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Alonzo A Gabriel, Jeffrey M Ostonal, Jannelle O Cristobal, Gladess A Pagal, John Vincent E Armada
This study determined the inactivation kinetic parameters of selected pathogens in heat, ultraviolet-C and combined heat-UV-C treated coconut liquid endosperm. Separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovars, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated into coconut liquid endosperm (pH 5.15, TSS 4.4o Bx, TA 0.062% malic acid, extinction coefficient (ε) at 254 nm of 0.0154 cm-1 ) for inactivation studies. Result showed that all organisms generally exhibited a log-linear heat inactivation behavior (R2 0...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Guiyan Yang, Qingyan Wang, Chen Liu, Xiaobin Wang, Shuxiang Fan, Wenqian Huang
Rapid and visual detection of the chemical compositions of plant seeds is important but difficult for a traditional seed quality analysis system. In this study, a custom-designed line-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging system was applied for detecting and displaying the main chemical compositions in a heterogeneous maize seed. Raman hyperspectral images collected from the endosperm and embryo of maize seed were acquired and preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter and adaptive iteratively reweighted Penalized Least Squares (airPLS)...
April 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides...
April 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Firoz Hossain, Vignesh Muthusamy, Neha Pandey, Ashish K Vishwakarma, Aanchal Baveja, Rajkumar U Zunjare, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Supradip Saha, Kanchikeri M Manjaiah Manjaiah, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Hari S Gupta
Maize is a valuable source of food and feed worldwide. Maize endosperm protein is, however nutritionally poor due to the reduced levels of two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. In this study, recessive opaque2 (o2) allele that confers enhanced endosperm lysine and tryptophan, was introgressed using marker-assisted backcross breeding into three normal inbred lines (HKI323, HKI1105 and HKI1128). These are the parental lines of three popular medium-maturing single cross hybrids (HM4, HM8 and HM9) in India...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
Shujun Wang, Chen Chao, Fengjuan Xiang, Xiu Zhang, Shuo Wang, Les Copeland
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
George Savill, Adam Michalski, Stephen J Powers, Yongfang Wan, Paola Tosi, Peter Buchner, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Gradients exist in the distribution of storage proteins in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm and determine the milling properties and protein recovery rate of the grain. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify both the gradients in protein concentration, and the size distribution of protein bodies within the endosperm of wheat plants grown under two different (20 °C or 28 °C) post-anthesis temperatures, and supplied with a nutrient solution with either high or low nitrogen content...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gregory W Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. METHODS: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Sarah N Anderson, Greg Zynda, Jawon Song, Zhaoxue Han, Matthew Vaughn, Qing Li, Nathan M Springer
DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that can provide epigenetic regulation of gene and transposon expression. Plants utilize several pathways to establish and maintain DNA methylation in specific sequence contexts. The chromomethylase (CMT) genes maintain CHG (where H = A, C or T) methylation. The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is important for CHH methylation. Transcriptome analysis was performed in a collection of Zea mays lines carrying mutant alleles for CMT or RdDM-associated genes...
April 4, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Li Yuan, Zhenning Liu, Xiaoya Song, Judy Jernstedt, Venkatesan Sundaresan
A defining feature of angiosperms is double fertilization involving the female gametophyte central cell and formation of a nutrient-storing tissue called endosperm. The route for the evolutionary origin of endosperm from a gymnosperm ancestor, particularly the molecular steps involved, has remained elusive. Recently, the histidine kinase gene Cytokinin-Independent 1 (CKI1), an activator of cytokinin signaling, was described as a key to specification of the endosperm precursor central cell in Arabidopsis. Here, we have investigated the function and expression of a putative ortholog of CKI1 in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba...
