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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225022/the-mitotic-function-of-augmin-is-dependent-on-its-microtubule-associated-protein-subunit-ede1-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Yuh-Ru Julie Lee, Yuji Hiwatashi, Takashi Hotta, Tingting Xie, John H Doonan, Bo Liu
The augmin complex plays an essential role in microtubule (MT)-dependent MT nucleation by recruiting the γ-tubulin complex to MT walls to generate new MTs [1]. The complex contains eight subunits (designated AUG) including AUG8, which is an MT-associated protein (MAP). When this complex is isolated from etiolated seedlings consisting of primarily interphase cells in Arabidopsis thaliana, AUG8 is an integral component [2]. EDE1 (Endosperm DEfective 1) is homologous to AUG8 [3]. Here, we demonstrate that EDE1, but not AUG8, is associated with acentrosomal spindle and phragmoplast MT arrays in patterns indistinguishable from those of the AUG1-7 subunits and the γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) that exhibit biased localization toward MT minus ends...
November 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223877/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-complex-and-interconnected-sucrose-signaling-cascades-in-developing-seeds-of-castor-bean
#2
Bin Wang, Yang Zhang, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Wei Xu, Fei Li, Aizhong Liu
Seeds are highly specific organs that strongly sink sucrose resources from leaf and stem tissues to trigger seed metabolism and development. In particular, for heterotrophic non-green seeds, the potential molecular mechanism underlying sucrose-driven seed development remains unanswered. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a typical non-green seed, has been considered as a model plant for seed biology study in dicotyledonous plants due to its heterotrophic seeds with persistent endosperms. In the present study, the fast-developing castor bean seeds were treated with exogenous sucrose and mannitol for four hours...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216220/retarded-germination-of-nicotiana-tabacum-seeds-following-insertion-of-exogenous-dna-mimics-the-seed-persistent-behavior
#3
Elisabetta Onelli, Alessandra Moscatelli, Assunta Gagliardi, Mauro Zaninelli, Luca Bini, Antonella Baldi, Marco Caccianiga, Serena Reggi, Luciana Rossi
Tobacco seeds show a coat-imposed dormancy in which the seed envelope tissues (testa and endosperm) impose a physical constraint on the radicle protrusion. The germination-limiting process is represented by the endosperm rupture which is induced by cell-wall weakening. Transgenic tobacco seeds, obtained by insertion of exogenous genes codifying for seed-based oral vaccines (F18 and VT2eB), showed retarded germination with respect to the wild type and modified the expression of endogenous proteins. Morphological and proteomic analyses of wild type and transgenic seeds revealed new insights into factors influencing seed germination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213276/an-integrated-multi-omics-comparison-of-embryo-and-endosperm-tissue-specific-features-and-their-impact-on-rice-seed-quality
#4
Marc Galland, Dongli He, Imen Lounifi, Erwann Arc, Gilles Clément, Sandrine Balzergue, Stéphanie Huguet, Gwendal Cueff, Béatrice Godin, Boris Collet, Fabienne Granier, Halima Morin, Joseph Tran, Benoit Valot, Loïc Rajjou
Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive "multi-omics" dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212767/passifloraceae-seeds-from-the-late-eocene-of-colombia
#5
Camila Martínez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. METHODS: Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193664/genome-wide-discovery-of-tissue-specific-mirnas-in-clusterbean-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-indicates-their-association-with-galactomannan-biosynthesis
#6
Anshika Tyagi, Deepti Nigam, S V Amitha Mithra, Amolkumar U Solanke, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Tilak Raj Sharma, Kishor Gaikwad
Owing to the presence of 80% soluble dietary fiber, high protein content and high value gum, clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) has recently emerged as an economically important legume. The developing clusterbean seeds accumulate 90% galactomannans in the endosperm, and therefore, can be used as a model crop to understand galactomannan biosynthesis and its regulation. miRNAs are tiny master regulators of their corresponding target genes, resulting in variations in the amounts of their metabolic end products...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186806/the-silencing-of-carotenoid-%C3%AE-hydroxylases-by-rna-interference-in-different-maize-genetic-backgrounds-increases-the-%C3%AE-carotene-content-of-the-endosperm
#7
(no author information available yet)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Blocking these reactions could therefore improve the endosperm β-carotene content. Accordingly, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the endogenous ZmBCH1 and ZmBCH2 genes, which encode two non-heme di-iron carotenoid β-hydroxylases...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172230/sequential-gene-activation-and-gene-imprinting-during-early-embryo-development-in-maize
#8
Dexuan Meng, Jianyu Zhao, Cheng Zhao, Haishan Luo, Mujiao Xie, Renyi Liu, Jinsheng Lai, Xiaolan Zhang, Weiwei Jin
Gene imprinting is a widely observed epigenetic phenomenon in maize endosperm; however, whether it also occurs in maize embryo remains controversial. Here, we used high throughput RNA sequencing on laser capture microdissection (LCM) and manually dissected maize embryos from reciprocal crosses between inbred lines B73 and Mo17 at six time points (3 to 13 days after pollination) to analyze allelic gene expression patterns. Co-expression analysis revealed sequential gene activation during maize embryo development...
