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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205860/contrasting-patterns-of-variation-in-weedy-traits-and-unique-crop-features-in-divergent-populations-of-us-weedy-rice-oryza-sativa-sp-in-arkansas-and-california
#1
Kimberly L Kanapeckas, Te-Ming Tseng, Cynthia C Vigueira, Aida Ortiz, William C Bridges, Nilda R Burgos, Albert J Fischer, Amy Lawton-Rauh
BACKGROUND: Weed evolution from crops involves changes in key traits, but it is unclear how genetic and phenotypic variation contribute to weed diversification and productivity. Weedy rice is a conspecific weed of rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide. We used principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering to understand how morphologically and evolutionarily distinct US weedy rice populations persist in rice fields in different locations under contrasting management regimes. Further, we used a representative subset of 15 sequence-tagged-site fragments of expressed genes from global Oryza to assess genome-wide sequence variation among populations...
December 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202197/unfertilized-ovary-pushes-wheat-flower-open-for-cross-pollination
#2
Takashi Okada, J E A Ridma M Jayasinghe, Moureen Nansamba, Mathieu Baes, Patricia Warner, Allan Kouidri, David Correia, Vy Nguyen, Ryan Whitford, Ute Baumann
Bread wheat is strongly autogamous; however, an opportunity for outcrossing occurs when self-pollination fails and florets open. The first phase of floret opening at anthesis is short and induced by lodicule turgidity. Some wheat florets re-open post-anthesis for several days, known as the 'second opening', for which the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed detailed physiological, anatomical, and histological investigations to understand the biological basis of the flower opening process...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192192/fruit-fracture-biomechanics-and-the-release-of-lepidium-didymum-pericarp-imposed-mechanical-dormancy-by-fungi
#3
Katja Sperber, Tina Steinbrecher, Kai Graeber, Gwydion Scherer, Simon Clausing, Nils Wiegand, James E Hourston, Rainer Kurre, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Klaus Mummenhoff
The biomechanical and ecophysiological properties of plant seed/fruit structures are fundamental to survival in distinct environments. Dispersal of fruits with hard pericarps (fruit coats) encasing seeds has evolved many times independently within taxa that have seed dispersal as their default strategy. The mechanisms by which the constraint of a hard pericarp determines germination timing in response to the environment are currently unknown. Here, we show that the hard pericarp of Lepidium didymum controls germination solely by a biomechanical mechanism...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190084/acovenoside-a-induces-mitotic-catastrophe-followed-by-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#4
Menna El Gaafary, Shahira M Ezzat, Abeer M El Sayed, Omar M Sabry, Susanne Hafner, Sophia Lang, Michael Schmiech, Tatiana Syrovets, Thomas Simmet
We investigated the cytotoxic potential of the cardenolide glycoside acovenoside A against non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the second most common cancer diagnosed. Epidemiological studies revealed a direct correlation between the regular administration of cardiac glycosides and a lower incidence of various cancers. Acovenoside A, isolated from the pericarps of Acokanthera oppositifolia, potently inhibited proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cells with an IC50 of 68 ± 3 nM after 48 h of exposure...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184256/factors-influencing-anthocyanin-loss-during-nixtamalization-of-blue-purple-maize-grain
#5
Yolanda Salinas Moreno, Mónica Rosalía Jaime Fonseca, José Luis Díaz-Ramírez, Ivone Alemán de la Torre
Blue purple maize grain loses a great amount of anthocyanins during the nixtamalization processing. The impact of the process factors on anthocyanins losses has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine the step of the nixtamalization procedure where the greatest anthocyanin loss occurs and (2) study the effect of cooking time, alkali concentration, and sample size on anthocyanin losses (AL), and on the color of masa and tortilla from blue purple maize grain. Two cooking times were assayed (25 and 35 min), three alkali concentrations (0...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176590/nanocarrier-mediated-delivery-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-for-non-surgical-castration-of-male-animals
#6
Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Mattaka Khongkow, Chatwalee Boonthum, Sasithon Pagseesing, Nattika Saengkrit, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan, Teerapong Yata
The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties of AM-NLC and determine the biological effects of AM-NLC on spermatogonia cells and testicular explants obtained from castrated testes...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172253/transcriptome-profiling-of-sorted-endoreduplicated-nuclei-from-tomato-fruits-how-global-shift-in-expression-ascribed-to-dna-ploidy-influences-rna-seq-data-normalization-and-interpretation
#7
Julien Pirrello, Cynthia Deluche, Nathalie Frangne, Frédéric Gévaudant, Elie Maza, Anis Djari, Mickaël Bourge, Jean-Pierre Renaudin, Spencer Brown, Chris Bowler, Mohamed Zouine, Christian Chevalier, Nathalie Gonzalez
As part of normal development most eukaryotic organisms ranging from insects to mammals and plants display variations in nuclear ploidy levels resulting from somatic endopolyploidy. Endoreduplication is the major source of endopolyploidy in higher plants. Endoreduplication is a remarkable characteristic of the fleshy pericarp tissue of developing tomato fruits, where it establishes a highly integrated cellular system that acts as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth. However, the functional significance of endoreduplication is not fully understood...
