/TE 7500/101 ms), DWI (5500/61 ms, ADC b50-800 s/mm(2) map) and MRS (940/145 ms) at 3...
January 5, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039131/salmonella-persistence-in-tomatoes-requires-a-distinct-set-of-metabolic-functions-identified-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing
#5
Marcos H de Moraes, Prerak Desai, Steffen Porwollik, Rocio Canals Alvarez, Daniel R Perez, Weiping Chu, Michael McClelland, Max Teplitski
: Human enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and verotoxigenic E. coli, are increasingly recognized as causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Persistence in plants represents an important part of the life cycle of these pathogens. The identification of the full complement of Salmonella genes involved in the colonization of the model plant (tomato) was carried out using transposon insertion sequencing analysis. With this approach, 230,000 transposon insertions were screened in tomato pericarps to identify loci with reduction in fitness, followed by validation of the screen results using competition assays of the isogenic mutants against the wild type...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017996/extraction-of-anthocyanins-from-pericarp-and-lipids-from-seeds-of-mangosteen-garcinia-mangostana-l-by-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-uae-and-evaluation-of-pericarp-extract-enriched-functional-ice-cream
#6
Lawan Hiranrangsee, Kishore K Kumaree, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Anil K Anal
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract the anthocyanins from pericarp and lipids from the seeds of mangosteen. The optimum time for extraction of anthocyanin by maceration method and shaking water bath was 6 and 4 h, respectively, whereas, it was 5 min only for ultrasonic assisted extraction method. The anthocyanin content, extracted by UAE, was 23.54 mg Cyn-3-Glu/100 g. The regression equation derived by response surface methodology (RSM), was used to predict the anthocyanin content extracted by using UAE...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975991/diol-based-natural-deep-eutectic-solvent-extraction-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-from-the-pericarp-of-garcinia-mangostana
#7
K Mulia, E Krisanti, F Fauzia, S Putri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960285/new-sweet-tasting-c21-pregnane-glycosides-from-pericarps-of-myriopteron-extensum
#8
Guo Sun, Qin Dai, Hong-Xia Zhang, Zhi-Jian Li, Zhi-Zhi Du
Ten novel C21 pregnane glycosides, extensumside C-L (1-10), were isolated as highly sweet-tasting substances from the edible pericarps of Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum by sensory-guided fractionation and purification. Their structures were determined through 1D and 2D NMR, such as HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC-TOCSY, and ROESY, as well as other spectroscopic analysis combined with chemical evidence. These compounds shared the same aglycone, 3β,16α-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one, and contained the deoxysugar chain and the glucose chain which were linked to C-3 and C-16 of the aglycone, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957804/in-depth-characterization-of-the-tomato-fruit-pericarp-proteome
#9
Clara I Mata, Bertrand Fabre, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Harriet T Parsons, Michael J Deery, Kathryn S Lilley, Bart M Nicolaï
Since the genome of Solanum lycopersicum L. was published in 2012, some studies have explored its proteome although with a limited depth. In this work, we present an extended characterization of the proteome of the tomato pericarp at its ripe red stage. Fractionation of tryptic peptides generated from pericarp proteins by off-line high-pH reverse-phase phase chromatography in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis on a Fisher Scientific Q Exactive and a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600 resulted in the identification of 8588 proteins with a 1% FDR both at the peptide and protein levels...
