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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820536/atp7a-and-atp7b-regulate-copper-homeostasis-in-developing-male-germ-cells-in-mice
#1
Mateusz Ogórek, Małgorzata Lenartowicz, Rafał Starzyński, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Andrzej Doniec, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Aleksandra Bednarz, Olga Pierzchała, Paweł Lipiński, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Baster, Patrycja Gibas-Tybur, Paweł Grzmil
The maintenance of copper homeostasis is critical for all cells. As learned from mice with disturbed copper metabolism, this trace element is also important for spermatogenesis. The experiments conducted in yeasts have demonstrated that appropriate copper level must be preserved to enable meiosis progression; however, increased copper level is toxic for cells. This study aims to analyze the expression profile of Atp7a and Atp7b and other genes encoding copper-related proteins during spermatogenesis in mice...
August 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819919/the-microbial-mother-meets-the-independent-organ-cultural-discourses-of-reproductive-microbiomes
#2
Jessica R Houf
The human microbiome is changing the way experts and non-experts think about germs and microorganisms. This essay is a gender analysis of contemporary discourses surrounding the human reproductive microbiome, specifically the vaginal microbiota and the penile microbiota. I first historically situate the human reproductive microbiome within the germ theory of disease. Then, I draw on Heather Paxson's Foucauldian and Latourian concept of microbiopolitics to argue that microbiopolitics is not only about how humans should live with microorganisms; but it also impacts how humans and microbes live together as gendered beings...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819887/can-germ-cell-neoplasia-in-situ-be-diagnosed-by-measuring-serum-levels-of-microrna371a-3p
#3
A Radtke, J-F Cremers, S Kliesch, S Riek, K Junker, S A Mohamed, P Anheuser, G Belge, K-P Dieckmann
PURPOSE: Diagnosing germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNis) can detect germ cell tumours (GCTs) at the pre-invasive stage. To date, testicular biopsy with the potential of surgical complications is the only way of safely diagnosing GCNis. Recently, microRNAs (miRs) 371-3, and miR 367 were shown to be valuable serum biomarkers of GCTs. We explored the usefulness of these candidate miRs as a marker for GCNis. METHODS: 27 patients with GCNis and no concomitant GCT were enrolled...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819483/-malignant-teratoma-about-a-case-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
Abdi Ahmed Bonahy, Houssam Sabbah, Ahmed Haiba Med Vadell, Nacer Eddine Med Baba
Dermoid cysts account for 10-20% of ovarian germ cell tumors. Malignant transformation within ovarian dermoid cyst has been reported in 1-2 per cent of the cases. The treatment remains controversial. In women of childbearing age and in the first stages of the disease unilateral annexectomy without adjuvant therapy is recommended. In menopausal women extensive surgery is sometimes performed, no matter what stage of the disease the person is experiencing. We report the case of a menopausal patient with malignant transformation within ovarian dermoid cyst who underwent surgery...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819093/non-seminomatous-germ-cell-tumor-presenting-with-superior-vena-cava-syndrome
#5
Paolo K Soriano, Muhammad F Iqbal, Omar M Siddiqui, Jeff F Wang, Meghna R Desai
BACKGROUND Primary mediastinal non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) are aggressive and carry a poor five-year disease free survival rate even with aggressive treatment. We describe a young adult male with primary mediastinal NSGCT presenting with airway obstruction and superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). CASE REPORT The patient presented with four weeks of nonproductive cough, weight loss, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. Chest computed topography (CT) imaging demonstrated a right-sided mediastinal mass determined as a yolk sac tumor on biopsy...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818995/maternal-dcaf2-is-crucial-for-maintenance-of-genome-stability-during-the-first-cell-cycle-in-mice
#6
Yi-Wen Xu, Lan-Rui Cao, Min Wang, Ying Xu, Xin Wu, Junping Liu, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
Precise regulation of DNA replication and genome integrity is crucial for gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Cullin ring-finger ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) has multiple functions in the maintenance of germ cell survival, oocyte meiotic maturation, and maternal-zygotic transition in mammals. DDB1-cullin 4-associated factor-2 (DCAF2, also known as DTL or CDT2) is an evolutionarily conserved substrate receptor of CRL4. To determine whether DCAF2 is a key CRL4 substrate adaptor in mammalian oocytes, we generated a novel mouse strain that carries a Dcaf2 allele flanked by LoxP sequences, and specifically deleted Dcaf2 in oocytes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818972/fertile-offspring-from-sterile-sex-chromosome-trisomic-mice
#7
Takayuki Hirota, Hiroshi Ohta, Benjamin E Powell, Shantha K Mahadevaiah, Obah A Ojarikre, Mitinori Saitou, James M A Turner
