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Dan-Dan Wang, Die Gao, Wan-Jun Xu, Fan Li, Man-Ni Yin, Qi-Feng Fu, Zhi-Ning Xia
In present study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for hesperetin were successfully prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using functionalized Fe3 O4 particles as the magnetic cores. Hesperetin as the template, N-Isopropylacrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate as the crosslinker, 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile as initiator and acetonitrile-methanol (3:1, v/v) as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Pavel A Zykin, Elena A Andreeva, Anna N Lykholay, Natalia V Tsvetkova, Anatoly V Voylokov
The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6) lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C) and pericarp (gene Vs) also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples...
April 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiaoming Chen, Tao Wang, Leimiao Lin, Fangjie Wo, Yaqin Liu, Xiao Liang, Hui Ye, Jianmin Wu
Nanostructured semiconductors are one of the most potent candidates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (LDI-MS) analysis of low molecular weight molecules. Herein, the enhanced photoinduced electron transfer and LDI on the tip of vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs) array were investigated. Theoretical simulation and LDI detection of indigo and isatin molecules in negative mode revealed that electric field can be enhanced on the tip end of SiNWs, thereby promoting the energy and electron transfer to analytes adsorbed on the tip of SiNWs...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua Timotheus Oberlerchner, Christina Fuchs, Thomas Rosenau, Heinrich Grausgruber
Background: Anthocyanins are abundant secondary metabolites responsible for most blue to blue-black, and red to purple colors of various plant organs. In wheat grains, anthocyanins are accumulated in the pericarp and/or aleurone layer. Anthocyanin pigmented wheat grains can be processed into functional foods with potential health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of the anthocyanins. The grain anthocyanin content can be increased by pyramidizing the different genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanins in the different grain layers...
2018: Plant Methods
Ye Deng, Hua Chen, Chong Zhang, Tiecheng Cai, Bo Zhang, Shuangbiao Zhou, Jake C Fountain, Rong-Long Pan, Baozhu Guo, Wei-Jian Zhuang
Aflatoxin contamination in peanut is a serious food safety issue to human health around the world. Finding disease resistance genes is a key strategy for genetic improvement in breeding to deal with this issue. We have identified an Aspergillus flavus-induced NBS-LRR gene, AhRAF4, using a microarray-based approach. By comparison of 23 sequences from three species using phytogenetics, protein secondary structure, and three-dimensional structural analyses, AhRAF4 was revealed to be derived from Arachis duranensis by recombination, and has newly evolved into a family of several members characterized by duplications and point mutations...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
Ji-Yu Zhang, De-Lin Pan, Zhan-Hui Jia, Tao Wang, Gang Wang, Zhong-Ren Guo
Ascorbic acid (AsA), chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and their associated gene expression patterns were analysed in Actinidia chinensis 'Hongyang' outer pericarp. The results showed chlorophyll degradation during fruit development and softening, exposed the yellow carotenoid pigments. LHCB1 and CLS1 gene expressions were decreased, while PPH2 and PPH3 gene expressions were increased, indicating that downregulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and upregulation of its degradation, caused chlorophyll degradation...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoxue Yu, Yafeng Zhang, Dongmei Wang, Lin Jiang, Xinjun Xu
