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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043330/procyanidins-extracted-from-the-litchi-pericarp-ameliorate-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-knockout-mice-their-effects-on-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Shuang Rong, Xueting Hu, Siqi Zhao, Yanting Zhao, Xiao Xiao, Wei Bao, Liegang Liu
Epidemiological studies strongly support the role of procyanidin-rich beverages and fruit in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Procyanidins extracted from the litchi pericarp (LPPC), a new source of procyanidins, were isolated and identified in our laboratory and have been proven to possess strong antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LPPC in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice fed a high fat diet for 24 weeks. LPPC (100 mg kg(-1) body mass daily) significantly reduced the atherosclerotic lesion size (P < 0...
October 18, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043212/antibacterial-anti-diarrhoeal-analgesic-cytotoxic-activities-and-gc-ms-profiling-of-sonneratia-apetala-buch-ham-seed
#2
Sheikh Julfikar Hossain, M Rabiul Islam, Tahmina Pervin, M Iftekharuzzaman, Omer A A Hamdi, Sanzida Mubassara, M Saifuzzaman, Jamil Ahmad Shilpi
Fruits of Sonneratia apetala (Buch.-Ham.), (English: mangrove apple, Bengali: keora) both seeds and pericarps, are largely consumed as food besides their enormous medicinal application. The fruit seeds have high content of nutrients and bioactive components. The seeds powder of S. apetala was successively fractionated using n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions were used to evaluate antibacterial, anti-diarrhoeal, analgesic, and cytotoxic activities. Methanol fraction of seeds (MeS) stronly inhibited Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, and Staphylococcus aureus except Vibrio cholerae at 500 μg/disc...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039600/synergism-between-%C3%AE-mangostin-and-trail-induces-apoptosis-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity-through-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#3
Masakatsu Fukuda, Hide Sakashita, Hiroyasu Hayashi, Junya Shiono, Genki Miyake, Yusuke Komine, Fuyoko Taira, Hideaki Sakashita
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tree found in South-East Asia and the pericarp of its fruit has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of many human illnesses. Mangosteen fruit rinds contain a high concentration of xanthone, which is a type of polyphenol. One type of xanthone, α-mangostin, has been reported to exert chemopreventive effects against chemically-induced colon cancer through the decrease of c-Myc expression, suppressing tumor growth in a mouse model of mammary cancer. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitive effect of α-mangostin on the growth of prostate cancer...
October 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037710/cooking-quality-properties-and-free-and-bound-phenolics-content-of-brown-black-and-red-rice-grains-stored-at-different-temperatures-for-six-months
#4
Valmor Ziegler, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Fábio Clasen Chaves, Nathan Levien Vanier, Maurício de Oliveira, Moacir Cardoso Elias
The changes in cooking quality and phenolic composition of whole black and red rice grains stored during six months at different temperatures were evaluated. Brown rice with known cooking quality properties and low phenolic levels was used for purposes comparison. All rice genotypes were stored at 13% moisture content at temperatures of 16, 24, 32, and 40°C. Cooking time, hardness, free and bound phenolics, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and free radical scavenging capacity were analysed. The traditional rice with brown pericarp exhibited an increase in cooking time and free phenolics content, while rice with black pericarp exhibited a reduction in cooking time after six months of storage at the highest studied temperature of 40°C...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027425/-morphological-characteristics-of-chinese-perilla-fruits
#5
Chen-Wu Zhang, Chang-Ling Wei, Fen Zhang, Jing Tian, An-Jia Chen, Bao-Lin Guo
The morphological traits of 55 Chinese Perilla fruit samples (size, 100 grains weight, color, hardness, surface ridge height) are described and the statistically analyzed. It can be divided into 6 categories by cluster analysis, namely: Ⅰ, big grain (diameter 1.5 mm above and 100 grains weight above 0.16 g), low ridge, hard; Ⅱ, big grain, low ridge, soft; Ⅲ, big grain, high ridge, soft, fruit; Ⅳ, big grain. high ridge, gray brown or dark brown; Ⅴ, small grain (diameter 1.5 mm below and 100 grain weight 0...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020946/the-transcriptome-of-the-developing-grain-a-resource-for-understanding-seed-development-and-the-molecular-control-of-the-functional-and-nutritional-properties-of-wheat
#6
Parimalan Rangan, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry
BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. RESULTS: The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85)...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986571/a-high-density-linkage-map-and-qtl-mapping-of-fruit-related-traits-in-pumpkin-cucurbita-moschata-duch
#7
