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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721851/development-and-evaluation-of-a-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeats-analysis-assay-for-subtyping-salmonella-typhi-strains-from-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Nomsa P Tau, Anthony M Smith, John R Wain, Andrew Tarupiwa, Kalpy J Coulibaly, Karen H Keddy, Germs-Sa
PURPOSE: Molecular epidemiological investigations of the highly clonal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are important in outbreak detection and in tracking disease transmission. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for characterization of S. Typhi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY: Twelve previously reported VNTR loci were evaluated and an MLVA assay consisting of five polymorphic loci was adopted...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#2
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#3
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720343/exposure-to-ambient-dichloromethane-in-pregnancy-and-infancy-from-industrial-sources-and-childhood-cancers-in-california
#4
Andrew S Park, Beate Ritz, Chenxiao Ling, Myles Cockburn, Julia E Heck
BACKGROUND: The incidence of childhood cancers has been increasing and environmental exposure to air toxics has been suggested as a possible risk factor. This study aims to explore ambient exposure to dichloromethane (methylene chloride). METHODS: We frequency matched by birth year approximately 20 cancer-free controls identified from birth records to all childhood cancers ages 0-5 in the California Cancer Registry diagnosed from 1988 to 2012; i.e. 13,636 cases and a total of 270,673 controls...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720304/characterization-of-the-single-cell-derived-bovine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Lixia Zhao, Zixin Wang, Jindun Zhang, Jian Yang, Xuefei Gao, Baojiang Wu, Gaoping Zhao, Siqin Bao, Shuxiang Hu, Pentao Liu, Xihe Li
Single-cell derived bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated by the introduction of piggyBac transposons with CAG promoting transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc). In the study, the bovine iPSCs colony from single cell could passage more than 50 passages after enzymatic dissociation into single cells. These bovine iPSCs cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed dome shaped clones similar to mouse embryonic stem cells. They showed pluripotency in many ways, including their expression of pluripotency markers, such as OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA4, and AP in immunofluorescence assay, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc in RT-PCR...
May 22, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719904/gonadectomy-in-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-why-and-when
#6
Ulla Döhnert, Lutz Wünsch, Olaf Hiort
Prophylactic gonadectomy has been recommended in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) because of an increased risk for the development of malignant germ cell tumors in the intra-abdominal gonads. No reliable screening parameters are available to detect early (pre-)malignant changes. Because the tumor risk before puberty is very low, the timing of gonadectomy has been postponed to allow spontaneous puberty and involvement of the patients in important decisions affecting their body and health. Gonadectomy after puberty is still discussed controversially...
July 19, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719895/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-malignant-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-in-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome
#7
Martine Cools, Leendert Looijenga
Prophylactic gonadectomy in young adult women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) to avoid development of an invasive testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is currently advised in most centers. However, women with CAIS increasingly question the need of this procedure. In order to provide optimal counseling and follow-up of these women, insight in the mechanisms underlying TGCT development in androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), data regarding the incidence of TGCT in AIS adults specifically, and an overview of existing and novel screening tools for in situ and invasive neoplastic lesions are crucial...
July 19, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719823/supplementation-with-dietary-linseed-oil-during-peri-puberty-stimulates-steroidogenesis-and-testis-development-in-rams
#8
REVIEW
Wanhong Li, Defu Tang, Fadi Li, Huaqin Tian, Xiangpeng Yue, Fei Li, Xiuxiu Weng, Wu Sun, Weimin Wang, Futao Mo
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, are involved in male reproductive function. In this study, we investigated the effects of linseed oil (LO) as a source of ALA on the steroidogenesis and changes of testicular histology in rams. Sixteen 3-month old rams during peri-puberty were randomly assigned into two groups. Eight rams were assigned as the control group, and the other received LO (4% dry matter of total diet) as the LO treatment group...
July 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719464/nuclear-crx-and-foxj1-expression-differentiates-non-germ-cell-pineal-region-tumors-and-supports-the-ependymal-differentiation-of-papillary-tumor-of-the-pineal-region
#9
Shannon Coy, Adrian M Dubuc, Sonika Dahiya, Keith L Ligon, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Sandro Santagata
Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a neuroepithelial neoplasm first described in 2003. Despite the anatomic association of PTPR with the pineal gland, the features of these tumors resemble those of the ependymal circumventricular subcommissural organ (SCO) of the posterior third ventricle. Given the presumed distinct derivation of PTPR and pineal parenchymal tumors, we hypothesized that expression of lineage-specific transcription factors could distinguish these tumors and provide additional insight into the differentiation of PTPR...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719463/do-nonseminomatous-germ-cell-tumors-of-the-testis-with-lymphovascular-invasion-of-the-spermatic-cord-merit-staging-as-pt3
#10
Jennifer Gordetsky, Joseph Sanfrancesco, Jonathan I Epstein, Karen Trevino, Huiping Xu, Adeboye Osunkoya, Guang Q Xiao, Chia-Sui Kao, Pamela Unger, Neda Hashemi-Sadraei, Constantine Albany, Julie M Jorns, David Y Lu, Andres Matoso, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Lauren E Schwartz, Thomas M Ulbright, Muhammad T Idrees
The staging of testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) of the spermatic cord in the absence of cord parenchymal involvement remains controversial. Our previous study showed that tumors with spermatic cord LVI present at a higher clinical stage than tumors with LVI confined to the testis (pT2). We compared NSGCTs with LVI of the spermatic cord without direct involvement of the spermatic cord soft tissues to pT3 tumors to help clarify the appropriate staging of this histologic finding...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719015/bisphenol-a-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mice-testes-modulation-by-selenium
#11
S Kaur, M Saluja, M P Bansal
Spermatogenesis, a highly coordinated process, is prone to environmental insults which may lead to impaired spermatogenesis or, at worst, infertility. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known global environmental toxicant and a ubiquitous oestrogenic chemical. This study evaluated the role of selenium (0.5 ppm sodium selenite/kg diet) on spermatogenesis after BPA treatment in different groups of male BALB/c mice: control, selenium, BPA and selenium+BPA. Markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in testis after BPA treatment...