November 24, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168982/n-terminomics-reveals-control-of-arabidopsis-seed-storage-proteins-and-proteases-by-the-arg-n-end-rule-pathway
#9
Hongtao Zhang, Lucy Gannon, Kirsty L Hassall, Michael J Deery, Daniel J Gibbs, Michael J Holdsworth, Renier A L van der Hoorn, Kathryn S Lilley, Frederica L Theodoulou
The N-end rule pathway of targeted protein degradation is an important regulator of diverse processes in plants but detailed knowledge regarding its influence on the proteome is lacking. To investigate the impact of the Arg/N-end rule pathway on the proteome of etiolated seedlings, we used terminal amine isotopic labelling of substrates with tandem mass tags (TMT-TAILS) for relative quantification of N-terminal peptides in prt6, an Arabidopsis thaliana N-end rule mutant lacking the E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6)...
November 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164367/mannans-and-endo-%C3%AE-mannanase-transcripts-are-located-in-different-seed-compartments-during-brassicaceae-germination
#10
Néstor Carrillo-Barral, Angel J Matilla, María Del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, Raquel Iglesias-Fernández
Mannans but not endo-β-mannanases are mainly found in the mucilage layer of two Brassicaceae seeds. Nonetheless, mannanase mobilization from inner to outer seed layers cannot be ruled out. The contribution of endo-β-mannanase (MAN) genes to the germination of the wild-type Sisymbrium officinale and cultivated Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae) species has been explored. In both species, mannans have been localized to the imbibed external seed coat layer (mucilage) by fluorescence immunolocalization and MAN enzymatic activity increases in seeds as imbibition progresses, reaching a peak before 100% germination is achieved...
November 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163597/morphology-carbohydrate-distribution-gene-expression-and-enzymatic-activities-related-to-cell-wall-hydrolysis-in-four-barley-varieties-during-simulated-malting
#11
Natalie S Betts, Laura G Wilkinson, Shi F Khor, Neil J Shirley, Finn Lok, Birgitte Skadhauge, Rachel A Burton, Geoffrey B Fincher, Helen M Collins
Many biological processes, such as cell wall hydrolysis and the mobilisation of nutrient reserves from the starchy endosperm, require stringent regulation to successfully malt barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain in an industrial context. Much of the accumulated knowledge defining these events has been collected from individual, unrelated experiments, and data have often been extrapolated from Petri dish germination, rather than malting, experiments. Here, we present comprehensive morphological, biochemical, and transcript data from a simulated malt batch of the three elite malting cultivars Admiral, Navigator, and Flagship, and the feed cultivar Keel...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156580/cellular-localization-of-wheat-high-molecular-weight-glutenin-subunits-in-transgenic-rice-grain
#12
Yeong-Min Jo, Kyoungwon Cho, Hye-Jung Lee, Sun-Hyung Lim, Jin Sun Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Jong-Yeol Lee
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary global food cereal. However, when compared to wheat, rice has poor food processing qualities. Dough that is made from rice flour has low viscoelasticity because rice seed lacks storage proteins that are comparable to gluten protein from wheat. Thus, current research efforts aim to improve rice flour processing qualities through the transgenic expression of viscoelastic proteins in rice seeds. In this study, we characterized the transgenic expression of wheat glutenin subunits in rice seeds...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150632/mucoadhesive-functionality-of-cell-wall-structures-from-fruits-and-grains-electrostatic-and-polymer-network-interactions-mediated-by-soluble-dietary-polysaccharides
#13
Oliver W Meldrum, Gleb E Yakubov, Ghanendra Gartaula, Michael A McGuckin, Michael J Gidley
We demonstrate the enhancement of intestinal mucin (Muc2) binding to plant cell wall structures from fruit (parenchymal apple tissue) and grain (wheat endosperm) mediated by soluble dietary fibers embedded within cellulose networks. Mucin binding occurs through two distinct mechanisms; for pectin polysaccharides characteristic of fruits and vegetables, it is governed by molecular mucoadhesive interactions, while for neutral polysaccharides, arabinoxylan and β-glucan characteristic of cereal grains, the interaction stems from the properties of their polymer network...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143067/characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-qkc7-03-a-major-locus-for-kernel-cracking-in-maize
#14
Mingtao Yang, Lin Chen, Xun Wu, Xing Gao, Chunhui Li, Yanchun Song, Dengfeng Zhang, Yunsu Shi, Yu Li, Yong-Xiang Li, Tianyu Wang
A major locus conferring kernel cracking in maize was characterized and fine mapped to an interval of 416.27 kb. Meanwhile, combining the results of transcriptomic analysis, the candidate gene was inferred. Seed development requires a proper structural and physiological balance between the maternal tissues and the internal structures of the seeds. In maize, kernel cracking is a disorder in this balance that seriously limits quality and yield and is characterized by a cracked pericarp at the kernel top and endosperm everting...
