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Raviraj Banakar, Ana Alvarez Fernandez, Pablo Díaz-Benito, Javier Abadia, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Stanislav Kopriva
Nicotianamine (NA) and 2'-deoxymugenic acid (DMA) are metal-chelating ligands that promote the accumulation of metals in rice endosperm, but it is unclear how these phytosiderophores regulate the levels of different metals and limit their accumulation. In this study, transgenic rice plants producing high levels of NA and DMA accumulated up to 4-fold more iron (Fe) and 2-fold more zinc (Zn) in the endosperm compared with wild-type plants. The distribution of Fe and Zn in vegetative tissues suggested that both metals are sequestered as a buffering mechanism to avoid overloading the seeds...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xin-Yu Chen, Yang Yang, Li-Ping Ran, Zhao-di Dong, Er-Jin Zhang, Xu-Run Yu, Fei Xiong
Drought stress is a significant abiotic stress factor that affects wheat yield and quality. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in regulating caryopsis development in response to drought stress. However, little is known about the expression characteristics of miRNAs and how they regulate protein accumulation in wheat caryopsis under drought stress. To address this, two small RNA libraries of wheat caryopsis under control and drought stress conditions were constructed and sequenced. A total of 125 miRNAs were identified in the two samples, of which 110 were known and 15 were novel...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoli Xiang, Yongrui Wu, José Planta, Joachim Messing, Thomas Leustek
Maize kernels do not contain enough of the essential sulfur-amino acid methionine (Met) to serve as a complete diet for animals, even though maize has the genetic capacity to store Met in kernels. Prior studies indicated that the availability of the sulfur (S)-amino acids may limit their incorporation into seed storage proteins. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is a key control point for S-assimilation leading to Cys and Met biosynthesis and SAT overexpression is known to enhance S-assimilation without negative impact on plant growth...
October 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Verena Ibl, Jenny Peters, Eva Stöger, Elsa Arcalís
The cereal endosperm is a complex structure comprising distinct cell types, characterized by specialized organelles for the accumulation of storage proteins. Protein trafficking in these cells is complicated by the presence of several different storage organelles including protein bodies (PBs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dynamic protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). In addition, trafficking may follow a number of different routes depending on developmental stage, showing that the endomembrane system is capable of massive reorganization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antoine Fort, Reetu Tuteja, Martin Braud, Peter C McKeown, Charles Spillane
Genomic imprinting in the seed endosperm could be due to unequal parental genome contribution effects in triploid endosperm tissue that trigger parent-of-origin specific activation and/or silencing of loci prone to genomic imprinting. To determine whether genomic imprinting is triggered by unequal parental genome contribution effects, we generated a whole-genome transcriptome dataset of F1 hybrid triploid embryos (as mimics of F1 hybrid triploid endosperm). For the vast majority of genes, the parental contributions to their expression levels in the F1 triploid hybrid embryos follows a biallelic and linear expression pattern...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Masayuki Taniguchi, Junya Kawabe, Ryu Toyoda, Toshiki Namae, Akihito Ochiai, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In this study, we hydrolyzed rice endosperm protein (REP) with pepsin and generated 20 fractions containing multifunctional cationic peptides with varying isoelectric point (pI) values using ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Subsequently, we determined antimicrobial activities of each fraction against the pathogens Prophyromonas gingivalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptocossus mutans, and Candida albicans. Fractions 18, 19, and 20 had pI values greater than 12 and exhibited antimicrobial activity against P...
October 4, 2017: Peptides
Shanshan Zhang, Dhiraj Thakare, Ramin Yadegari
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) enables isolation of single cells or groups of cells for a variety of downstream applications including transcriptome profiling. Recently, this methodology has found a more widespread use particularly with the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques that enable deep profiling of the limited amounts of RNA obtained from fixed or frozen sections. When used with fixed tissues, a major experimental challenge is to balance the tissue integrity needed for microscopic visualization of the cell types of interest with that of the RNA quality necessary for deep profiling...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shangang Jia, Aixia Li, Chi Zhang, David Holding
We describe a method for gamma-irradiation of mature maize seeds to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes. We also describe methods for mapping mutants and identifying causal gene mutations. Using this method, a population of 1788M2 families and 47 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes was developed. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we utilized a novel functional genomics platform that combines separate Bulked Segregant RNA and exome sequencing data sets (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xuemei Ren, Zhenyuan Pan, Hailiang Zhao, Junli Zhao, Manjun Cai, Jiang Li, Zuxin Zhang, Fazhan Qiu, Gerhard Leubner
Group II introns are common in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species. The splicing of these introns is a complex process involving the synergistic action of multiple factors. However, few of these factors have been characterized in maize. In this study, we found that the Empty pericarp11 (Emp11) gene, which encodes a P-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein, is required for the development of maize seeds. The loss of Emp11 function seriously impairs embryo and endosperm development, resulting in empty pericarp seeds in maize, and alteration in Emp11 expression leads to quantitative variation in kernel size and weight...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Volodymyr Radchuk, David Riewe, Manuela Peukert, Andrea Matros, Marc Strickert, Ruslana Radchuk, Diana Weier, Hans-Henning Steinbiß, Nese Sreenivasulu, Winfriede Weschke, Hans Weber, Zoe Wilson
Sucrose transport and partitioning are crucial for seed filling. While many plasma-membrane-localised sucrose transporters (SUT1 family members) have been analysed in seeds, the functions of vacuolar SUT2 members are still obscure. In barley grains, expression of HvSUT1 and HvSUT2 overlap temporally and spatially, suggesting concerted functions to regulate sucrose homeostasis. Using HvSUT2-RNAi plants, we found that grains were also deficient in HvSUT1 expression and seemingly sucrose-limited during mid-to-late grain filling...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaojie Li, Wei Gu, Silong Sun, Zongliang Chen, Jing Chen, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that is important in mitochondria and plastids of higher plants. All RNA editing specific trans-factors reported so far belong to PLS-class of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Here, we report the map-based cloning and molecular characterization of a defective kernel mutant dek6 in maize. Loss of Dek6 function leads to delayed embryogenesis and endosperm development, reduced kernel size, and seedling lethality. Dek6 encodes an E sub-class PPR protein that targets to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, and is involved in RNA editing in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase3 (nad3) at nad3-247 and nad3-275...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Dale C Brunelle, Janice K Clark, William F Sheridan
We have previously identified embryo-specific (emb) mutations that resulted in maize kernels containing abnormal embryos with normal appearing endosperm among the progeny of active Robertson's Mutator stocks.  Our rationale for the mutant screen described here is that it should be possible to produce ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced embryo-specific mutations at a frequency higher than that obtained by transposon mutagenesis and with greater ease. This proved to be the case when we screened for mutations that are embryo-specific among progeny of materials generated with EMS-treated pollen...
