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Fedia Souilem, Asma El Ayeb, Brahim Djlassi, Olfa Ayari, Wiem Chiboub, Faten Arbi, Roberta Ascrizzi, Guido Flamini, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
This is the first study investigating the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated from different tissues of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.)A.DC, their antimicrobial activity and the anatomical characters of the aerial organs and the fruits. The main EO components were pentadecanal and tetradecan-1-ol (31.9 and 16.5% in fresh leaf EO, resp.), (E)-nerolidol and caryophyllene oxide (27.3 and 15.0% in fruit EO, resp.), linalool and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (30.9 and 24.9% in stem EO, resp.), benzyl benzoate (24...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Xiaodan Zhao, Xinyu Yuan, Sha Chen, Lanhuan Meng, Daqi Fu
Fruit ripening is a complex biological process affecting fruit quality. In tomato the fruit ripening process is delicately regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Among these, the TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) gene plays an important role in both the development and ripening of fruit. In this study, the TAGL1 gene was successfully silenced by virus-induced gene silencing technology (VIGS), and the global gene expression and metabolites profiles of TAGL1-silenced fruits were analyzed by RNA-sequence analysis (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2018: PloS One
Tomohiro Narukawa, Takahiro Iwai, Koichi Chiba
The inorganic arsenic (i-As) in grape products, in particular juice, wine and raisins, collected from the Japanese market was investigated. The concentrations of total As in nine grape concentrated juices ranged from 3 to 20 ng g-1 , and more than 80% of the As was inorganic according to the results of speciation by HPLC-ICP-MS. Among them, four samples contained more than 10 ng g-1 of i-As, although 10 ng g-1 of i-As is the limit for apple juice recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, more than 10 ng g-1 of i-As was found in some of the wine and raisin samples, with the total As concentrations ranging from 17 to 37 ng g-1 ...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Nan Yang, Ting-Ting You, Yu-Kun Gao, Chen-Meng Zhang, Penggang Yin
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in detection of food safety due to the nondestructive examination property. Here, we reported a flexible SERS film based on polymer immobilized gold nanorods polymer metafilm. Polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS), a transparent and flexible along with excellent elasticity polymer was chosen as main support of gold nanorods. A simple phase transfer progress was adopted to mix the gold nanorods with polymer which can further used in most water-insoluble polymers...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Siti Farah Mamat, Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Normah Mohd Noor, Wan Mohd Aizat
Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon involving a series of biochemical, physiological and organoleptic changes. Ripening process in mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is unique of which the fruit will only ripen properly if harvested during its middle stage (emergence of purple/pink colour) but not earlier (green stage). The knowledge on the molecular mechanism and regulation behind this phenomenon is still limited. Hence, electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS) based metabolomics analysis was applied to determine the metabolome of mangosteen ripening...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Yihui Chen, Shen Zhang, Hetong Lin, Junzheng Sun, Yifen Lin, Hui Wang, Mengshi Lin, John Shi
The main goal of this study was to investigate the influences of Phomopsis longanae Chi infection on activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), and contents of cell wall components in pericarp of harvested "Fuyan" longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Fuyan) fruit and its relation to disease development. The results showed that, compared with the control samples, P. longanae -inoculated longans showed higher fruit disease index, lower content of pericarp cell wall materials (CWMs), as well as lower contents of pericarp cell wall components (chelate-soluble pectin (CSP), sodium carbonate-soluble pectin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose), but higher content of pericarp water-soluble pectin (WSP)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jingxu Zhang, Ye Kang, Bernal E Valverde, Weimin Dai, Xiaoling Song, Sheng Qiang
Pollen-mediated herbicide-resistance transgene flow occurs bidirectionally between transgenic cultivated rice and weedy rice. The potential risk of weedy traits introgressing into hybrid rice is underestimated and poorly understood. Two of each glufosinate-resistant transgenic rice varieties and hybrid rice (F1) and their succeeding generations (F2-F4) were planted for three years in weedy-rice-free field plots adjacent to experimental weedy-rice fields. Weedy-rice-like (feral) plants, both glufosinate-resistant and with red-pericarp seed, were initially found only among the F3 generations of the two glufosinate-resistant transgenic hybrid rice...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Myung-Shin Kim, Seungill Kim, Jongbum Jeon, Ki-Tae Kim, Hyun-Ah Lee, Hye-Young Lee, Jieun Park, Eunyoung Seo, Saet-Byul Kim, Seon-In Yeom, Yong-Hwan Lee, Doil Choi
Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is one of the most consumed vegetable crops in the world and useful to human as it has many nutritional and medicinal values. Genomic resources of pepper are publically available since the pepper genomes have been completed and massive data such as transcriptomes have been deposited. Nevertheless, global transcriptome profiling is needed to identify molecular mechanisms related to agronomic traits in pepper, but limited analyses are published. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of pepper transcriptomes during fruit ripening and pathogen infection...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Data
Jinbo Hu, Yang Shi, Yuan Liu, Shanshan Chang
The main product of Camellia oleifera is edible oil made from the seeds, but huge quantities of agro-waste are produced in the form of shells. The primary components of C. oleifera fruit shell are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which probably make it a good eco-friendly non-wood material. Understanding the structure of the shell is however a prerequisite to making full use of it. The anatomical structure of C. oleifera fruit shells was investigated from macroscopic to ultrastructural scale by stereoscopic, optical, and scanning electron microscopy...
June 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Elizabeth A LaRue, Jeffrey D Holland, Nancy C Emery
Variation in habitat quality and quantity drive selection on dispersal traits in heterogeneous environments, but the extent to which environmental conditions predict geographic variation in dispersal is rarely evaluated. We assessed dispersal trait variation across the range of Cakile edentula var. lacustris, an annual herb that occupies beaches of the Great Lakes. Cakile edentula has dimorphic fruits that each contain one dispersive and one non-dispersive seed. Previous work showed that plant height, branching density, and dispersive fruit wing-loading can determine the distance that seeds disperse locally by wind, while pericarp thickness influences the distance they disperse by water...
May 30, 2018: Ecology
Xiankuo Yu, Liying Tang, Hongwei Wu, Xiao Zhang, Hanyan Luo, Rixin Guo, Mengying Xu, Hongjun Yang, Jianwei Fan, Zhuju Wang, Ruiqiang Su
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trichosanthis Fructus (ripe fruits of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. and Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms) is an essential traditional Chinese medicine to treat thoracic obstruction, angina, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, pulmonary heart disease, some cerebral ischaemic diseases, etc. The present report reviews the advancements in research on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Trichosanthis Fructus. Finally, perspectives on future research and its possible directions are discussed...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shuang Rong, Siqi Zhao, Xu Kai, Li Zhang, Yanting Zhao, Xiao Xiao, Wei Bao, Liegang Liu
The beneficial effects of red wine against cardiovascular disease are associated with the abundant antioxidant polyphenols such as procyanidins. Recently, procyanidins extracted from the litchi pericarp (LPPC), a new source of procyanidins showed strong antioxidant activities in vitro, have been isolated and identified in our laboratory. The aim of present study was to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LPPC on atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat, 0...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Dina S El-Agamy, Hossam M Abdallah, Nishat Ahmed, Mohamed A Elkablawy, Gamal A Mohamed
Garcinia mangostana L. (GM, family Guttiferae) is one of the most widely recognized tropical fruits. GM is a wealthy pool of xanthones that exhibit a wide range of bioactivities. Tovophyllin A (TA) separated from GM pericarps was tested for its efficacy to ameliorate acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Mice were injected with a single dose of APAP with or without TA pretreatment. The protective effects of TA against APAP-induced liver damage were evident through amelioration of serum indices of hepatotoxicity and improvement of hepatic histopathologic lesions...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
Yuying Zheng, Xuan Zeng, Wei Peng, Zhong Wu, Weiwei Su
Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP), the dried pericarps of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivars, has been widely used in drugs and foods in China for centuries. In this study, an accurate and feasible analytical method based on HS-SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed to comprehensively compare volatile compounds of pericarps derived from Citrus reticulata "Chachi" ("Guangchenpi" in Chinese, GCP) and other cultivars of Citrus reticulata Blanco ("Chenpi" in Chinese, CP)...
