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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528088/effects-of-structural-and-textural-properties-of-brittle-cereal-foams-on-mechanisms-of-oral-breakdown-and-in-vitro-starch-digestibility
#1
Syed Ariful Alam, Saara Pentikäinen, Johanna Närväinen, Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Kaisa Poutanen, Nesli Sozer
Structural and textural properties as well as the dietary fibre content of solid cereal foams influence the oral breakdown of structure, bolus formation and digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate how structural differences of solid cereal foams (puffs vs. flakes) affect in vivo chewing and in vitro starch digestion. Four extruded puffs and flakes were produced from endosperm rye flour by extrusion processing without or with 10% rye bran (RB) addition. Extruded puffs and flakes were masticated by fifteen healthy females and the process was monitored using electromyography...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526982/pre-drought-priming-sustains-grain-development-under-post-anthesis-drought-stress-by-regulating-the-growth-hormones-in-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#2
Muhammad Abid, Yuhang Shao, Sixi Liu, Feng Wang, Jingwen Gao, Dong Jiang, Zhongwei Tian, Tingbo Dai
Drought stress during grain filling is the most yield-damaging to wheat. Pre-drought priming facilitated the wheat plants to sustain grain development against the post-anthesis drought stress by modulating the levels of growth hormones. Post-anthesis drought stress substantially reduces grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to impaired grain development associated with imbalanced levels of growth hormones. To investigate whether pre-drought priming could sustain grain development in wheat by regulating favorable levels of growth hormones under post-anthesis drought conditions, the plants of a drought-sensitive (Yangmai-16) and drought-tolerant (Luhan-7) wheat cultivar were exposed to a moderate drought stress during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) for priming, and then, a subsequent severe drought stress was applied from 7 to 14 days after anthesis...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510197/assimilates-mobilization-stable-canopy-temperature-and-expression-of-expansin-stabilizes-grain-weight-in-wheat-cultivar-lok-1-under-different-soil-moisture-conditions
#3
Mahesh Kumar, Susheel Kumar Raina, Venkadasamy Govindasamy, Ajay Kumar Singh, Ram Lal Choudhary, Jagadish Rane, Paramjit Singh Minhas
BACKGROUND: Grain yield of wheat is primarily determined by both grain number and grain weight, which often influence each other in response to environmental stimuli. Some of the genotypes are capable of maintaining high single grain weight (SGW) across the environments. Understanding mechanisms and factors associated with the superiority of such genotypes over others is necessary to enhance productivity of wheat. RESULTS: Experiments were conducted to elucidate the physiological basis of high SGW of LOK-1, a wheat cultivar grown in dry and hot environments in the central and peninsular zones of India...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509349/isolation-of-tissues-and-preservation-of-rna-from-intact-germinated-barley-grain
#4
Natalie S Betts, Oliver Berkowitz, Ruijie Liu, Helen M Collins, Birgitte Skadhauge, Christoph Dockter, Rachel A Burton, James Whelan, Geoffrey B Fincher
Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491066/robust-phylogeny-of-tetrastigma-vitaceae-based-on-ten-plastid-dna-regions-implications-for-infrageneric-classification-and-seed-character-evolution
#5
Sadaf Habib, Viet-Cuong Dang, Stefanie M Ickert-Bond, Jin-Long Zhang, Li-Min Lu, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen
Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. is one of the most species-rich genera of the economically and agronomically important grape family Vitaceae. It includes ca. 95 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Australia. Species of Tetrastigma exhibit great diversity in both vegetative and reproductive characters. Here we inferred a well-supported phylogeny of Tetrastigma based on ten chloroplast DNA regions with an expanded taxon sampling of 72 species and two varieties. Our molecular results support six major clades within Tetrastigma and the relationships among these clades were well-resolved...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487258/genome-wide-nucleosome-occupancy-and-organization-modulates-the-plasticity-of-gene-transcriptional-status-in-maize
#6
Jian Chen, En Li, Xiangbo Zhang, Xiaomei Dong, Lei Lei, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
Nucleosomes are the fundamental units of chromatin and play critical roles in gene regulation by modulating DNA accessibility, but their roles in transcriptional tissue specificity are poorly understood. Here, we present genome-wide nucleosome maps of maize shoot and endosperm generated by sequencing the micrococcal nuclease digested nucleosomal DNA. The changes of gene transcriptional status between shoot and endosperm were accompanied by preferential nucleosome loss from the promoters and shifts in the first nucleosome downstream of the transcriptional start sites (+1 nucleosome) and upstream of transcriptional termination sites (-1 nucleosome)...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483188/agnihotra-yajna-a-prototype-of-south-asian-traditional-medical-knowledge
#7
Rahul Raveendran Nair
This study conceptualizes the principle of agnihotra yajna. The perusal of ancient and modern literature reveals that the functioning of the human body is impossible without maintaining an energetic continuum driven by sunlight. The seven major chakras existing over the spinal cord help to maintain this energetic continuum. Agnihotra yajna is proposed to balance the chakra system as a whole by minimizing entropy. Offerings of natural elements to fire lit in a copper pyramid during agnihotra liberate various volatile compounds having potent pharmacological actions...
