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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927995/the-biomechanics-of-seed-germination
#1
REVIEW
Tina Steinbrecher, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925011/post-harvest-embryo-development-in-ginseng-seeds-increases-desiccation-sensitivity-and-narrows-the-hydration-window-for-cryopreservation
#2
E Han, E Popova, G Cho, S Park, S Lee, H W Pritchard, H H Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite its self-pollinating characteristics, Korean ginseng germplasm is mainly maintained in clonal gene banks as there is no defined approach to the long-term conservation of its seed, including the most appropriate stage of embryo development for storage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of embryo development on desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation success in ginseng seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seeds of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919665/three-dimensional-visualization-of-membrane-phospholipid-distributions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-seeds-a-spatial-perspective-of-molecular-heterogeneity
#3
Drew Sturtevant, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Young-Jin Lee, Kent D Chapman
Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely used as a model plant to study acyl lipid metabolism. Seeds of A. thaliana are quite small (approximately 500×300μm and weigh ~20μg), making lipid compositional analyses of single seeds difficult to achieve. Here we have used matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to map and visualize the three-dimensional spatial distributions of two common membrane phospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in single A...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917154/hydrogen-cyanide-in-the-rhizosphere-not-suppressing-plant-pathogens-but-rather-regulating-availability-of-phosphate
#4
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904399/identification-of-alleles-of-puroindoline-genes-and-their-effect-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grain-texture
#5
Mária Presinszká, Klára Štiasna, Tomáš Vyhnánek, Václav Trojan, Eva Mrkvicová, Luděk Hřivna, Ladislav Havel
Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d)...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895224/nkd-transcription-factors-are-central-regulators-of-maize-endosperm-development
#6
Bryan C Gontarek, Anjanasree K Neelakandan, Hao Wu, Philip W Becraft
NAKED ENDOSPERM1 (NKD1) and NKD2 are duplicate INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors important for maize (Zea mays) endosperm development. RNAseq analysis of the nkd1 nkd2 mutant endosperm revealed that NKD1 and NKD2 influence 6.4% of the transcriptome in developing aleurone and 6.7% in starchy endosperm. Processes regulated by NKD1 and NKD2 include gene expression, epigenetic functions, cell growth and division, hormone pathways and resource reserve deposition. The NKD1 and NKD2 proteins bind a consensus DNA sequence of TTGTCGT with slightly different properties...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895206/endosperm-and-imprinting-inextricably-linked
#7
Mary Gehring, P R V Satyaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888360/identification-of-symplasmic-domains-in-the-embryo-and-seed-of-sedum-acre-l-crassulaceae
#8
Justyna Wróbel-Marek, Ewa Kurczyńska, Bartosz J Płachno, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno
Our study demonstrated that symplasmic communication between Sedum acre seed compartments and the embryo proper is not uniform. The presence of plasmodesmata (PD) constitutes the structural basis for information exchange between cells, and symplasmic communication is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and plant development. Most recent studies concerning an analysis of symplasmic communication between seed compartments and the embryo have been predominantly performed on Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 25, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885443/roles-of-the-haustorium-and-endosperm-during-the-development-of-seedlings-of-acrocomia-aculeata-arecaceae-dynamics-of-reserve-mobilization-and-accumulation
#9
Hellen Cássia Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
The mobilization of palm seed reserves is a complex process because of the abundance and diversity of stored compounds and results from the development of a highly specialized haustorium. This work focused on the important Neotropical oleaginous palm Acrocomia aculeata, with the aim of defining phases of seedling development associated with mobilization of reserves and elucidating the role of haustorium and endosperm in this process. Standard methods were performed, including biometric, anatomical, and histochemical analyses, as well as the evaluation of the activities of the enzymes endo-β-mannanase and lipase, throughout the reserve mobilization in seeds during germination and in seedlings...
November 24, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881726/systems-genetics-identifies-a-novel-regulatory-domain-of-amylose-synthesis
#10
Vito M Butardo, Roslen Anacleto, Sabiha Parween, Irene Samson, Krishna de Guzman, Crisline Mae Alhambra, Gopal Misra, Nese Sreenivasulu
A deeper understanding of the regulation of starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm is crucial in tailoring digestibility without sacrificing grain quality. In this study, significant association peaks on chromosomes 6 and 7 were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS) of debranched starch structure from grains of a 320 indica rice diversity panel using genotyping data from the high-density rice array. A systems genetics approach that interrelates starch structure data from GWAS to functional pathways from a gene regulatory network identified known and novel genes with high correlation to the proportion of amylose and amylopectin...
November 23, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864262/interspecific-reproductive-barriers-between-sympatric-populations-of-wild-tomato-species-solanum-section-lycopersicon
#11
You Soon Baek, Suzanne M Royer, Amanda K Broz, Paul A Covey, Gloria López-Casado, Reynaldo Nuñez, Philip J Kear, Merideth Bonierbale, Matilde Orillo, Esther van der Knaap, Stephen M Stack, Bruce McClure, Roger T Chetelat, Patricia A Bedinger
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Interspecific reproductive barriers (IRBs) often prevent hybridization between closely related species in sympatry. In the tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon), interspecific interactions between natural sympatric populations have not been evaluated previously. In this study, we assessed IRBs between members of the tomato clade from nine sympatric sites in Peru. METHODS: Coflowering was assessed at sympatric sites in Peru. Using previously collected seeds from sympatric sites in Peru, we evaluated premating prezygotic (floral morphology), postmating prezygotic (pollen-tube growth), and postzygotic barriers (fruit and seed development) between sympatric species in common gardens...