Background: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium is the dried mature pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco which can be divided into "Chenpi" and "Guangchenpi." "Guangchenpi" is the genuine Chinese medicinal material in Xinhui, Guangdong province; based on the greatest quality and least amount, it is most expensive among others. Hesperidin is used as the marker to identify Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. However, both "Chenpi" and "Guangchenpi" contain hesperidin so that it is impossible to differentiate them by measuring hesperidin...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yi Zhang, Da Li, Dingbo Zhang, Xiaoge Zhao, Xuemin Cao, Lingli Dong, Jinxing Liu, Kunling Chen, Huawei Zhang, Caixia Gao, Daowen Wang
GW2 is emerging as a key genetic determinant of grain weight in cereal crops, and has three homoeologs (TaGW2-A1, -B1 and -D1) in hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, by analyzing the gene editing mutants lacking one (B1 or D1), two (B1 and D1) or all three (A1, B1 and D1) homoeologs of TaGW2, several insights are gained into the functions of TaGW2-B1 and -D1 in common wheat grain traits. First, both TaGW2-B1 and -D1 affect thousand grain weight (TGW) through influencing grain width and length, but the effect conferred by TaGW2-B1 is stronger than that by TaGW2-D1...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Elena Antonini, Carolina Zara, Laura Valentini, Pietro Gobbi, Paolino Ninfali, Michele Menotta
In this study, we applied Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis to three different cereal caryopses: barley, oat and einkorn wheat. The morphological structures, chemical elemental composition and surface characteristics of the three cereals were described. Regarding the morphology, barley showed the thickest pericarp, providing a strong barrier digestion and absorption of nutrients. The aleurone layer of each cereal type contained protein body globoids within its cells...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Janani Jacob, P Lakshmanapermalsamy, Ramanaiah Illuri, Damaji Bhosle, Gopala Krishna Sangli, Deepak Mundkinajeddu
Background: Punica granatum L. ( Lythraceae ) peel has been proven to exhibit widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases due to the presence of bioactive principles. Objective: The objective is to isolate the bioactive compounds from the pericarp of P. granatum and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various extracts. Materials and Methods: Dried peel of P. granatum was extracted with aqueous acetone and chromatographed on Diaion HP-20...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
Wenhui Jiang, Tianxiang Liu, Wenzhi Nan, Diddugodage Chamila Jeewani, Yanlu Niu, Chunlian Li, Yong Wang, Xue Shi, Cong Wang, Jiahuan Wang, Yang Li, Xin Gao, Zhonghua Wang
The purple pericarp of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a useful source of dietary anthocyanins. Previous mapping results indicated that the purple pericarp is controlled by two complementary genes located on chromosomes 7D and 2A. However, the related genes and their effects on regulating the purple pericarp are unknown. In this study, two transcription factors were characterised as anthocyanin activators in purple pericarp: TaPpm1 (purple pericarp-MYB 1) and TaPpb1 (purple pericarp-bHLH 1). Three nonfunctional variants were detected in the coding sequence of TaPpm1 from non-purple seed lines, in which the function of TaPpm1 was destroyed by insertion-caused frame shift or truncated peptides...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yasuhiro Uwadaira, Yasuyo Sekiyama, Akifumi Ikehata
Evaluating the maturity of peach fruit is desirable during both the preharvest and postharvest periods, and flesh firmness (FF) is a representative maturity index. Although a non-destructive FF measurement technique using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed, the principle has been unclear. This study was conducted to examine the structure of the FF prediction model by comparing with that of the model for measuring water-soluble pectin (WSP) content. Those two prediction models have the same information regions related to the colors of pericarp and mesocarp (chlorophyll) and to a water band in the NIR region...