July 18, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718990/fungitoxicity-of-organic-extracts-of-ocimum-basilicum-on-growth-and-morphogenesis-of-bipolaris-species-teleomorph-cochliobolus
#12
E A Elsherbiny, N A Safwat, M M Elaasser
AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717551/angiomyolipoma-of-the-scrotum-report-of-a-rarely-seen-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Gauhar Sultan, Bilal Masood, Harris Qureshi, Muhammed Mubarak
Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign, histologically complex mesenchymal tumor arising mainly from the kidney and liver. The majority (80%) of these tumors arise as sporadic tumors, while 20% of them are associated with tuberous sclerosis. Extra-renal sites of AML, though rare, have been reported in literature. In this report, we describe a case of AML arising from the scrotal skin, and presenting as a scrotal mass. Although skin is the most commonly reported site after kidney and liver, scrotal skin AML presents as an intriguing mass in a region known for germ cell tumors which has been reported only once before...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716939/distinct-requirements-for-energy-metabolism-in-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-and-their-reprogramming-to-embryonic-germ-cells
#14
Yohei Hayashi, Kei Otsuka, Masayuki Ebina, Kaori Igarashi, Asuka Takehara, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Akio Kanai, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yasuhisa Matsui
Primordial germ cells (PGCs), undifferentiated embryonic germ cells, are the only cells that have the ability to become gametes and to reacquire totipotency upon fertilization. It is generally understood that the development of PGCs proceeds through the expression of germ cell-specific transcription factors and characteristic epigenomic changes. However, little is known about the properties of PGCs at the metabolite and protein levels, which are directly responsible for the control of cell function. Here, we report the distinct energy metabolism of PGCs compared with that of embryonic stem cells...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716093/c-elegans-sup-46-an-hnrnpm-family-rna-binding-protein-that-prevents-paternally-mediated-epigenetic-sterility
#15
Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus, Arun K Ramani, Wade Dunham, Ji Young Youn, Andrew G Fraser, Anne-Claude Gingras, James W Dennis
BACKGROUND: In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history of ancestral stress that allows for adaptation and propagation of the species. In the nematode C. elegans, defective epigenetic transmission often manifests as progressive germline mortality. We previously isolated sup-46 in a screen for suppressors of the hexosamine pathway gene mutant, gna-2(qa705)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715393/generation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-nerve-free-hydra
#16
Cassidy M Tran, Sharon Fu, Trevor Rowe, Eva-Maria S Collins
The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra includes multipotent stem cells, and their derivatives: gland cells, nematocytes, germ cells, and nerve cells. The interstitial cells can be eliminated through two consecutive treatments with colchicine, a plant-derived toxin that kills dividing cells, thus erasing the potential for renewal of the differentiated cells that are derived from the interstitial stem cells. This allows for the generation of Hydra that lack nerve cells. A nerve-free polyp cannot open its mouth to feed, egest, or regulate osmotic pressure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715257/association-between-testicular-microlithiasis-and-testicular-neoplasia-large-multicenter-study-in-a-pediatric-population
#17
Andrew T Trout, Jeanne Chow, Erin R McNamara, Kassa Darge, Raul Ramirez Grueso, Marthe Munden, Sarah M Rothan, Oscar M Navarro, Marta Tijerín Bueno, Kevin E Bove, Kudakwashe R Chikwava, Amer Heider, M John Hicks, Gino R Somers, Bin Zhang, Jonathan R Dillman
Purpose To retrospectively define the strength of association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular neoplasia in a large geographically diverse pediatric population. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of scrotal ultrasonographic (US) examination reports and pathology specimens obtained between January 2000 and May 2014 at six academic pediatric hospitals in North America was performed. Reported cases were reviewed to confirm microlithiasis. Radiology and pathology data bases were searched for pathology-proven testicular tumors (benign or malignant germ cell or stromal tumors)...
July 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714953/gut-microbiota-is-critical-for-the-induction-of-chemotherapy-induced-pain
#18
Shiqian Shen, Grewo Lim, Zerong You, Weihua Ding, Peigen Huang, Chongzhao Ran, Jason Doheny, Peter Caravan, Samuel Tate, Kun Hu, Hyangin Kim, Michael McCabe, Bo Huang, Zhongcong Xie, Douglas Kwon, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
Chemotherapy-induced pain is a dose-limiting condition that affects 30% of patients undergoing chemotherapy. We found that gut microbiota promotes the development of chemotherapy-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced in germ-free mice and in mice pretreated with antibiotics. Restoring the microbiota of germ-free mice abrogated this protection. These effects appear to be mediated, in part, by TLR4 expressed on hematopoietic cells, including macrophages.
July 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714084/applying-the-erythrocyte-pig-a-assay-concept-to-rat-epididymal-sperm-for-germ-cell-mutagenicity-evaluation
#19
Zhiying Ji, Matthew J LeBaron
The Pig-a assay, a recently developed in vivo somatic gene mutation assay, is based on the identification of mutant erythrocytes that have an altered repertoire of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface markers. We hypothesized that the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept could be applied to rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa (sperm) for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation. We used GPI-anchored CD59 as the Pig-a mutation marker and examined the frequency of CD59-negative sperm using flow cytometry...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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