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Jiachao Zhang, Qisong Hu, Chuanbiao Xu, Sixin Liu, Congfa Li
Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella...
2016: PloS One
Nurul Izzati Osman, Norrizah Jaafar Sidik, Asmah Awal, Nurul Athirah Mohamad Adam, Nur Inani Rezali
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. RESULTS: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hossam M Abdallah, Hany M El-Bassossy, Gamal A Mohamed, Ali M El-Halawany, Khalid Z Alshali, Zainy M Banjar
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Yongxia Cui, Beng Kah Song, Lin-Feng Li, Ya-Ling Li, Zhongyun Huang, Ana L Caicedo, Yulin Jia, Kenneth M Olsen
Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here we examined variation in pericarp (bran) color and its molecular basis to address how this trait evolved in Malaysian weeds and its possible role in weed adaptation...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Joana F Costa, Showe-Mei Lin, Erasmo C Macaya, Cindy Fernández-García, Heroen Verbruggen
BACKGROUND: Obtaining strongly supported phylogenies that permit confident taxonomic and evolutionary interpretations has been a challenge in algal biology. High-throughput sequencing has improved the capacity to generate data and yields more informative datasets. We sequenced and analysed the chloroplast genomes of 22 species of the order Nemaliales as a case study in the use of phylogenomics as an approach to achieve well-supported phylogenies of red algae. RESULTS: Chloroplast genomes of the order Nemaliales are highly conserved, gene-dense and completely syntenic with very few cases of gene loss...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Fang Xie, Shuzhi Yuan, Hanxu Pan, Rui Wang, Jiankang Cao, Weibo Jiang
Yeast mannan treatments effectively delayed colour change and firmness decline and inhibited ethylene production in two cultivars of tomato fruit during storage. The yeast mannan treatment maintained the integrity of tomato pericarp cell wall architecture and suppressed the modification of water-soluble and insoluble pectic polysaccharides in the cell wall. A decrease in the neutral sugars, including d-galactose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose, in water-insoluble pectin and an increase in these sugars in water-soluble pectin were inhibited by yeast mannan...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Olesya Yu Shoeva, Hans-Peter Mock, Tatjana V Kukoeva, Andreas Börner, Elena K Khlestkina
Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare 'Bowman' near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains...
2016: PloS One
Wichit Suthammarak, Pornpayom Numpraphrut, Ratiya Charoensakdi, Neelobol Neungton, Vachara Tunrungruangtavee, Nattapon Jaisupa, Suwit Charoensak, Primchanien Moongkarndi, Weerasak Muangpaisan
Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Soumyadeep Mukhopadhyay, Sumona Mukherjee, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Bhaskar Sen Gupta
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ya-Yun Chen, Chen-Xiao Peng, Yan Hu, Chen Bu, Shu-Chen Guo, Xiang Li, Yong Chen, Jian-Wei Chen
Annona squamosa L. fruit played great anti-neoplastic activities. Its pericarps were discarded as waste. In this study, essential oil extracted from A. squamosa L. pericarps (APEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Furthermore, the anti-hepatoma activities and the underlying mechanism of the oil were firstly described. A total of 59 compounds were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compound in the oil was (-)-spathulenol (32.51%). The APEO demonstrated anti-hepatoma activity against SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line with IC50 lower than 55 μg/mL...
September 30, 2016: Natural Product Research
Roman Pavela, Filippo Maggi, Hélène Mbuntcha, Verlaine Woguem, Hervet Paulin Dongmo Fogang, Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Léon Azefack Tapondjou, Luciano Barboni, Marcello Nicoletti, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology Research
J Cho, Y-W Chin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Yifen Lin, Yixiong Lin, Hetong Lin, John Shi, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang
Effects of propyl gallate on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to storability of harvested longan fruits were studied. The results showed that the propyl gallate-treated longans maintained lower activities of pericarp phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) than those in control fruits. Such treatments could maintain higher levels of pericarp unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), higher pericarp indices of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and higher pericarp ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (U/S) than those in control fruits...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Kimberly L Kanapeckas, Cynthia C Vigueira, Aida Ortiz, Kyle A Gettler, Nilda R Burgos, Albert J Fischer, Amy L Lawton-Rauh
Domestication is the hallmark of evolution and civilization and harnesses biodiversity through selection for specific traits. In regions where domesticated lines are grown near wild relatives, congeneric sources of aggressive weedy genotypes cause major economic losses. Thus, the origins of weedy genotypes where no congeneric species occur raise questions regarding management effectiveness and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for weedy population success. Since eradication in the 1970s, California growers avoided weedy rice through continuous flood culture and zero-tolerance guidelines, preventing the import, presence, and movement of weedy seeds...
2016: PloS One
Wen-Juan Zhang, Shan-Shan Guo, Chun-Xue You, Zhu-Feng Geng, Jun-Yu Liang, Zhi-Wei Deng, Cheng-Fang Wang, Shu-Shan Du, Yong-Yan Wang
Two essential oil samples were obtained from the pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum with the methods of hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE), their chemical components were identified, and their bioactivities against Lasioderma serricorne adults were evaluated. In the process of testing, the two samples showed significant bioactivities against Lasioderma serricorne adults. For an example, the SFE-sample expressed relatively stronger fumigant toxicity on Lasioderma serricorne adults (LC50 = 3...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Valmor Ziegler, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Jorge Tiago Schwanz Goebel, Shanise Lisie Mello El Halal, Gabriela Soster Santetti, Luiz Carlos Gutkoski, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Moacir Cardoso Elias
The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hani Z Asfour
A prenylated xanthone, α-mangostin was separated from the alcoholic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp. Its structure was established by different spectroscopic analysis. The total methanolic extract (TME) and different fractions of G. mangostana pericarp as well as α-mangostin were assessed for their antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory effects (QSI). The TME, CHCl3 fraction, and α-mangostin exhibited strong activity against all tested strains. While, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity against some of the tested organisms...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hongping Li, Yufeng Wu, Yali Zhao, Xiuli Hu, Jianfeng Chang, Qun Wang, Pengfei Dong, Moubiao Zhang, Chaohai Li
We have isolated a new mutation in maize, incompletely fused carpels (ifc), which results in an open stylar canal on the ovary and an incomplete pericarp at the top of the kernel. The maize ovary derives from the fusion of three carpels; however, the molecular networks regulating maize carpel fusion remain largely unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on wild-type (WT) and ifc ovaries that were collected after carpel fusion defects could be morphologically distinguished. In total, 877 differentially expressed genes were identified...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ming Guo, Xiaomeng Wang, Xiaowang Lu, Hongzheng Wang, Peter E Brodelius
In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
2016: PloS One
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