February 2018: Heliyon
Guoqing Chen, Yong Li, Wei Wang, Liping Deng
Introduction Mangosteen as a rare and precious fruit looks like a queen crown, known as "Queen of Fruit". α-Mangostin (α-MG) is the most representative xanthone isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, possessing extensive biological activities and pharmacological properties, which can be considered as an antineoplastic agent, antioxidant, anti-proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of human cancer cells, and has protective effect on induced apoptotic damage. Areas covered The bioactivity and pharmacological Properties of α-MG are being actively investigated by various industrial and academic institutions...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Olesya Yu Shoeva
The wheat TaMyc1 gene encodes for transcriptional factor (TF) with bHLH domain. The gene is expressed in purple wheat grains and activates transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes. To reveal the features of TaMyc1 regulation in wheat pericarp transcription start sites (TSS) were identified by 5' RACE mean and translation efficiency was predicted by in silico methods. Three alternative transcript variants of TaMyc1 differing by 5' leader sequence only were identified in purple pericarp...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Darwin Ortiz, Amudhan Ponrajan, Juan Pablo Bonnet, Torbert Rocheford, Mario G Ferruzzi
Translation of the breeding efforts designed to biofortify maize (Z. mays) genotypes with higher levels of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) content for sub-Saharan Africa is dependent in part on the stability of carotenoids during post-harvest through industrial and in-home food processing operations. The purpose of this study was to simulate production of commercial milled products by determining the impact of dry-milling and extrusion processing on carotenoid stability in three higher pVAC maize genotypes (C17xDE3, Orange ISO, Hi27xCML328)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jiahuan Chen, Tao Zhang, Qiubo Zhang, Yang Liu, Lingyu Li, Jinguang Si, Zhong-Mei Zou, Huiming Hua
The pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., commonly known as Sichuan pepper, is a widely used spice to remove fishy odor and add palatable taste. A phytochemical investigation of the 95% ethanol extract of Sichuan pepper resulted in the isolation of twenty-one isobutylhydroxyamides, including eight new ones named ZP-amides G-N, among which the chiral resolution of racemic ZP-amide A and ZP-amide B were successfully accomplished. The protective activity on corticosterone-treated PC12 cells of the isolated isobutylhydroxyamides was also evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Hossam M Abdallah, Ali M El-Halawany, Alaa M Nafady, Gamal A Mohamed
A new prenylated xanthone, mangostanaxanthone VIII (7) and six known metabolites: gartanin (1), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), rubraxanthone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenylxanthone (4), garcinone C (5), and xanthone I (9-hydroxycalabaxanthone) (6) were separated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae). Their structures have been verified on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis as well as comparison with the literature...
March 7, 2018: Natural Product Research
Gong Yihui, Jun Song, Lina Du, Mindy Vinqvist, Leslie Campbell Palmer, Sherry Fillmore, XueQun Pang, ZhaoQi Zhang
To gain better understanding on laccase in apples and reveal its role in browning color formation during storage, laccases in apples were investigated. The full-length complementary DNAs encoding laccase genes were obtained from different tissues of apple including flowers, calyx, leaves and fruit peel of 'Red Delicious' and 'Cortland'. The apple laccases were compared to those in other plant species and found to have up to 99% homology to Arabidopsis and litchi. qRT-PCR analysis revealed changes in transcript abundance of LAC genes (2, 7, 9, 12, 14, 15 and 16) during storage and in response to DPA and 1-MCP treatments...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
S Hemdane, N A Langenaeken, P J Jacobs, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
This study investigates the effect of the physical presence and water binding of wheat bran during bread making, and the possible mechanisms behind this effect. Regular bran, pericarp-enriched bran and synthetic bran-like particles with different water binding capacities and particle sizes were used. Incorporation of regular and pericarp-enriched bran in dough (15% dm) led to a lower oven rise than the control dough. Bread volumes decreased with 11% and 30%, respectively. Dough with synthetic bran, having a low water binding capacity, displayed a near to normal leavening and oven rise and resulted in a bread volume decrease of only 5% compared to the control...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rebecca G Stevens, Pierre Baldet, Jean-Paul Bouchet, Mathilde Causse, Catherine Deborde, Claire Deschodt, Mireille Faurobert, Cécile Garchery, Virginie Garcia, Hélène Gautier, Barbara Gouble, Mickaël Maucourt, Annick Moing, David Page, Johann Petit, Jean-Luc Poëssel, Vincent Truffault, Christophe Rothan
Changing the balance between ascorbate, monodehydroascorbate, and dehydroascorbate in plant cells by manipulating the activity of enzymes involved in ascorbate synthesis or recycling of oxidized and reduced forms leads to multiple phenotypes. A systems biology approach including network analysis of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolites of RNAi lines for ascorbate oxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and galactonolactone dehydrogenase has been carried out in orange fruit pericarp of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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