April 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472326/novel-insights-into-the-effect-of-nitrogen-on-storage-protein-biosynthesis-and-protein-body-development-in-wheat-caryopsis
#8
Xurun Yu, Xinyu Chen, Leilei Wang, Yang Yang, Xiaowei Zhu, Shanshan Shao, Wenxue Cui, Fei Xiong
Molecular and cytological mechanisms concerning the effects of nitrogen on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) storage protein biosynthesis and protein body development remain largely elusive. We used transcriptome sequencing, proteomics techniques, and light microscopy to investigate these issues. In total, 2585 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 57 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found 7 days after anthesis (DAA), and 2456 DEGs and 64 DEPs were detected 18 DAA after nitrogen treatment. Gene ontology terms related to protein biosynthesis processes enriched these numbers by 678 and 582 DEGs at 7 and 18 DAA, respectively...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466433/differences-in-specificity-and-compensatory-functions-among-three-major-starch-synthases-determine-the-structure-of-amylopectin-in-rice-endosperm
#9
Naoko Crofts, Kyohei Sugimoto, Naoko F Oitome, Yasunori Nakamura, Naoko Fujita
The lengths of amylopectin-branched chains are precise and influence the physicochemical properties of starch, which determine starch functionality. Three major isozymes of starch synthases (SSs), SSI, SSII(a), and SSIII(a), are primarily responsible for amylopectin chain elongation in the storage tissues of plants. To date, the majority of reported rice mutants were generated using japonica cultivars, which have almost inactive SSIIa. Although three SSs share some overlapping chain length preferences, whether they complement each other remains unknown due to the absence of suitable genetic combinations of materials...
May 2, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461460/maize-defective-kernel-mutant-generated-by-insertion-of-a-ds-element-in-a-gene-encoding-a-highly-conserved-tti2-cochaperone
#10
Nelson Garcia, Yubin Li, Hugo K Dooner, Joachim Messing
We have used the newly engineered transposable element Dsg to tag a gene that gives rise to a defective kernel (dek) phenotype. Dsg requires the autonomous element Ac for transposition. Upon excision, it leaves a short DNA footprint that can create in-frame and frameshift insertions in coding sequences. Therefore, we could create alleles of the tagged gene that confirmed causation of the dek phenotype by the Dsg insertion. The mutation, designated dek38-Dsg, is embryonic lethal, has a defective basal endosperm transfer (BETL) layer, and results in a smaller seed with highly underdeveloped endosperm...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450877/responses-to-hypoxia-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-discriminate-the-development-of-vitreous-and-floury-endosperms-of-conventional-maize-zea-mays-inbred-lines
#11
Mathieu Gayral, Khalil Elmorjani, Michèle Dalgalarrondo, Sandrine M Balzergue, Stéphanie Pateyron, Marie-Hélène Morel, Sylvie Brunet, Laurent Linossier, Caroline Delluc, Bénédicte Bakan, Didier Marion
Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize (Zea mays) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#12
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430215/relationship-of-the-drying-process-of-a-corn-grain-with-the-thermal-emissivity-and-optical-interference-in-the-mid-infrared-range
#13
Carlos Villaseñor-Mora, Francisco J Gantes-Nunez, Arturo Gonzalez-Vega, Victor H Hernandez-Gonzalez
A study of the effect of the thin layer of free water in corn kernels on the emissivity and interference in the mid infrared range was performed. The emissivity was measured through thermal infrared images by direct method for 8 days, allowing observance that the thickness of free water modifies the quantity of emitted energy and emissivity; however, in the first days when the layer of free water is not optically thick the interference caused by the thin film of superficial water averts a correct measurement of the emissivity...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429576/suppression-of-osmads7-in-rice-endosperm-stabilizes-amylose-content-under-high-temperature-stress
#14
Hua Zhang, Heng Xu, Mengjie Feng, Ying Zhu
High temperature significantly alters the amylose content of rice, resulting in mature grains with poor eating quality. However, only few genes and/or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in this process have been isolated and the molecular mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. Here, we describe a floral organ identity gene, OsMADS7, involved in stabilizing rice amylose content at high temperature. OsMADS7 is greatly induced by high temperature at the early filling stage. Constitutive suppression of OsMADS7 stabilizes amylose content under high temperature stress but results in low spikelet fertility...