November 24, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164747/a-role-for-fruit-structure-in-seed-survival-and-germination-of-swartzia-langsdorffii-raddi-beyond-dispersal
#8
T A A Vaz, A G Rodrigues-Junior, A C Davide, A T Nakamura, P E Toorop
Diaspore structure has been hypothesized to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (1) investigate in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (2) identify morphoanatomical traits of Swartzia langsdorffii diaspores that aid its desiccation-sensitive seed to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) on the soil in the forest understory, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds; and water content (WC) of pericarps, arils and seeds...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143621/identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-network-components-for-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-barley-aleurone
#9
Ksenia V Strygina, Andreas Börner, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Among natural populations, there are different colours of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The colour of barley grains is directly related to the accumulation of different pigments in the aleurone layer, pericarp and lemma. Blue grain colour is due to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the aleurone layer, which is dependent on the presence of five Blx genes that are not sequenced yet (Blx1, Blx3 and Blx4 genes clustering on chromosome 4HL and Blx2 and Blx5 on 7HL). Due to the health benefits of anthocyanins, blue-grained barley can be considered as a source of dietary food...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#10
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143067/characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-qkc7-03-a-major-locus-for-kernel-cracking-in-maize
#11
Mingtao Yang, Lin Chen, Xun Wu, Xing Gao, Chunhui Li, Yanchun Song, Dengfeng Zhang, Yunsu Shi, Yu Li, Yong-Xiang Li, Tianyu Wang
A major locus conferring kernel cracking in maize was characterized and fine mapped to an interval of 416.27 kb. Meanwhile, combining the results of transcriptomic analysis, the candidate gene was inferred. Seed development requires a proper structural and physiological balance between the maternal tissues and the internal structures of the seeds. In maize, kernel cracking is a disorder in this balance that seriously limits quality and yield and is characterized by a cracked pericarp at the kernel top and endosperm everting...
November 15, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120810/lasiodiplodia-theobromae-pat-griff-maubl-induced-disease-development-and-pericarp-browning-of-harvested-longan-fruit-in-association-with-membrane-lipids-metabolism
#12
Shen Zhang, Yuzhao Lin, Hetong Lin, Yixiong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi, Yifen Lin
Effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae inoculation on disease development, pericarp browning and membrane lipids metabolism of harvested "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with control fruit, L. theobromae-inoculated longans showed higher fruit disease index, pericarp browning index and cell membrane permeability, as well as higher activities of phospholipase D, lipase and lipoxygenase. Additionally, there were lower contents of membrane phospholipids but higher content of phosphatidic acid, and lower level of unsaturated fatty acids but higher level of saturated ones with lower ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid and lower index of unsaturated fatty acids in pericarp of L...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116938/mangostanaxanthone-vii-a-new-cytotoxic-xanthone-from-garcinia-mangostana
#13
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Mahmoud A Elfaky, Mohamed F Zayed, Amal A El-Kholy, Osama H Abdelmageed, Samir A Ross
Garcinia mangostana L. (the queen of fruits, mangosteen, family Guttiferae) is a wealthy source of xanthones. The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of G. mangostana provided a new xanthone: mangostanaxanthone VII (5), along with four known xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (1) and II (2), gartanin (3) and γ-mangostin (4). The structural verification of these metabolites was achieved by different spectral techniques, including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The new metabolite was assessed for cytotoxic potential, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay towards the A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines...
