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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100826/biomechanical-properties-of-wheat-grains-the-implications-on-milling
#1
James E Hourston, Michael Ignatz, Martin Reith, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Tina Steinbrecher
Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098283/high-precision-localized-proton-gradients-and-fluxes-generated-by-a-microelectrode-device-induce-differential-growth-behaviors-of-pollen-tubes
#2
Chengzhi Hu, Hannes Vogler, Marianne Aellen, Naveen Shamsudhin, Bumjin Jang, Jan T Burri, Nino Läubli, Ueli Grossniklaus, Salvador Pané, Bradley J Nelson
Pollen tubes are tip-growing plant cells that deliver the sperm cells to the ovules for double fertilization of the egg cell and the endosperm. Various directional cues can trigger the reorientation of pollen tube growth direction on their passage through the female tissues. Among the external stimuli, protons serve an important, regulatory role in the control of pollen tube growth. The generation of local guidance cues has been challenging when investigating the mechanisms of perception and processing of such directional triggers in pollen tubes...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095407/a-novel-imprinted-gene-nuwa-controls-mitochondrial-function-in-early-seed-development-in-arabidopsis
#3
Shan He, Yan Sun, Qian Yang, Xiangyu Zhang, Qingpei Huang, Peng Zhao, Mengxiang Sun, Jingjing Liu, Weiqiang Qian, Genji Qin, Hongya Gu, Li-Jia Qu
Imprinted genes display biased expression of paternal and maternal alleles- and are only found in mammals and flowering plants. Compared to several hundred imprinted genes that are functionally characterized in mammals, very few imprinted genes were confirmed in plants and even fewer of them have been functionally investigated. Here, we report a new imprinted gene, NUWA, in plants. NUWA is an essential gene, because loss of its function resulted in reduced transmission through the female gametophyte and defective cell/nuclear proliferation in early Arabidopsis embryo and endosperm...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087660/the-morphophysiological-dormancy-in-amborella-trichopoda-seeds-is-a-pleisiomorphic-trait-in-angiosperms
#4
Bruno Fogliani, Gildas Gâteblé, Matthieu Villegente, Isabelle Fabre, Nicolas Klein, Nicolas Anger, Carol C Baskin, Charlie P Scutt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda, the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. METHODS: Drupes of A...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078265/classification-of-31-korean-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-based-on-the-chemical-compositions
#5
Induck Choi, Chon-Sik Kang, Choon-Kee Lee, Sun-Lim Kim
Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068433/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-gr2-r1-event-based-backcross-derived-lines-of-golden-rice-in-the-genetic-background-of-a-mega-rice-variety-swarna
#6
Haritha Bollinedi, Gopala Krishnan S, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Sushma Mishra, Jitendra P Khurana, Ashok Kumar Singh
Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062591/epigenetic-processes-in-flowering-plant-reproduction
#7
REVIEW
Guifeng Wang, Claudia Köhler
Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055034/applying-the-intact-method-to-purify-endosperm-nuclei-and-to-generate-parental-specific-epigenome-profiles
#8
Jordi Moreno-Romero, Juan Santos-González, Lars Hennig, Claudia Köhler
The early endosperm tissue of dicot species is very difficult to isolate by manual dissection. This protocol details how to apply the INTACT (isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types) system for isolating early endosperm nuclei of Arabidopsis at high purity and how to generate parental-specific epigenome profiles. As a Protocol Extension, this article describes an adaptation of an existing Nature Protocol that details the use of the INTACT method for purification of root nuclei. We address how to obtain the INTACT lines, generate the starting material and purify the nuclei...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054650/osbt1-encodes-an-adp-glucose-transporter-involved-in-starch-synthesis-and-compound-granule-formation-in-rice-endosperm
#9
Sanfeng Li, Xiangjin Wei, Yulong Ren, Jiehua Qiu, Guiai Jiao, Xiuping Guo, Shaoqing Tang, Jianmin Wan, Peisong Hu