April 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421099/progress-in-high-amylose-cereal-crops-through-inactivation-of-starch-branching-enzymes
#15
REVIEW
Juan Wang, Pan Hu, Zichun Chen, Qiaoquan Liu, Cunxu Wei
High-amylose cereal starches provide many health benefits for humans. The inhibition or mutation of starch branching enzyme (SBE) genes is an effective method to develop high-amylose cereal crops. This review summarizes the development of high-amylose cereal crops through the inactivation of one or more SBE isoforms or combination with other genes. This review also reveals the causes of increase in amylose content in high-amylose crops. A series of changes, including amylopectin structure, crystalline structure, thermal properties, and hydrolysis properties, occurs as amylose content increases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415032/comparative-metabolome-analysis-of-wheat-embryo-and-endosperm-reveals-the-dynamic-changes-of-metabolites-during-seed-germination
#16
Caixia Han, Shoumin Zhen, Gengrui Zhu, Yanwei Bian, Yueming Yan
In this study, we performed the first comparative metabolomic analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination using GC-MS/MS. In total, 82 metabolites were identified in the embryo and endosperm. Principal component analysis (PCA), metabolite-metabolite correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed distinct dynamic changes in metabolites between the embryo and endosperm during seed germination. Generally, the metabolite changes in the embryo were much greater than those in the endosperm, suggesting that the embryo is more active than the endosperm during seed germination...
April 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412632/seed-dormancy-and-germination-of-the-medicinal-holoparasitic-plant-cistanche-deserticola-from-the-cold-desert-of-northwest-china
#17
Jia Wang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Guofang Liu, Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang
Cistanche deserticola is a holoparasitic plant with high medicinal value that reproduces only by seeds. However, the requirements for seed dormancy break and germination of this species remain unclear. The freshly matured dust-like seeds consist of a water-permeable seed coat and an undifferentiated oval-shaped embryo embedded in endosperm. No fresh seeds germinated in water or a 10(-5) M fluridone solution at any incubation temperature within 60 days. Length of embryos in seeds incubated in warm- and cold-started stratification sequences had increased 10...
April 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408540/small-kernel2-encodes-a-glutaminase-in-vitamin-b6-biosynthesis-essential-for-maize-seed-development
#18
Yan-Zhuo Yang, Shuo Ding, Yong Wang, Cui-Ling Li, Yun Shen, Robert Meeley, Donald R McCarty, Bao-Cai Tan
Vitamin B6, an essential co-factor for a range of biochemical reactions and a potent antioxidant, plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes embryo lethality in Arabidopsis, but the specific role of vitamin B6 synthesis in endosperm development has not been fully addressed, especially in monocot crops where endosperm constitutes the major portion of the grain. Through molecular characterization of a small kernel2 (smk2) mutant in maize, we reveal that vitamin B6 has differential effects on embryogenesis and endosperm development in maize...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407006/functional-and-structural-characterization-of-plastidic-starch-phosphorylase-during-barley-endosperm-development
#19
Jose A Cuesta-Seijo, Christian Ruzanski, Katarzyna Krucewicz, Sebastian Meier, Per Hägglund, Birte Svensson, Monica M Palcic
The production of starch is essential for human nutrition and represents a major metabolic flux in the biosphere. The biosynthesis of starch in storage organs like barley endosperm operates via two main pathways using different substrates: starch synthases use ADP-glucose to produce amylose and amylopectin, the two major components of starch, whereas starch phosphorylase (Pho1) uses glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), a precursor for ADP-glucose production, to produce α-1,4 glucans. The significance of the Pho1 pathway in starch biosynthesis has remained unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#20
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
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