Having the correct number of chromosomes is vital for normal development and health. Sex chromosome trisomy (SCT) affects 0.1% of the human population and is associated with infertility. We show that during reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), fibroblasts from sterile trisomic XXY and XYY mice lose the extra sex chromosome, by a phenomenon we term trisomy-biased chromosome loss (TCL). Resulting euploid XY iPSCs can be differentiated into the male germ cell lineage and functional sperm that can be used in intracytoplasmic sperm injection to produce chromosomally normal, fertile offspring...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818668/a-bipolar-role-of-the-transcription-factor-erg-for-cnidarian-germ-layer-formation-and-apical-domain-patterning
#8
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Taylor Chock, Paul Dahlin, Marta Iglesias, Michael Layden, Eric Röttinger, Mark Q Martindale
Germ layer formation and axial patterning are biological processes that are tightly linked during embryonic development of most metazoans. In addition to canonical WNT, it has been proposed that ERK-MAPK signaling is involved in specifying oral as well as aboral territories in cnidarians. However, the effector and the molecular mechanism underlying latter phenomenon is unknown. By screening for potential effectors of ERK-MAPK signaling in both domains, we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818334/the-use-of-acupuncture-in-first-aid-of-burns-clinical-report
#9
A Loskotova, J Loskotova
Burns are a very painful skin injury, or injury of soft tissues. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder can develop, even in those with minor injuries (Ia-IIb degree). Development of problems is very rapid and intense since, according to developmental embryology, the skin and central nervous system (CNS) descend from the same germ layer-ectoderm. This clinical report presents the results acquired from the data of 1008 patients suffering from burns treated by the acupuncture (ACU)-from 1983-2015 in the surgery ward of the hospital in Vysoke Myto in the Czech Republic...
August 14, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817824/parametric-linkage-analysis-identifies-five-novel-genome-wide-significant-loci-for-familial-lung-cancer
#10
Anthony M Musolf, Claire L Simpson, Mariza de Andrade, Diptasri Mandal, Colette Gaba, Ping Yang, Yafang Li, Ming You, Elena Y Kupert, Marshall W Anderson, Ann G Schwartz, Susan M Pinney, Christopher I Amos, Joan E Bailey-Wilson
OBJECTIVE: One of four American cancer patients dies of lung cancer. Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking are known to affect lung cancer risk. However, there is a genetic factor to lung cancer risk as well. Here, we perform parametric linkage analysis on family-based genotype data in an effort to find genetic loci linked to the disease. METHODS: 197 individuals from families with a high-risk history of lung cancer were recruited and genotyped using an Illumina array...
August 18, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817121/meganuclease-assisted-generation-of-stable-transgenics-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#11
Eduard Renfer, Ulrich Technau
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a model system used by a rapidly growing research community for comparative genomics, developmental biology and ecology. Here, we describe a microinjection procedure for creating stable transgenic lines in Nematostella based on meganuclease (I-SceI)-assisted integration of a transgenic cassette into the genome. The procedure describes the preparation of the reagents, microinjection of the transgenesis vector and the husbandry of transgenic animals. The microinjection setup differs from those of previously published protocols by the use of a holding capillary mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816282/-long-term-follow-up-experience-of-comprehensive-treatment-of-testicular-mixed-germ-cell-tumors
#12
J F Ye, B Wang, L L Ma, L Zhao, G L Wang, K Hong
OBJECTIVE: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor is mixed with embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratoma, seminoma and other two or more components of the testicular tumor, the clinical is relatively rare and high degree of malignancy, this article will summarize its clinical features and optimize its treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 22 patients with testicular tumor mixed germ cell in Peking University Third Hospital from May 1994 to November 2016 was conducted using a combination of statistical analysis and discussion of the relevant literature...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815778/mapk8-regulates-chicken-male-germ-cell-differentiation-through-jnk-signaling-pathway
#13
Yingjie Wang, Yulin Bi, Qisheng Zuo, Wenhui Zhang, Dong Li, Na-Na He, Shaoze Cheng, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
The study aims to analyze the key signaling pathways in regulating the process of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We explored the specific regulating mechanisms of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in this process. Interference/overexpression of MAPK8 allows the JNK signaling pathway to be blocked/activated. In Retinoic acid (RA) induced in vitro differentiation assays, the expression of germ cell marker genes, cvh, c-kit, integrin α6 and integrin β1, was observed to upregulate while activating JNK signaling significantly...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815542/long-noncoding-rnas-in-pluripotency-of-stem-cells-and-cell-fate-specification