March 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Yan Sun, Jiaying Huang, Sheng Zhong, Hongya Gu, Shan He, Li-Jia Qu
In plants, RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that changes specific cytidine to uridine in both mitochondria and plastids. Most pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in organelle RNA editing by recognizing specific RNA sequences. We here report the functional characterization of a PPR protein from the DYW subclass, Baili Xi (BLX), which contains five PPR motifs and a DYW domain. BLX is essential for early seed development, as plants lacking the BLX gene was embryo lethal and the endosperm failed to initiate cellularization...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Gandreddi V D Sirisha, K Vijaya Rachel, Kunal Zaveri, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, P Kiranmayi, Magdah Ganash, Huda Mohammad Alkreathy, Nisreen Rajeh, Ghulam M D Ashraf
Therapeutic value of allelochemicals in inflammatory disorders and the potential drug targets need to be elucidated to alleviate tissue and vascular injury. Natural anti-inflammatory agents are known to cause minimal adverse effects. Presence of different secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), protease inhibitors like (SNTI) from Sapindus trifoliatus and allied compounds from natural sources cannot blithely ignored as natural therapeutics. In the present study SNTI, a prospective protease inhibitor isolated from seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus were subjected to docking against three isoforms of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) molecules of the inflammatory pathways which are localized in membrane, cytosol and pancreas...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yicong Cai, Sanfeng Li, Guiai Jiao, Zhonghua Sheng, Yawen Wu, Gaoneng Shao, Lihong Xie, Cheng Peng, Junfeng Xu, Shaoqing Tang, Xiangjin Wei, Peisong Hu
Starch is the main form of energy storage in higher plants. Although several enzymes and regulators of starch biosynthesis have been defined, the complete molecular machinery remains largely unknown. Screening for irregularities in endosperm formation in rice represents valuable prospect for studying starch synthesis pathway. Here, we identified a novel rice white-core endosperm and defective grain filling mutant, ospk2, which displays significantly lower grain weight, decreased starch content and alteration of starch physicochemical properties when compared to wild-type grains...
March 25, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Iron deficiency affects one third of the world population. Most iron biofortification strategies have focused on genes involved in iron uptake and storage but facilitating internal long-distance iron translocation has been understudied for increasing grain iron concentrations. Citrate is a primary iron chelator, and the transporter FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 (FRD3) loads citrate into the xylem. We have expressed AtFRD3 in combination with AtNAS1 (NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE 1) and PvFER (FERRITIN) or with PvFER alone to facilitate long-distance iron transport together with efficient iron uptake and storage in the rice endosperm...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Tina Steinbrecher, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
Distinct plant seed/fruit structures evolved to support reproduction and dispersal in distinct environments. Appropriate biomechanical properties and interactions of the various seed compartments are indispensable to plant survival. Most seeds are dispersed in a dry state generated during seed development/maturation for which novel aspects of endosperm-embryo interaction were discovered. The various layers covering the embryo of a mature seed define the patterns of water uptake during germination. Their biomechanical weakening together with embryo cell expansion is mediated by cell wall remodelling to facilitate radicle protrusion...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Elena Antonini, Carolina Zara, Laura Valentini, Pietro Gobbi, Paolino Ninfali, Michele Menotta
In this study, we applied Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis to three different cereal caryopses: barley, oat and einkorn wheat. The morphological structures, chemical elemental composition and surface characteristics of the three cereals were described. Regarding the morphology, barley showed the thickest pericarp, providing a strong barrier digestion and absorption of nutrients. The aleurone layer of each cereal type contained protein body globoids within its cells...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles.Onthe one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation.Onthe other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Khalid Al-Hashmi, Faisal Nadeem, Aman Ullah
BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency represents the major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize the 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. RESULTS: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, these wheat genotypes differed greatly for yield related traits and grain mineral concentration (Zn, Ca and protein) and Zn bioavailability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mingzhu Dou, Yaohua Zhang, Suxin Yang, Xianzhong Feng
The endosperm occupies most of the available space within mature rice seeds, contains abundant nutrients, and directly influences both the quality and quantity of rice production. Initial reports noted that AtZHOUPI (AtZOU) coordinates endosperm breakdown and the concomitant separation of the embryo from this structure in Arabidopsis . The results of this study show that rice genomes contain two most closely related homologs of AtZOU , OsZOU-1 and OsZOU-2 ; of these, OsZOU-1 expression is limited to within the endosperm where it can be detected throughout this structure 5 days after pollination (DAP)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Erika Toda, Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Takashi Okamoto
Upon double fertilization, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell to form a zygote with a 1:1 maternal-to-paternal genome ratio (1m:1p), and another sperm cell fuses with the central cell to form a triploid primary endosperm cell with a 2m:1p ratio, resulting in formation of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. The endosperm is known to be considerably sensitive to the ratio of the parental genome. However, in contrast to endosperm, the effect of an imbalance of the parental genome on zygotic development/embryogenesis has not been well addressed, because it is difficult to reproduce the parental genome-imbalanced situation in zygotes and to monitor the developmental profile of zygotes without external effects from endosperm...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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