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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904399/identification-of-alleles-of-puroindoline-genes-and-their-effect-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grain-texture
#1
Mária Presinszká, Klára Štiasna, Tomáš Vyhnánek, Václav Trojan, Eva Mrkvicová, Luděk Hřivna, Ladislav Havel
Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d)...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899047/phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-four-italian-traditional-maize-zea-mays-l-varieties
#2
Antonella Capocchi, Stefania Bottega, Carmelina Spanò, Debora Fontanini
Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895222/correction-a-genome-wide-regulatory-framework-identifies-maize-pericarp-color1-controlled-genes
#3
Erich Grotewold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873007/difference-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis-gene-expression-in-the-pericarp-reveals-elevation-of-capsaicinoid-contents-in-chili-peppers-capsicum-chinense
#4
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861943/respiration-climacteric-in-tomato-fruits-elucidated-by-constraint-based-modelling
#5
Sophie Colombié, Bertrand Beauvoit, Christine Nazaret, Camille Bénard, Gilles Vercambre, Sophie Le Gall, Benoit Biais, Cécile Cabasson, Mickaël Maucourt, Stéphane Bernillon, Annick Moing, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Jean-Pierre Mazat, Yves Gibon
Tomato is a model organism to study the development of fleshy fruit including ripening initiation. Unfortunately, few studies deal with the brief phase of accelerated ripening associated with the respiration climacteric because of practical problems involved in measuring fruit respiration. Because constraint-based modelling allows predicting accurate metabolic fluxes, we investigated the respiration and energy dissipation of fruit pericarp at the breaker stage using a detailed stoichiometric model of the respiratory pathway, including alternative oxidase and uncoupling proteins...
November 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858171/a-mutational-approach-for-the-detection-of-genetic-factors-affecting-seed-size-in-maize
#6
Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Damiano Gabotti, Priscilla Sofia Manzotti, Martina Persico, Gabriella Consonni, Giuseppe Gavazzi
Genes influencing seed size. The designation emp (empty pericarp) refers to a group of defective kernel mutants that exhibit a drastic reduction in endosperm tissue production. They allow the isolation of genes controlling seed development and affecting seed size. Nine independently isolated emp mutants have been analyzed in this study and in all cases longitudinal sections of mature seeds revealed the absence of morphogenesis in the embryo proper, an observation that correlates with their failure to germinate...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855923/impact-of-industrial-dry-milling-on-fumonisin-redistribution-in-non-transgenic-corn-in-brazil
#7
Jaqueline Gozzi Bordini, Mario Augusto Ono, Glauco Tironi Garcia, Victor Hugo Meconi Fazani, Édio Vizoni, Karem Caroline Bonacin Rodrigues, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855880/physicochemical-properties-of-kiwifruit-starch
#8
Dongxing Li, Fan Zhu
Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843005/zanthoxylum-bungeanum-pericarp-extract-prevents-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-experimental-colitis-in-mice-via-the-regulation-of-tlr4-and-tlr4-related-signaling-pathways
#9
Zecai Zhang, Jiuxi Liu, Peng Shen, Yongguo Cao, Xiaojie Lu, Xuejiao Gao, Yunhe Fu, Bo Liu, Naisheng Zhang
Zanthoxylum bungeanum, which belongs to the Zanthoxylum genus of the Rutaceae family, is now wildly distributed in most parts of China and some Southeast Asian countries. The pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract (ZBE) on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. The results demonstrated that the major flavonoid composition of ZBE includes rutin (32...
November 11, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824406/anticarcinogenic-effects-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-a-review
#10
Kuo-Jun Zhang, Qin-Lan Gu, Kan Yang, Xian-Jun Ming, Jin-Xin Wang
Cancer chemoprevention is a promising strategy taken to block, reverse, or retard carcinogenesis. α-Mangostin, a natural xanthone isolated from the pericarps of mangosteen, represents one of the most studied chemopreventive agents. This compound has been reported to interfere with all the major stages of carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion, and progression. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for its anticarcinogenic activities. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms that contribute to the observed activity of α-mangostin related to (i) modulation of carcinogenic biotransformation and mitigation of oxidative damage, (ii) induction of growth arrest and apoptosis, (iii) suppression of angiogenesis and metastasis, and (iv) combination with clinical chemotherapy drugs enhancing their efficacy and decreasing the toxic side effects...