Starch is the main storage carbohydrate in higher plants. Although several enzymes and regulators for starch biosynthesis have been characterized, a complete regulatory network for starch synthesis in cereal seeds remains elusive. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the rice Brittle1 (OsBT1) gene, which is expressed specifically in the developing endosperm. The osbt1 mutant showed a white-core endosperm and a significantly lower grain weight than the wild-type. The formation and development of compound starch granules in osbt1 was obviously defective: the amyloplast was disintegrated at early developmental stages and the starch granules were disperse and not compound in the endosperm cells in the centre region of osbt1 seeds...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028474/cretaceous-origin-of-dogwoods-an-anatomically-preserved-cornus-cornaceae-fruit-from-the-campanian-of-vancouver-island
#10
Brian A Atkinson, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Cornaceae consists of 58 species, all within the genus Cornus. The Cenozoic record of Cornus is extensive and well documented. Molecular divergence-time studies suggest that crown-group Cornus may have originated by the Late Cretaceous. However, there has been no formal report of Cornus from Cretaceous deposits. Here, we characterize a permineralized fossil fruit assignable to Cornus subg. Cornus from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Shelter Point locality of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007029/arabidopsis-prc1-core-component-atring1-regulates-stem-cell-determining-carpel-development-mainly-through-repression-of-class-i-knox-genes
#11
Donghong Chen, Anne M Molitor, Lin Xu, Wen-Hui Shen
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-catalyzed H3K27me3 marks are tightly associated with the WUS-AG negative feedback loop to terminate floral stem cell fate to promote carpel development, but the roles of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) in this event remain largely uncharacterized. RESULTS: Here we show conspicuous variability in the morphology and number of carpels among individual flowers in the absence of the PRC1 core components AtRING1a and AtRING1b, which contrasts with the wild-type floral meristem consumed by uniform carpel production in Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 22, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005006/dormancy-specific-imprinting-underlies-maternal-inheritance-of-seed-dormancy-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Urszula Piskurewicz, Mayumi Iwasaki, Daichi Susaki, Christian Megies, Tetsu Kinoshita, Luis Lopez-Molina
Mature seed dormancy is a vital plant trait that prevents germination out of season. In Arabidopsis, the trait can be maternally regulated but the underlying mechanisms sustaining this regulation, its general occurrence and its biological significance among accessions are poorly understood. Upon seed imbibition, the endosperm is essential to repress the germination of dormant seeds. Investigation of genomic imprinting in the mature seed endosperm led us to identify a novel set of imprinted genes that are expressed upon seed imbibition...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995999/tissue-specific-transcript-profiling-of-wheat-phosphate-transporter-genes-and-its-association-with-phosphate-allocation-in-grains
#13
Vishnu Shukla, Mandeep Kaur, Sipla Aggarwal, Kaushal Kumar Bhati, Jaspreet Kaur, Shrikant Mantri, Ajay K Pandey
Approaches enabling efficient phosphorus utilization in crops are of great importance. In cereal crop like wheat, utilization of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is high and mature grains are the major sink for Pi utilization and storage. Research that addresses the importance of the Pi homeostasis in developing grains is limited. In an attempt to understand the Pi homeostasis in developing wheat grains, we identified twelve new phosphate transporters (PHT), these are phyologentically well distributed along with the members reported from Arabidopsis and rice...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995590/behavioral-comparisons-of-ingestion-and-excretion-by-selected-species-of-pentatomids-evidence-of-feeding-on-different-food-sources-supports-pest-status
#14
T Lucini, A R Panizzi
Laboratory studies were conducted on food ingestion and excretion by selected species of pentatomids on different food sources to support their pest status. We compared the frequency and time of feeding on vegetative (stem) and reproductive (seed) structures of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill and of maize, Zea mays L. by Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Edessa meditabunda (F.); in addition, the amount of excreta (feces) produced were compared for D. melacanthus feeding on seed of soybean and stem of maize seedling...
