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Dongmei Li, Zhimin Yang, Xinchun Liu, Zhen Song, Zongyun Feng, Yang He
As an important plateau cereal crop, hulless barley is the principal food for the Tibetan people in China. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is considered as the key enzyme for starch biosynthesis in plants. In this study, cDNAs encoding the small subunit (SSU I) and large subunit (LSU I) of AGPase were isolated from hulless barley. The results showed that SSU I and LSU I were 1438 and 1786 bp in length with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1419 and 1572 bp. The ORF-encoded polypeptides of 472 and 523 amino acids were having calculated molecular masses of 52...
February 19, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Shujun Wang, Chen Chao, Fengjuan Xiang, Xiu Zhang, Shuo Wang, Les Copeland
A thorough understanding of starch gelatinization is needed to control starch functional properties for food processing and human nutrition. Here, we reveal the mechanism of structural disassembly of rice, maize and wheat starch granules during thermal transitions in which a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was used to pre-heat the starches to certain transition points in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating profiles. This was done to generate sufficient material for structural analyses. The results from DSC, Raman, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses all showed that at the conclusion temperature (T c ) of the DSC endotherm rice starch gelatinization was complete, whereas residual structural order remained in maize and wheat starches...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bongeka Zuma, Mason B Dana, Dongfang Wang
Proper seed development requires coordinated growth among the three genetically distinct components, the embryo, the endosperm, and the seed coat. In Arabidopsis, embryo growth rate accelerates after endosperm cellularization, which requires a chromatin-remodeling complex, the FIS2-Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). After cellularization, the endosperm ceases to grow and is eventually absorbed by the embryo. This sequential growth pattern displayed by the endosperm and the embryo suggests a possibility that the supply of sugar might be shifted from the endosperm to the embryo upon endosperm cellularization...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fan Feng, Weiwei Qi, Yuanda Lv, Shumei Yan, Liming Xu, Wenyao Yang, Yue Yuan, Yihan Chen, Han Zhao, Rentao Song
Maize (Zea mays) endosperm is a primary tissue for nutrient storage and is highly differentiated during development. However, the regulatory networks of endosperm development and nutrient metabolism remain largely unknown. Maize opaque11 (o11) is a classic seed mutant with a small and opaque endosperm showing decreased starch and protein accumulation. We cloned O11 and found that it encodes an endosperm-specific bHLH transcription factor (TF). Loss-of-function of O11 significantly affected transcription of carbohydrate/amino acid metabolism and stress-response genes...
February 7, 2018: Plant Cell
Jie Qian, Yueyue Chen, Ying Hu, Yingtian Deng, Yang Liu, Gang Li, Wenxuan Zou, Jie Zhao
Replication factor C (RFC) is a conserved eukaryotic complex consisting of RFC1/2/3/4/5. RFC plays important roles in DNA replication and the cell cycle in yeast and fruit fly. However, how RFC subunits function in higher plants is not very clear, except for the Arabidopsis (At) subunits AtRFC1 and AtRFC3. In this study, we investigated the functions of the Arabidopsis RFC4 and found that loss-of-function of AtRFC4 led to an early sporophyte lethality that initiated as early as the elongated zygote stage, all defective embryos arrested at the 2/4-celled embryo proper stage, and the endosperm possessed 6-8 free nuclei...
February 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lei Yan, Zhenshan Liu, Huanwen Xu, Xiaoping Zhang, Aiju Zhao, Fei Liang, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
BACKGROUND: Common wheat is a typical allohexaploid species (AABBDD) derived from the interspecific crossing between allotetraploid wheat (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD). Wide variation in grain size and shape observed among Aegilops tauschii can be retained in synthetic allohexaploid wheats, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, the natural and resynthesized allohexaploid wheats with near-identical AB genomes and different D genomes (TAA10 and XX329) were employed for analysis...
February 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Chisato Nabeuchi, Misaki Kurogaki, Monika Garg, Mika Saito, Goro Ishikawa, Toshiki Nakamura, Hisashi Tsujimoto
Wheat flours are used to produce bread, pasta, breakfast cereals, and biscuits; the various properties of these end-products are attributed to the gluten content, produced as seed storage proteins in the wheat endosperm. Thus, genes encoding gluten protein are major targets of wheat breeders aiming to improve the various properties of wheat flour. Here, we describe a novel compensating wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Robertsonian translocation (T1AS.1EL) line involving the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS) and the long arm of Th...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Misoon Park, Cornelia Krause, Matthias Karnahl, Ilka Reichardt, Farid El Kasmi, Ulrike Mayer, York-Dieter Stierhof, Ulrike Hiller, Georg Strompen, Martin Bayer, Marika Kientz, Masa H Sato, Marc T Nishimura, Jeffery L Dangl, Anton A Sanderfoot, Gerd Jürgens
Membrane vesicles delivered to the cell-division plane fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane during plant cytokinesis, starting in the cell center. In Arabidopsis, this requires SNARE complexes involving the cytokinesis-specific Qa-SNARE KNOLLE. However, cytokinesis still occurs in knolle mutant embryos, suggesting contributions from KNOLLE-independent SNARE complexes. Here we show that Qa-SNARE SYP132, having counterparts in lower plants, functionally overlaps with the flowering plant-specific KNOLLE...
January 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jungil Yang, Dangping Luo, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Joon-Seob Eom
Despite the relevance of seed-filling mechanisms for crop yield, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of the transport processes that supply the caryopsis with sugars. We hypothesized that SWEET sucrose transporters may play important roles in nutrient import pathways in the rice caryopsis. We used a combination of mRNA quantification, histochemical analyses, translational promoter-reporter fusions and analysis of knockout mutants created by genomic editing to evaluate the contribution of SWEET transporters to seed filling...