November 4, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806407/tangeretin-inhibits-il-12-expression-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-dendritic-cells-and-attenuates-colitis-in-mice
#11
Su-Hyeon Eun, Je-Te Woo, Dong-Hyun Kim
In the preliminary study, tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxy flavone), a major constituent of the pericarp of Citrus sp., inhibited TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-23 expression and nuclear factor kappa-B activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells; however, it did not affect IL-10 expression. Furthermore, tangeretin (5, 10, and 20 µM) suppressed the activation and translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (p65) into the nuclei in vitro by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide on dendritic cells...
November 2, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793088/regulation-of-polar-auxin-transport-in-grapevine-fruitlets-vitis-vinifera-l-and-the-proposed-role-of-auxin-homeostasis-during-fruit-abscission
#12
Nathalie Kühn, Alejandra Serrano, Carlos Abello, Aníbal Arce, Carmen Espinoza, Satyanarayana Gouthu, Laurent Deluc, Patricio Arce-Johnson
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, is a growth promoter hormone involved in several developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is very important to its function and this is achieved through the regulation of IAA biosynthesis, conjugation, degradation and transport. In grapevine, IAA plays an essential role during initial stages of berry development, since it delays fruitlet abscission by reducing the ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone. For this reason, Continuous polar IAA transport to the pedicel is required...
October 28, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782100/isobutylhydroxyamides-from-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-and-their-suppression-of-no-production
#13
Yuan Wang, Chun-Huan Li, Bo Luo, Ya Nan Sun, Young Ho Kim, An-Zhi Wei, Jin-Ming Gao
Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A-D (1-4), and eight known ones-tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E (10), bugeanumamide A (11), and (2E,7E,9E)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12)-were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data...
October 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777579/the-hygroscopic-opening-of-sesame-fruits-is-induced-by-a-functionally-graded-pericarp-architecture
#14
Ilana Shtein, Rivka Elbaum, Benny Bar-On
To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774426/antibacterial-and-antibiotic-potentiating-activity-of-vangueria-madagascariensis-leaves-and-ripe-fruit-pericarp-against-human-pathogenic-clinical-bacterial-isolates
#15
M Fawzi Mahomoodally, Schajeed Dilmohamed
This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM) (fruit and leaf extracts) against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768750/key-microbiota-identification-using-functional-gene-analysis-during-pepper-piper-nigrum-l-peeling
#16
Jiachao Zhang, Qisong Hu, Chuanbiao Xu, Sixin Liu, Congfa Li
Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757263/in-vitro-xanthine-oxidase-and-albumin-denaturation-inhibition-assay-of-barringtonia-racemosa-l-and-total-phenolic-content-analysis-for-potential-anti-inflammatory-use-in-gouty-arthritis
#17
Nurul Izzati Osman, Norrizah Jaafar Sidik, Asmah Awal, Nurul Athirah Mohamad Adam, Nur Inani Rezali
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. RESULTS: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746801/developing-pericarp-of-maize-a-model-to-study-arabinoxylan-synthesis-and-feruloylation
#18
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738860/mangostanaxanthones-iii-and-iv-advanced-glycation-end-product-inhibitors-from-the-pericarp-of-garcinia-mangostana
#19
Hossam M Abdallah, Hany M El-Bassossy, Gamal A Mohamed, Ali M El-Halawany, Khalid Z Alshali, Zainy M Banjar
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729434/little-white-lies-pericarp-color-provides-insights-into-the-origins-and-evolution-of-southeast-asian-weedy-rice
#20
Yongxia Cui, Beng Kah Song, Lin-Feng Li, Ya-Ling Li, Zhongyun Huang, Ana L Caicedo, Yulin Jia, Kenneth M Olsen
Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here we examined variation in pericarp (bran) color and its molecular basis to address how this trait evolved in Malaysian weeds and its possible role in weed adaptation...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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