November 8, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116063/-myc-gene-family-in-cereals-transformations-during-evolution-of-hexaploid-bread-wheat-and-its-relatives
#14
K V Strygina, E K Khlestkina
The transcription factors of the MYC gene family are an integral part of the MYB + MYC + WD40 regulatory complex required to activate the genes of plant flavonoid biosynthesis. The TaMyc1 gene, which controls the synthesis of flavonoid pigments in the grain pericarp, is known in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., BBAADD genome, 2n = 6x = 42). In the present work, we identified 10 copies of this gene in the T. aestivum genome, 22 copies in the nearest bread wheat relatives (T. durum, T. urartu, T. monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, Ae...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112965/overlapping-rddm-and-non-rddm-mechanisms-work-together-to-maintain-somatic-repression-of-a-paramutagenic-epiallele-of-maize-pericarp-color1
#15
Po-Hao Wang, Kameron T Wittmeyer, Tzuu-Fen Lee, Blake C Meyers, Surinder Chopra
Allelic variation at the Zea mays (maize) pericarp color1 (p1) gene has been attributed to epigenetic gene regulation. A p1 distal enhancer, 5.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site, has demonstrated variation in DNA methylation in different p1 alleles/epialleles. In addition, DNA methylation of sequences within the 3' end of intron 2 also plays a role in tissue-specific expression of p1 alleles. We show here a direct evidence for small RNAs' involvement in regulating p1 that has not been demonstrated previously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102902/ectopic-expression-of-iiful-isolated-from-isatis-indigotica-could-change-the-reproductive-growth-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Yan-Qin Ma, Dian-Zhen Li, Li Zhang, Qi Li, Jing-Wen Yao, Zheng Ma, Xuan Huang, Zi-Qin Xu
The coding sequence of IiFUL in Isatis indigotica was isolated and was used in transformation of Arabidopsis. IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited early flowering phenotype, accompanied with the reduction of flower number and the production of terminal flower on the top of the main stems. In development process, the flowers located on the top of the main stems generated a lot of variations in phenotype, including abnormal swelling of pistil, withering and numerical change of stamens and petals, appearance of stigmatoid tissues and naked ovules at the margin or inside of sepals...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091115/oviposition-of-fruit-flies-diptera-tephritidae-and-its-relation-with-the-pericarp-of-citrus-fruits
#17
N P Dias, D E Nava, M S Garcia, F F Silva, R A Valgas
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L...
October 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078143/impact-of-reduced-atmospheric-co2-and-varied-potassium-supply-on-carbohydrate-and-potassium-distribution-in-grapevine-and-grape-berries-vitis-vinifera-l
#18
Zelmari A Coetzee, Rob R Walker, Alain J Deloire, Célia Barril, Simon J Clarke, Suzy Y Rogiers
To assess the robustness of the apparent sugar-potassium relationship during ripening of grape berries, a controlled-environment study was conducted on Shiraz vines involving ambient and reduced (by 34%) atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and standard and increased (by 67%) soil potassium applications from prior to the onset of ripening. The leaf net photoassimilation rate was decreased by 35% in the reduced CO2 treatment. The reduction in CO2 delayed the onset of ripening, but at harvest the sugar content of the berry pericarp was similar to that of plants grown in ambient conditions...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066885/asymmetric-dumbbell-shaped-silver-nanoparticles-and-spherical-gold-nanoparticles-green-synthesized-by-mangosteen-garcinia-mangostana-pericarp-waste-extracts
#19
Ji Su Park, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057484/biochemical-and-functional-characterization-of-acufgt3a-a-galactosyltransferase-involved-in-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-red-fleshed-kiwifruit-actinidia-chinensis
#20
Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Yingwei Qi, Cuihua Liu, Zhande Liu, Xiaolin Ren
Much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. This step can increase both their solubility and stability. We investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruit of the red-fleshed kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Hongyang'. The results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. Based on expression analyses of structural genes, AcUFGT was shown to be the key gene involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway...
October 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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