February 2, 2018: New Phytologist
Qingyuan Zhou, Qing Cai
Superoxide dismutase genes were expressed differentially along with developmental stages of fertilized ovules in Xanthoceras sorbifolium, and the XsMSD gene silencing resulted in the arrest of fertilized ovule development. A very small percentage of mature fruits (ca. 5%) are produced relative to the number of bisexual flowers in Xanthoceras sorbifolium because seeds and fruits are aborted at early stages of development after pollination. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants are implicated in an extensive range of biological processes, such as programmed cell death and senescence...
January 31, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Chao Li, Cheng Li, Bingbing Wang, Runqi Zhang, Kaiyong Fu, William J Gale, Chunyan Li
Drought frequently occurs during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain filling. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of post-anthesis drought on programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat endosperm cells and (ii) to examine the role of ethylene (ETH) receptors and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating wheat endosperm PCD. Two winter wheat cultivars ('Xindong 18' and 'Xindong 22') were used in this study. Grain samples were collected from normal and drought stressed plants at 5-day intervals between 5 and 35 days post-anthesis...
January 29, 2018: Protoplasma
Girum Azmach, Abebe Menkir, Charles Spillane, Melaku Gedil
The discovery and use of genetic markers associated with carotenoid levels can help to more effectively exploit the genetic potential of maize for provitamin A accumulation. Provitamin A carotenoids are classes of carotenoids that are precursors of vitamin A, an essential micronutrient in humans. Vitamin A deficiency is a global public health problem affecting millions of people, especially in developing countries. Maize is one of the most important staple crops targeted for provitamin A biofortification to help alleviate vitamin A deficiency in developing countries...
January 29, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Edita Holásková, Petr Galuszka, Alžbeta Mičúchová, Marek Šebela, M Tufan Öz, Ivo Frébort
The peptide LL-37, a component of the human innate immune system, represents a promising drug candidate. In particular, the development of low-cost production platform technology is a critical bottleneck in its use in medicine. In the present study, a viable approach for the LL-37 production in transgenic barley was developed. First, comparative analyses of the effects of different fused peptide epitope tags applicable for accumulation and purification on LL-37 production yield were performed using transient expression in tobacco leaves...
January 25, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Qing Qing Yang, Dong Sheng Zhao, Changquan Zhang, Hong Yu Wu, Qianfeng Li, Minghong Gu, Samuel S M Sun, Qiao Quan Liu
Cereal endosperms produce a vast array of metabolites during development, including the essential amino acid lysine. Lysine enhancement has been well achieved via metabolic engineering in cereals, but the potential connection with lysine fortification is not clear. In mature seeds of engineered rice, the endosperm took on a dark-brown appearance usually associated with a High Free Lysine (HFL) phenotype. In present study, we use an integrated approach based on metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses combined with functional confirmation to elucidate the key metabolites responsible for the dark-brown phenotype...
January 23, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mingzhe Sun, Yumeng Li, Tianxin Wang, Yanwei Sun, Xiyuan Xu, Zesheng Zhang
The water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from endosperm of Gleditsia japonica var. delavayi seeds (EGSP) were identified as galactomannan having the M/G ratio of 2.54-2.66 and a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 1913 kDa. The molecular structure of EGSP was determined by periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The main chain is composed of β-1,4-d-mannopyranose and the branches composed of single α-1-d-galactopyranose. We had also established a model to speculate the fine structure of galactomannan molecules and given preliminary results...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
German Martinez, Philip Wolff, Zhenxing Wang, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Juan Santos-González, Lei Liu Conze, Christopher DeFraia, R Keith Slotkin, Claudia Köhler
The regulation of parental genome dosage is of fundamental importance in animals and plants, as exemplified by X-chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation. The 'triploid block' is a classic example of dosage regulation in plants that establishes a reproductive barrier between species differing in chromosome number1,2. This barrier acts in the embryo-nourishing endosperm tissue and induces the abortion of hybrid seeds through a yet unknown mechanism 3 . Here we show that depletion of paternal epigenetically activated small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) bypasses the triploid block in response to increased paternal ploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 15, 2018: Nature Genetics
Filipe Borges, Jean-Sébastien Parent, Frédéric van Ex, Philip Wolff, German Martínez, Claudia Köhler, Robert A Martienssen
Chromosome dosage has substantial effects on reproductive isolation and speciation in both plants and animals, but the underlying mechanisms are largely obscure 1 . Transposable elements in animals can regulate hybridity through maternal small RNA 2 , whereas small RNAs in plants have been postulated to regulate dosage response via neighboring imprinted genes3,4. Here we show that a highly conserved microRNA in plants, miR845, targets the tRNAMet primer-binding site (PBS) of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in Arabidopsis pollen, and triggers the accumulation of 21-22-nucleotide (nt) small RNAs in a dose-dependent fashion via RNA polymerase IV...
January 15, 2018: Nature Genetics
Ishara Perera, Saman Seneweera, Naoki Hirotsu
Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also known as phytic acid (PA), is the most abundant storage form of phosphorus in seeds. PA acts as a strong chelator of metal cations to form phytate and is considered an anti-nutrient as it reduces the bioavailability of important micronutrients. Although the major nutrient source for more than one-half of the global population, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients. Therefore, biofortification and reducing the PA content of rice have arisen as new strategies for increasing micronutrient bioavailability in rice...
January 11, 2018: Rice
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