October 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Paulina M Opyd, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bogusław Król
Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground...
October 2, 2017: Nutrients
Yasunori Nakamura, Masami Ono, Takayuki Sawada, Naoko Crofts, Naoko Fujita, Martin Steup
Functional interactions of plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1) and starch branching enzymes (BEs) from the developing rice endosperm are the focus of this study. In the presence of both Pho1 and BE, the same branched primer molecule is elongated and further branched almost simultaneously even at very low glucan concentrations present in the purified enzyme preparations. By contrast, in the absence of any BE, glucans are not, to any significant extent, elongated by Pho1. Based on our in vitro data, in the developing rice endosperm, Pho1 appears to be weakly associated with any of the BE isozymes...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Zuzana Hruska, Haibo Yao, Russell Kincaid, Robert L Brown, Deepak Bhatnagar, Thomas E Cleveland
Non-invasive, easy to use and cost-effective technology offers a valuable alternative for rapid detection of carcinogenic fungal metabolites, namely aflatoxins, in commodities. One relatively recent development in this area is the use of spectral technology. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, in particular, offers a potential rapid and non-invasive method for detecting the presence of aflatoxins in maize infected with the toxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus. Earlier studies have shown that whole maize kernels contaminated with aflatoxins exhibit different spectral signatures from uncontaminated kernels based on the external fluorescence emission of the whole kernels...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jian Wang, Chang Wang, Shoumin Zhen, Xiaohui Li, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat-related genomes may carry new glutenin genes with the potential for quality improvement of breadmaking. In this study, we estimated the gluten quality properties of the wheat line CNU609 derived from crossing between Chinese Spring (CS, Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) and the wheat-Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) 1U(1B) substitution line, and investigated the function of 1U-encoded low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). RESULTS: The main quality parameters of CNU609 were significantly improved due to introgression of the 1U genome, including dough development time, stability time, farinograph quality number, gluten index, loaf size and inner structure...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Backki Kim, Sunmin Woo, Mi-Jung Kim, Soon-Wook Kwon, Joohyun Lee, Sang Hyun Sung, Hee-Jong Koh
Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenolic compounds with potential health-promoting activities. Although anthocyanins and phenolic acids in coloured rice have been investigated, few studies have focused on flavonoids. Herein, we analysed flavonoids in a yellow grain rice mutant using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, and identified 19 flavonoids by comparing retention times and accurate mass measurements. Among them, six flavonoids, isoorientin, isoorientin 2″-O-glucoside, vitexin 2″-O-glucoside, isovitexin, isoscoparin 2″-O-glucoside and isoscoparin, were isolated and fully identified from the yellow grain rice mutant, and the levels were significantly higher than wild-type, with isoorientin particularly abundant in mutant embryo...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Weiyang Zhang, Junfei Gu, Zhiqin Wang, Cunxu Wei, Jianchang Yang, Jianhua Zhang
Drought influences cereal crop yield and quality. However, little is known about changes in the structural and functional properties of wheat starch under soil drought conditions. In this study, two wheat cultivars were subjected to well-watered (WW), moderate soil-drought (MD), and severe soil-drought (SD) from 7 tillers in the main stem to maturity. The structural and functional properties of the resultant endosperm starch were investigated. In comparison with WW soil, the MD increased starch accumulation in grains, the proportion of large starch granules, amylose and amylopectin long branch chain contents, and average amylopectin branch chain length, which were accompanied by the increase in activities of granule bound starch synthase and soluble starch synthase...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ya-Feng Zhang, Masaharu Suzuki, Feng Sun, Bao-Cai Tan
Pentatricopepetide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of RNA-binding proteins involved in RNA metabolism in plant organelles. Although many PPR proteins have been functionally studied, few of them are identified with a function in mitochondrial RNA stability. By using a reverse genetic approach, we characterized the role of the mitochondrion-targeted PPR78 protein in nad5 mature mRNA stability and maize (Zea mays) seed development. Loss of PPR78 function leads to a dramatic reduction in the steady-state level of mitochondrial nad5 mature mRNA, blocks the assembly of complex I in the electron transport chain, and causes an arrest in embryogenesis and endosperm development...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jaromír Lachman, Alena Hejtmánková, Matyáš Orsák, Marek Popov, Petr Martinek
Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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