December 19, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992503/proteome-profile-of-starch-granules-purified-from-rice-oryza-sativa-endosperm
#15
Shihai Xing, Xiaoxi Meng, Lihui Zhou, Hana Mujahid, Chunfang Zhao, Yadong Zhang, Cailin Wang, Zhaohua Peng
Starch is the most important food energy source in cereals. Many of the known enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis are partially or entirely granule-associated in the endosperm. Studying the proteome of rice starch granules is critical for us to further understand the mechanisms underlying starch biosynthesis and packaging of starch granules in rice amyloplasts, consequently for the improvement of rice grain quality. In this article, we developed a protocol to purify starch granules from mature rice endosperm and verified the quality of purified starch granules by microscopy observations, I2 staining, and Western blot analyses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987808/hydrophilic-polymeric-nanoparticles-prepared-from-delonix-galactomannan-with-low-cytotoxicity-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#16
Abayomi T Ogunjimi, Shaiani M G Melo, Carem G Vargas-Rechia, Flávio S Emery, Renata F V Lopez
Delonix is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm of Delonix regia plant. This study aims at the development of Delonix nanoparticle and assesses its potential for ocular delivery by evaluating its in-vitro stability, toxicity and cellular uptake. Fluorescent nanoparticles (BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles) were prepared by a Quality-by-Design modified nanoprecipitation technique. Optimized nanoparticles had mean sizes <240nm, PdI<0.2 and zeta potential of <-30mV. Mixture of surfactants with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance controlled nanoparticle swelling...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979087/impact-of-gluten-friendly%C3%A2-technology-on-wheat-kernel-endosperm-and-gluten-protein-structure-in-seeds-by-light-and-electron-microscopy
#17
L Landriscina, P D'Agnello, A Bevilacqua, M R Corbo, M Sinigaglia, C Lamacchia
The main aim of this paper was to assess the impact of Gluten-Friendly™ (GF) technology (Italian priority patent n° 102015000084813 filed on 17th December 2015) on wheat kernel endosperm morphology and gluten protein structure, using SEM, light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Microscopy was combined with immunodetection with specific antibodies for gliadins, γ-gliadins, LMW subunits and antigenic epitopes to gain a better understanding of the technology at a molecular level. The results showed significant changes to gluten proteins after GF treatment; cross-reactivity towards the antibodies recognizing almost the entire range of gluten proteins as well as the antigenic epitopes through the sequences QQSF, QQSY, PEQPFPQGC and QQPFP was significantly reduced...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957808/grain-incomplete-filling-2-regulates-grain-filling-and-starch-synthesis-during-rice-caryopsis-development
#18
Xiangjin Wei, Guiai Jiao, Haiyan Lin, Zhonghua Sheng, Gaoneng Shao, Lihong Xie, Shaoqing Tang, Qingguo Xu, Peisong Hu
Rice grain filling determines grain weight, final yield and grain quality. Here, a rice defective grain filling mutant, gif2, was identified. Grains of gif2 showed a slower filling rate and a significant lower final grain weight and yield compared to wild-type. The starch content in gif2 was noticeably decreased and its physicochemical properties were also altered. Moreover, gif2 endosperm cells showed obvious defects in compound granule formation. Positional cloning identified GIF2 to encode an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) large subunit, AGPL2; consequently, AGP enzyme activity in gif2 endosperms was remarkably decreased...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956642/dna-demethylation-is-initiated-in-the-central-cells-of-arabidopsis-and-rice
#19
Kyunghyuk Park, M Yvonne Kim, Martin Vickers, Jin-Sup Park, Youbong Hyun, Takashi Okamoto, Daniel Zilberman, Robert L Fischer, Xiaoqi Feng, Yeonhee Choi, Stefan Scholten
Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification with important regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation, which is required for proper gene expression in the endosperm, a nutritive extraembryonic seed tissue. Endosperm arises from a fusion of a sperm cell carried in the pollen and a female central cell. Endosperm DNA demethylation is observed specifically on the chromosomes inherited from the central cell in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, and requires the DEMETER DNA demethylase in Arabidopsis DEMETER is expressed in the central cell before fertilization, suggesting that endosperm demethylation patterns are inherited from the central cell...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936680/novel-barley-1%C3%A2-3-1%C3%A2-4-%C3%AE-glucan-endohydrolase-alleles-confer-increased-enzyme-thermostability
#20
Juanita C Lauer, Kuok Yap, Suong Cu, Rachel A Burton, Jason K Eglinton
Barley (1→3,1→4)-β-glucan endohydrolases (β-glucanases; EI and EII) are primarily responsible for hydrolyzing high molecular weight (1→3,1→4)-β-glucans (β-glucan) during germination. Incomplete endosperm modification during malting results in residual β-glucan that can contribute to increased wort viscosity and beer chill haze. Four newly identified forms of EI and EII and the reference enzymes EI-a and EII-a were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were characterized for enzyme kinetics and thermostability...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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