January 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927995/the-biomechanics-of-seed-germination
#10
REVIEW
Tina Steinbrecher, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904399/identification-of-alleles-of-puroindoline-genes-and-their-effect-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grain-texture
#11
Mária Presinszká, Klára Štiasna, Tomáš Vyhnánek, Václav Trojan, Eva Mrkvicová, Luděk Hřivna, Ladislav Havel
Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d)...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899047/phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-four-italian-traditional-maize-zea-mays-l-varieties
#12
Antonella Capocchi, Stefania Bottega, Carmelina Spanò, Debora Fontanini
Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895222/correction-a-genome-wide-regulatory-framework-identifies-maize-pericarp-color1-controlled-genes
#13
Erich Grotewold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873007/difference-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis-gene-expression-in-the-pericarp-reveals-elevation-of-capsaicinoid-contents-in-chili-peppers-capsicum-chinense
#14
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861943/respiration-climacteric-in-tomato-fruits-elucidated-by-constraint-based-modelling
#15
Sophie Colombié, Bertrand Beauvoit, Christine Nazaret, Camille Bénard, Gilles Vercambre, Sophie Le Gall, Benoit Biais, Cécile Cabasson, Mickaël Maucourt, Stéphane Bernillon, Annick Moing, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Jean-Pierre Mazat, Yves Gibon
Tomato is a model organism to study the development of fleshy fruit including ripening initiation. Unfortunately, few studies deal with the brief phase of accelerated ripening associated with the respiration climacteric because of practical problems involved in measuring fruit respiration. Because constraint-based modelling allows predicting accurate metabolic fluxes, we investigated the respiration and energy dissipation of fruit pericarp at the breaker stage using a detailed stoichiometric model of the respiratory pathway, including alternative oxidase and uncoupling proteins...
November 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858171/a-mutational-approach-for-the-detection-of-genetic-factors-affecting-seed-size-in-maize
#16
Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Damiano Gabotti, Priscilla Sofia Manzotti, Martina Persico, Gabriella Consonni, Giuseppe Gavazzi
Genes influencing seed size. The designation emp (empty pericarp) refers to a group of defective kernel mutants that exhibit a drastic reduction in endosperm tissue production. They allow the isolation of genes controlling seed development and affecting seed size. Nine independently isolated emp mutants have been analyzed in this study and in all cases longitudinal sections of mature seeds revealed the absence of morphogenesis in the embryo proper, an observation that correlates with their failure to germinate...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855923/impact-of-industrial-dry-milling-on-fumonisin-redistribution-in-non-transgenic-corn-in-brazil
#17
Jaqueline Gozzi Bordini, Mario Augusto Ono, Glauco Tironi Garcia, Victor Hugo Meconi Fazani, Édio Vizoni, Karem Caroline Bonacin Rodrigues, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855880/physicochemical-properties-of-kiwifruit-starch
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Dongxing Li, Fan Zhu
Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843005/zanthoxylum-bungeanum-pericarp-extract-prevents-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-experimental-colitis-in-mice-via-the-regulation-of-tlr4-and-tlr4-related-signaling-pathways
#19
Zecai Zhang, Jiuxi Liu, Peng Shen, Yongguo Cao, Xiaojie Lu, Xuejiao Gao, Yunhe Fu, Bo Liu, Naisheng Zhang
Zanthoxylum bungeanum, which belongs to the Zanthoxylum genus of the Rutaceae family, is now wildly distributed in most parts of China and some Southeast Asian countries. The pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract (ZBE) on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. The results demonstrated that the major flavonoid composition of ZBE includes rutin (32...
December 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824406/anticarcinogenic-effects-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-a-review
#20
Kuo-Jun Zhang, Qin-Lan Gu, Kan Yang, Xian-Jun Ming, Jin-Xin Wang
Cancer chemoprevention is a promising strategy taken to block, reverse, or retard carcinogenesis. α-Mangostin, a natural xanthone isolated from the pericarps of mangosteen, represents one of the most studied chemopreventive agents. This compound has been reported to interfere with all the major stages of carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion, and progression. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for its anticarcinogenic activities. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms that contribute to the observed activity of α-mangostin related to (i) modulation of carcinogenic biotransformation and mitigation of oxidative damage, (ii) induction of growth arrest and apoptosis, (iii) suppression of angiogenesis and metastasis, and (iv) combination with clinical chemotherapy drugs enhancing their efficacy and decreasing the toxic side effects...
November 4, 2016: Planta Medica
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