May 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Verónica Rocha-Villarreal, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Nathan Levien Vanier, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Silverio García-Lara
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of a traditional parboiling treatment on physical, chemical and functional properties of yellow maize kernels. For this, maize kernels were subjected to the three main stages of a traditional parboiling process (soaking, steaming, and drying) at different moisture contents (15%, 25%, or 35%), and different pressure steaming times (0, 15, or 30 min). Kernels were evaluated for physical and chemical changes, while manually generated endosperm fractions were further evaluated for nutritional and functional changes...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Gaëlle S Nguenang, Armelle T Mbaveng, Aimé G Fankam, Hermione T Manekeng, Paul Nayim, Brice E N Wamba, Victor Kuete
In order to contribute to the fight against infectious diseases, the in vitro antibacterial activity and the antibiotic-potentiating effects of Tristemma hirtum and five other Cameroonian edible plants have been evaluated against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the bacterial susceptibility of the extracts and their combination to common antibiotics. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, and polyphenols, including flavonoids in most of the tested extracts...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Hui-Suan Ng, Grace Yin Tze Tan, Ka-Heng Lee, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Hip Seng Yim, John Chi-Wei Lan
The α- and γ-mangostins from Garcinia mangostana pericarps (GMP) exhibit antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. The extraction yields α- and γ-mangostins are often limited by the presence of the GMP cell walls. Therefore, the extraction and recovery of mangostins from GMP with an Aspergillus niger cellulase-assisted aqueous micellar biphasic system (CA-AMBS) was developed for enhanced yield of mangostins. Effects of the concentration of cellulase, the incubation time and the temperature of the system on the recovery of mangostins were investigated...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Nadine Töpfer, Samuel M D Seaver, Asaph Aharoni
In the last decade, plant genome-scale modeling has developed rapidly and modeling efforts have advanced from representing metabolic behavior of plant heterotrophic cell suspensions to studying the complex interplay of cell types, tissues, and organs. A crucial driving force for such developments is the availability and integration of "omics" data (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) which enable the reconstruction, extraction, and application of context-specific metabolic networks...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xinghai Yang, Xiuzhong Xia, Yu Zeng, Baoxuan Nong, Zongqiong Zhang, Yanyan Wu, Faqian Xiong, Yuexiong Zhang, Haifu Liang, Guofu Deng, Danting Li
Rice is an important cereal in the world. The study of the genetic basis of important agronomic traits in rice landraces and identification of genes will facilitate the breed improvement. Gelatinization temperature (GT), gel consistency (GC) and pericarp color (PC) are important indices of rice cooking and eating quality evaluation and potential nutritional importance, which attract wide attentions in the application of genetic and breeding. To dissect the genetic basis of GT, GC and PC, a total of 419 rice landraces core germplasm collections consisting of 330 indica lines, 78 japonica lines and 11 uncertain varieties were planted, collected, then GT, GC, PC were measured for two years, and sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology...
2018: PloS One
Gary L Windham, William P Williams, J E Mylroie, Cedric X Reid, Erika D Womack
Aspergillus flavus colonization in developing kernels of maize single-cross hybrids resistant (Mp313E × Mp717) and susceptible (GA209 × T173) to aflatoxin accumulation was determined in the field over three growing seasons (2012-2014). Plants were hand pollinated, and individual kernels were inoculated with a needle dipped in a suspension of A. flavus conidia 21 days after pollination. Kernels were harvested at 1- to 2-day intervals from 1 to 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Kernels were placed in FAA fixative, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with toluidine blue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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