Yu-Juan Zhong, Yang-Yang Zhou, Jun-Xing Li, Ting Yu, Ting-Quan Wu, Jian-Ning Luo, Shao-Bo Luo, He-Xun Huang
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is an economically worldwide crop. Few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were reported previously due to the lack of genomic and genetic resources. In this study, a high-density linkage map of C. moschata was structured by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, using 200 F2 individuals of CMO-1 × CMO-97. By filtering 74,899 SNPs, a total of 3,470 high quality SNP markers were assigned to the map spanning a total genetic distance of 3087.03 cM on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with an average genetic distance of 0...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983311/allelic-variation-and-transcriptional-isoforms-of-wheat-tamyc1-gene-regulating-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-pericarp
#8
Yuan Zong, Xinyuan Xi, Shiming Li, Wenjie Chen, Bo Zhang, Dengcai Liu, Baolong Liu, Daowen Wang, Huaigang Zhang
Recently the TaMYC1 gene encoding bHLH transcription factor has been isolated from the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome and shown to co-locate with the Pp3 gene conferring purple pericarp color. As a functional evidence of TaMYC1 and Pp3 being the same, higher transcriptional activity of the TaMYC1 gene in colored pericarp compared to uncolored one has been demonstrated. In the current study, we present additional strong evidences of TaMYC1 to be a synonym of Pp3. Furthermore, we have found differences between dominant and recessive Pp3(TaMyc1) alleles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981788/empty-pericarp11-serves-as-a-factor-for-splicing-of-mitochondrial-nad1-intron-and-is-required-to-ensure-proper-seed-development-in-maize
#9
Xuemei Ren, Zhenyuan Pan, Hailiang Zhao, Junli Zhao, Manjun Cai, Jiang Li, Zuxin Zhang, Fazhan Qiu, Gerhard Leubner
Group II introns are common in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species. The splicing of these introns is a complex process involving the synergistic action of multiple factors. However, few of these factors have been characterized in maize. In this study, we found that the Empty pericarp11 (Emp11) gene, which encodes a P-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein, is required for the development of maize seeds. The loss of Emp11 function seriously impairs embryo and endosperm development, resulting in empty pericarp seeds in maize, and alteration in Emp11 expression leads to quantitative variation in kernel size and weight...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973720/a-proteomic-approach-to-guarana-seed-and-pericarp-maturation
#10
A L Souza, J L Lopez-Losano, P C S Angelo, J N Souza-Neto, I B Cordeiro, S Astolfi-Filho, E V Andrade
Paullinia cupana Kunth var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, the cultivated guarana plant, is native to the Amazon and has been valued for its medicinal, stimulant and energetic properties for centuries. The seeds are the main commercial product of the plant and the source of high amounts of purine alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine) and polyphenols (flavonoids, catechins, and tannins). Proteins involved in the development and maturation of guarana fruits in its native habitat are interesting issues for proteomics...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946353/application-of-propyl-gallate-alleviates-pericarp-browning-in-harvested-longan-fruit-by-modulating-metabolisms-of-respiration-and-energy
#11
Yifen Lin, Yixiong Lin, Hetong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi
Effects of propyl gallate on metabolisms of respiration and energy of harvested 'Fuyan' longans and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated. Compared to control longans, propyl gallate could reduce ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) activity, lower cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) activity during early-storage and mid-storage, increase NADK activity, elevate contents of NADP and NADPH, decrease contents of NAD and NADH, in addition, lower the decreases of ATP content and energy charge (E.C.), increase activities of mitochondrial H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase during early-storage and mid-storage...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946335/tocotrienols-and-tocopherols-in-colored-grain-wheat-tritordeum-and-barley
#12
Jaromír Lachman, Alena Hejtmánková, Matyáš Orsák, Marek Popov, Petr Martinek
Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946314/characterization-of-polymer-chain-fractions-of-kiwifruit-starch
#13
Dongxing Li, Fan Zhu
In this report, the amylose composition and molecular structure of starches from the core and outer pericarp of 3 golden kiwifruit varieties were characterised, using enzymatic and chromatographic techniques. Starches from the core tissues of kiwifruit tend to have higher amylose contents (by ∼3-5%) and longer unit chains of both amylopectins and their φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs) than those of the outer pericarp starches. The contents of short B-chains of the φ, β-LDs of amylopectins from the outer pericarp were higher (by ∼3%) than those of φ, β-LDs of the core amylopectins...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926234/using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-based-chemometrics-for-the-identification-of-anti-angiogenic-biflavonoids-from-edible-garcinia-species