November 15, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137987/degree-of-pectin-methyl-esterification-in-endosperm-cell-walls-is-involved-in-embryo-bending-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
José E Cruz-Valderrama, Karina Jiménez-Durán, Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Alexis Salazar-Iribe, Judith Márquez-Guzmán, Alicia Gamboa-deBuen
The endosperm is a transitory structure involved in proper embryo elongation. The cell walls of mature seed endosperm are generally composed of a uniform distribution of cellulose, unesterified homogalacturonans, and arabinans. Recent studies suggest that changes in cell wall properties during endosperm development could be related to embryo growth. The degree of methyl esterification of homogalacturonans may be involved in this endosperm tissue remodelling. The relevance of the degree of homogalacturonan methyl esterification during seed development was determined by immunohistochemical analyses using a panel of probes with specificity for homogalaturonans with different degrees of methyl esterification...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133924/bio-detoxification-of-ricin-in-castor-bean-ricinus-communis-l-seeds
#16
Natália L Sousa, Glaucia B Cabral, Pabline M Vieira, Aisy B Baldoni, Francisco J L Aragão
Ricin is a highly toxic ribosome-inactivating lectin occurring in the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Castor bean grows throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions and is a very important crop due to its high seed content of ricinoleic acid, an unusual fatty acid, which has several industrial applications. However, due to the presence of the toxin, castor bean can cause death after the exposure of animals to low doses of ricin through skin contact, injection, inhalation or oral routes. Aiming to generate a detoxified genotype, we explored the RNAi concept in order to silence the ricin coding genes in the endosperm of castor bean seeds...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133372/gradually-decreasing-starch-branching-enzyme-expression-is-responsible-for-the-formation-of-heterogeneous-starch-granules
#17
Juan Wang, Pan Hu, Lingshang Lin, Zichun Chen, Qiao Quan Liu, Cunxu Wei
Rice endosperm is mainly occupied by homogeneous polygonal starch from inside to outside. However, morphologically different (heterogeneous) starches have been identified in rice mutants. How these heterogeneous starches form remains unknown. A high-amylose rice line (TRS) generated through the antisense inhibition of starch branching synthase (SBE) I and IIb contains four heterogeneous starches: polygonal, aggregate, elongated, and hollow starch; these starches are regionally distributed in the endosperm from inside to outside...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120386/high-quality-unigenes-and-microsatellite-markers-from-tissue-specific-transcriptome-and-development-of-a-database-in-clusterbean-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-l-taub
#18
Hukam C Rawal, Shrawan Kumar, Amitha Mithra S V, Amolkumar U Solanke, Deepti Nigam, Swati Saxena, Anshika Tyagi, Sureshkumar V, Neelam R Yadav, Pritam Kalia, Narendra Pratap Singh, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Tilak Raj Sharma, Kishor Gaikwad
Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub), is an important industrial, vegetable and forage crop. This crop owes its commercial importance to the presence of guar gum (galactomannans) in its endosperm which is used as a lubricant in a range of industries. Despite its relevance to agriculture and industry, genomic resources available in this crop are limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate RNA-Seq based transcriptome from leaf, shoot, and flower tissues. A total of 145 million high quality Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity into 127,706 transcripts and 48,007 non-redundant high quality (HQ) unigenes...
November 9, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119268/gene-structure-expression-pattern-and-interaction-of-nuclear-factor-y-family-in-castor-bean-ricinus-communis
#19
Yue Wang, Wei Xu, Zexi Chen, Bing Han, Mohammad E Haque, Aizhong Liu
Nuclear Factor-Y transcription factors, which function in regulating seed development (including storage reservoir accumulation) and responding to abiotic stresses, were identified and characterized in castor bean. Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors in plants contain three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC), and function as a heterodimer or heterotrimer complex in regulating plant growth, development and response to stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae) one of the most economically important non-edible oilseed crops, able to grow in diverse soil conditions and displays high tolerance to abiotic stresses...
November 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109405/application-of-cre-lox-gene-switch-to-limit-the-cry-expression-in-rice-green-tissues
#20
Hao Chen, Ju Luo, Peng Zheng, Xiaobo Zhang, Cuicui Zhang, Xinyuan Li, Mugui Wang, Yuqing Huang, Xuejiao Liu, Mehmood Jan, Yujun Liu, Peisong Hu, Jumin Tu
The presence of genetically modified (GM) protein in the endosperm is important information for the public when considering the biological safety of transgenic rice. To limit the expression of GM proteins to rice green tissues, we developed a modified Cre-lox gene switch using two cassettes named KEY and LOCK. KEY contains a nuclear-localized Cre recombinase driven by the green-tissue-specific promoter rbcS. LOCK contains a Nos terminator (NosT), which is used to block the expression of the gene of interest (GOI), bounded by two loxP sites...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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