#14
Debosree Pal, M R S Rao
Since the annotation of the mouse genome (FANTOM project) [Kawai J et al (2001) Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection. Nature 409(6821):685-690] or the human genome [An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. (2012) Nature 489(7414):57-74; Harrow J et al (2012) GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for the ENCODE project. Genome Res 22(9):1760-1774], the roles of long noncoding RNAs in coordinating specific signaling pathways have been established in a wide variety of model systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#15
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814702/reorganizing-hospital-space-the-1894-plague-epidemic-in-hong-kong-and-the-germ-theory
#16
Kyu-Hwan Sihn
This paper examined whether the preventive measures taken by the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were legitimate during the 1894 Hong Kong plague epidemic, and illuminated the correlation between the plague epidemic and hospital space in Hong Kong in the late 19th century. The quarantine measures taken by the colonial authorities were neither a clear-cut victory for Western medicine nor for a rational quarantine based on scientific medical knowledge. Hong Kong's medical officials based on the miasma theory, and focused only on house-to-house inspections and forced quarantine or isolation, without encouraging people to wear masks and without conducting disinfection...
April 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814662/irgm1-coordinately-regulates-autoimmunity-and-host-defense-at-select-mucosal-surfaces
#17
Kathleen M Azzam, Jennifer H Madenspacher, Derek W Cain, Lihua Lai, Kymberly M Gowdy, Prashant Rai, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Natasha Clayton, Willie Cunningham, Heather Jensen, Preeyam S Patel, John F Kearney, Gregory A Taylor, Michael B Fessler
The pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease that targets the mucosa of exocrine tissues, is poorly understood. Although several mouse models have been developed that display features of SS, most of these are within the larger context of a lupus-like presentation. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 (Irgm1) is an interferon-inducible cytoplasmic GTPase that is reported to regulate autophagy and mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we report that naive Irgm1-/- mice display lymphocytic infiltration of multiple mucosal tissues including the lung in a manner reminiscent of SS, together with IgA class-predominant autoantibodies including anti-Ro and anti-La...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813664/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-biotin-deprivation-induce-alopecia-through-overgrowth-of-lactobacillus-murinus-in-mice
#18
Atsushi Hayashi, Yohei Mikami, Kentaro Miyamoto, Nobuhiko Kamada, Toshiro Sato, Shinta Mizuno, Makoto Naganuma, Toshiaki Teratani, Ryo Aoki, Shinji Fukuda, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Masayuki Amagai, Manabu Ohyama, Takanori Kanai
Metabolism by the gut microbiota affects host physiology beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we find that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, in particular, overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus (L. murinus), impaired gut metabolic function and led to the development of alopecia. While deprivation of dietary biotin per se did not affect skin physiology, its simultaneous treatment with vancomycin resulted in hair loss in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Vancomycin treatment induced the accumulation of L. murinus in the gut, which consumes residual biotin and depletes available biotin in the gut...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813488/role-of-post-chemotherapy-radiation-in-the-management-of-children-and-adolescents-with-primary-advanced-malignant-mediastinal-germ-cell-tumors
#19
Junting Huang, Yuting Tan, Zijun Zhen, Suying Lu, Feifei Sun, Jia Zhu, Juan Wang, Ru Liao, Xiaofei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors (MMGCTs) are rare in children and adolescents and have a poorer prognosis than their gonadal counterparts. We report a single institutional experience of a 10-year period of primary advanced MMGCTs treated with chemotherapy, followed by radiotherapy in those who had residual mass. METHODS: Children and adolescents with primary advanced MMGCTs between 2005 and 2014 were identified from the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812710/developmental-constraints-shape-the-evolution-of-the-nematode-mid-developmental-transition
#20
Harel Zalts, Itai Yanai
Evolutionary theory assumes that genetic variation is uniform and gradual in nature, yet morphological and gene expression studies have revealed that different life-stages exhibit distinct levels of cross-species conservation. In particular, a stage in mid-embryogenesis is highly conserved across species of the same phylum, suggesting that this stage is subject to developmental constraints, either by increased purifying selection or by a strong mutational bias. An alternative explanation, however, holds that the same 'hourglass' pattern of variation may result from increased positive selection at the earlier and later stages of development...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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