#14
Ping Li, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Hin-Fai Kwok, Chun-Lin Long, Clara Bik-San Lau, Edward J Kennelly
Garcinia xanthochymus fruits are edible and also used in traditional medicine. Our previous work showed that the isolated natural products from G. xanthochymus fruits have displayed antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity in the colon cancer cells. In this study, we developed a strategy to correlate a zebrafish angiogenesis assay with ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry-based chemometric analysis to identify potential anti-angiogenic activity compounds from G. xanthochymus fruits...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922757/regulation-of-ethylene-related-gene-expression-by-indole-3-acetic-acid-and-4-chloroindole-3-acetic-acid-in-relation-to-pea-fruit-and-seed-development
#15
Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Jocelyn A Ozga, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
In pea, the auxins 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) occur naturally; however, only 4-Cl-IAA stimulates pericarp growth and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis, and inhibits the ethylene response in deseeded ovaries (pericarps), mimicking the presence of seeds. Expression of ovary ethylene biosynthesis genes was regulated similarly in most cases by the presence of 4-Cl-IAA or seeds. PsACS1 [which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] transcript abundance was high in pericarp tissue adjacent to developing seeds following pollination...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920455/a-new-4-arylflavan-from-the-pericarps-of-horsfieldia-motleyi-displaying-dual-inhibition-against-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-free-radicals
#16
Rico Ramadhan, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rudianto Amirta, Wisuttaya Worawalai, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan
In search for effective antidiabetic agents that simultaneously inhibit α-glucosidase and scavenge free radicals, Horsfieldia motleyi showed promising bioactivity according to the proposed criteria. Bioassay-guided isolation of pericarp extract yielded a new 4-arylflavan named myristinin G (6), whose gross structure and absolute configuration were verified by 2D NMR and electronic circular dichorism (ECD). Myristinin G (6) concomitantly inhibited α-glucosidases (IC50 107.0 and 126.9 μM) and free radicals (SC50 54...
September 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919902/expression-differences-of-pigment-structural-genes-and-transcription-factors-explain-flesh-coloration-in-three-contrasting-kiwifruit-cultivars
#17
Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Yingwei Qi, Xin Chen, Cuihua Liu, Zhande Liu, Xiaolin Ren
Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa) generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red ('Hongyang'), or yellow ('Jinnong-2'), or green ('Hayward') flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the 'Jinnong-2' fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904555/acyclic-sesquiterpenes-from-the-fruit-pericarp-of-sapindus-saponaria-induce-ultrastructural-alterations-and-cell-death-in-leishmania-amazonensis
#18
Amanda Louzano Moreira, Débora Botura Scariot, Bruna Luíza Pelegrini, Greisiele Lorena Pessini, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Izabel Cristina Piloto Ferreira
Previous studies reported antiprotozoal activities of Sapindus saponaria L. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial activity and mechanism of action of extract and fractions of S. saponaria L. Hydroethanolic extract (EHA) obtained from fruit pericarps was fractionated using solid-phase extraction in a reversed phase, resulting in fractions enriched with saponins (SAP fraction) and acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (OGSA fraction). The activities of EHA, SAP, and OGSA were evaluated by antiproliferative assays with promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898851/cellulose-conversion-of-corn-pericarp-without-pretreatment
#19
Daehwan Kim, David Orrego, Eduardo A Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch
We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878495/the-expression-of-a-candidate-cucumber-fruit-sugar-starvation-marker-gene-cssef1-is-enhanced-in-malformed-fruit-induced-by-salinity
#20
Akio Tazuke, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Munehiko Asayama
The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) gene Cucumis sativus Somatic Embryogenesis Zinc Finger 1 (CsSEF1) was suggested to be a good marker gene for sugar starvation in fruit. The expression of this gene in fruits is dramatically upregulated in plants that have suffered either complete defoliation or prolonged darkness. CsSEF1 was initially discovered as a gene that was upregulated during somatic embryogenesis. We examined the difference in fruit parts and the effect of pollination on the upregulation of CsSEF1 induced by defoliation treatment...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
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