November 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858171/a-mutational-approach-for-the-detection-of-genetic-factors-affecting-seed-size-in-maize
#12
Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Damiano Gabotti, Priscilla Sofia Manzotti, Martina Persico, Gabriella Consonni, Giuseppe Gavazzi
Genes influencing seed size. The designation emp (empty pericarp) refers to a group of defective kernel mutants that exhibit a drastic reduction in endosperm tissue production. They allow the isolation of genes controlling seed development and affecting seed size. Nine independently isolated emp mutants have been analyzed in this study and in all cases longitudinal sections of mature seeds revealed the absence of morphogenesis in the embryo proper, an observation that correlates with their failure to germinate...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855923/impact-of-industrial-dry-milling-on-fumonisin-redistribution-in-non-transgenic-corn-in-brazil
#13
Jaqueline Gozzi Bordini, Mario Augusto Ono, Glauco Tironi Garcia, Victor Hugo Meconi Fazani, Édio Vizoni, Karem Caroline Bonacin Rodrigues, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848912/auxin-production-in-the-endosperm-drives-seed-coat-development-in-arabidopsis
#14
Duarte D Figueiredo, Rita A Batista, Pawel J Roszak, Lars Hennig, Claudia Köhler
In flowering plants, seed development is initiated by the fusion of the maternal egg and central cells with two paternal sperm cells, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. The fertilization products are surrounded by the maternally derived seed coat, whose development prior to fertilization is blocked by epigenetic regulators belonging to the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein family. Here we show that fertilization of the central cell results in the production of auxin and most likely its export to the maternal tissues, which drives seed coat development by removing PcG function...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845749/unsaturated-lipids-change-in-olive-tree-drupe-and-seed-during-fruit-development-and-in-response-to-cold-stress-and-acclimation
#15
REVIEW
Simone D'Angeli, Maria Maddalena Altamura
The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs) in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA) fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843443/rna-interference-mediated-simultaneous-suppression-of-seed-storage-proteins-in-rice-grains
#16
Kyoungwon Cho, Hye-Jung Lee, Yeong-Min Jo, Sun-Hyung Lim, Randeep Rakwal, Jong-Yeol Lee, Young-Mi Kim
Seed storage proteins (SSPs) such as glutelin, prolamin, and globulin are abundant components in some of the most widely consumed food cereals in the world. Synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), SSPs are translocated to the protein bodies. Prolamins are located at the spherical protein body I derived from the ER, whereas, glutelins and globulin are accumulated in the irregularly shaped protein bodies derived from vacuoles. Our previous studies have shown that the individual suppression of glutelins, 13-kDa prolamins and globulin caused the compensative accumulation of other SSPs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834836/proteomic-analysis-of-tung-tree-vernicia-fordii-oilseeds-during-the-developmental-stages
#17
Zhiyong Zhan, Yicun Chen, Jay Shockey, Xiaojiao Han, Yangdong Wang
The tung tree (Vernicia fordii), a non-model woody plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, is a promising economic plant due to the high content of a novel high-value oil in its seeds. Many metabolic pathways are active during seed development. Oil (triacylglycerols (TAGs)) accumulates in oil bodies distributed in the endosperm cells of tung tree seeds. The relationship between oil bodies and oil content during tung tree seed development was analyzed using ultrastructural observations, which confirmed that oil accumulation was correlated with the volumes and numbers of oil bodies in the endosperm cells during three different developmental stages...
November 8, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833892/pharmacognostic-specification-of-zanthoxylum-limonella-dennst-alston-fruits-and-seeds-in-thailand
#18
Rawiwan Charoensup, Thidarat Duangyod, Pravaree Phuneerub, Chatubhong Singharachai
Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston. (Rutaceae) or Ma-khwaen is one of the medicinal plants in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate the pharmacognostic specifications and chemical constituents of Z. limonella fruits and seeds. Fruits and seeds of Z. limonella were collected from 15 sources throughout Thailand; then examined the pharmacognostic specification following WHO guideline of quality control method for medicinal plant materials. Microscopic determination of Z. limonella powders demonstrated fragment of mesocarp, fragment of brown vitta, oil glands, fragment of endocarp, and endosperm containing oil globule, trichome and pale brown stone cells...
October 2016: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830397/zmsbt1-and-zmsbt2-two-new-subtilisin-like-serine-proteases-genes-expressed-in-early-maize-kernel-development
#19
Maribel López, Elisa Gómez, Christian Faye, Denise Gerentes, Wyatt Paul, Joaquín Royo, Gregorio Hueros, Luis M Muñiz
Two subtilisin-like proteases show highly specific and complementary expression patterns in developing grains. These genes label the complete surface of the filial-maternal interface, suggesting a role in filial epithelial differentiation. The cereal endosperm is the most important source of nutrition and raw materials for mankind, as well as the storage compartment enabling initial growth of the germinating plantlets. The development of the different cell types in this tissue is regulated environmentally, genetically and epigenetically, resulting in the formation of top-bottom, adaxial-abaxial and surface-central axes...
November 9, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829355/transcriptome-analyses-of-seed-development-in-grape-hybrids-reveals-a-possible-mechanism-influencing-seed-size
#20
Li Wang, Xiaoyan Hu, Chen Jiao, Zhi Li, Zhangjun Fei, Xiaoxiao Yan, Chonghuai Liu, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
BACKGROUND: Seedlessness in grape (Vitis vinifera) is of considerable commercial importance for both the table grape and processing industries. Studies to date of grape seed development have been made certain progress, but many key genes have yet to be identified and characterized. RESULTS: In this study we analyzed the seed transcriptomes of progeny derived from the V. vinifera seeded maternal parent 'Red Globe' and the seedless paternal parent 'Centennial seedless' to identify genes associated with seedlessness...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
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