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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346745/emp10-encodes-a-mitochondrial-ppr-protein-that-affects-the-cis-splicing-of-nad2-intron-1-and-seed-development-in-maize
#1
Manjun Cai, L Shuzhen, Feng Sun, Qin Sun, Hailiang Zhao, Xuemei Ren, Yanxin Zhao, Baocai Tan, Zuxin Zhang, Fazhan Qiu
In higher plants, many mitochondrial genes contain group II-type introns that are removed from RNAs by splicing to produce mature transcripts that are then translated into functional proteins. However, the factors involved in the splicing of mitochondrial introns and their biological functions are not well understood in maize. Here, we isolated an empty pericarp 10 (emp10) mutant and identified the underlying gene by map-based cloning. Emp10 encodes a P-type mitochondria-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with 10 PPR motifs...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339688/an-activity-staining-method-on-filtration-paper-enables-high-throughput-screening-of-temperature-sensitive-and-inactive-mutations-of-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-for-improvement-of-rice-grain-quality
#2
Hiromoto Yamakawa, Rieko Hirai-Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi
α-Amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme (EC 3.2.1.1) indispensable for germination of cereal seeds, but it is also expressed during the ripening stage. Previous studies demonstrated that the enzyme is activated in developing rice seeds under extremely hot weather and triggers a loss of grain quality by hindering the accumulation of storage starch in the endosperm. Since inactive or, preferably, heat-labile α-amylases are preferable for breeding premium rice, we developed a method for rapid screening of inactive and temperature-sensitive mutants of the enzyme by combining the random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and an on-filter activity test of the recombinant enzyme expressed by Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338823/transporters-involved-in-ph-and-k-homeostasis-affect-pollen-wall-formation-male-fertility-and-embryo-development
#3
Senthilkumar Padmanaban, Daniel D Czerny, Kara A Levin, Alexander R Leydon, Robert T Su, Timothy K Maugel, Yanjiao Zou, Salil Chanroj, Alice Y Cheung, Mark A Johnson, Heven Sze
Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#4
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337116/assessment-of-usefulness-of-synchrotron-radiation-techniques-to-determine-arsenic-species-in-hair-and-rice-grain-samples
#5
Jun Lin, Guo-Fang Lin, Yu-Lan Li, Xiao-Yan Gao, Hui Du, Chao-Gang Jia, Hong-Chao Lu, Klaus Golka, Jian-Hua Shen
The arseniasis in Southwest Guizhou, China has been identified as a unique case of endemic arseniasis caused by exposure to indoor combustion of high As-content coal. Present investigation targeted the microdistribution and speciation of the element arsenic in human hair and environmental samples collected in one of the hyper-endemic villages of arseniasis in the area. Analyses were performed by micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The total As level in hair samples of diagnosed patients was detected at almost the same level as in their asymptomatic neighbors...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335715/cytotype-coexistence-in-the-field-cannot-be-explained-by-inter-cytotype-hybridization-alone-linking-experiments-and-computer-simulations-in-the-sexual-species-pilosella-echioides-asteraceae
#6
Jindřich Chrtek, Tomáš Herben, Radka Rosenbaumová, Zuzana Münzbergová, Zuzana Dočkalová, Jaroslav Zahradníček, Jana Krejčíková, Pavel Trávníček
BACKGROUND: Processes driving ploidal diversity at the population level are virtually unknown. Their identification should use a combination of large-scale screening of ploidy levels in the field, pairwise crossing experiments and mathematical modelling linking these two types of data. We applied this approach to determine the drivers of frequencies of coexisting cytotypes in mixed-ploidy field populations of the fully sexual plant species Pilosella echioides. We examined fecundity and ploidal diversity in seeds from all possible pairwise crosses among 2x, 3x and 4x plants...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332746/global-analysis-of-canola-genes-targeted-by-short-hypocotyl-under-blue-1-during-endosperm-and-embryo-development
#7
Huanan Zhang, Feng Cheng, Yu-Guo Xiao, Xiao-Jun Kang, Xiaowu Wang, Rui Kuang, Min Ni
Seed development in dicots undergoes an early endosperm proliferation, followed by the growth of embryo to replace the endosperm. Endosperm proliferation in dicots not only provides nutrient supplies for subsequent embryo development but also enforces a space limitation to influence the final seed size. Overexpression of Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1::GUS (SHB1:GUS) in canola produced large seeds. We performed global analysis of canola genes that were expressed and influenced by SHB1 during early endosperm proliferation at 8 days after pollination (DAP) and late embryo development at 13 DAP...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332204/evaluation-of-hmw-gs-20-and-2-2-from-near-isogenic-lines-nils-of-wheat-variety-hd2329-for-bread-quality-improvement
#8
Sonia Goel, Sapna Grewal, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end- product quality. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in (HMW-GS) genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330563/characterization-of-the-endosperm-starch-and-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-biosynthetic-enzymes-on-their-properties-in-novel-mutant-rice-lines-with-high-resistant-starch-and-amylose-content
#9
Yuuki Itoh, Naoko Crofts, Misato Abe, Yuko Hosaka, Naoko Fujita
Resistant starch (RS) is beneficial to human health. In order to reduce the current prevalence of diabetes and obesity, several transgenic and mutant crops containing high RS content are being developed. RS content of steamed rice with starch-branching enzyme (BE)IIb-deficient mutant endosperms is considerably high. To understand the mechanisms of RS synthesis and to increase RS content, we developed novel mutant rice lines by introducing the gene encoding starch synthase (SS)IIa and/or granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)I from an indica rice cultivar into a japonica rice-based BEIIb-deficient mutant line, be2b...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330074/catalytic-properties-functional-attributes-and-industrial-applications-of-%C3%AE-glucosidases
#10
Gopal Singh, A K Verma, Vinod Kumar
β-Glucosidases are diverse group of enzymes with great functional importance to biological systems. These are grouped in multiple glycoside hydrolase families based on their catalytic and sequence characteristics. Most studies carried out on β-glucosidases are focused on their industrial applications rather than their endogenous function in the target organisms. β-Glucosidases performed many functions in bacteria as they are components of large complexes called cellulosomes and are responsible for the hydrolysis of short chain oligosaccharides and cellobiose...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320293/regulatory-peptides-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
B F Vanyushin, V V Ashapkin, N I Aleksandrushkina
Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316134/feruloylation-and-structure-of-arabinoxylan-in-wheat-endosperm-cell-walls-from-rnai-lines-with-suppression-of-genes-responsible-for-backbone-synthesis-and-decoration
#12
Jackie Freeman, Jane L Ward, Ondrej Kosik, Alison Lovegrove, Mark D Wilkinson, Peter R Shewry, Rowan A C Mitchell
Arabinoxylan (AX) is the major component of the cell walls of wheat grain (70% in starchy endosperm) and is an important determinant of end-use qualities affecting food processing, use for animal feed and distilling and is a major source of dietary fibre in the human diet. AX is a heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of fractions which can be sequentially extracted by water (WE-AX), then xylanase action (XE-AX) leaving an unextractable (XU-AX) fraction. We determined arabinosylation and feruloylation of AX in these fractions in both wild-type wheat and RNAi lines with decreased AX content (TaGT43_2 RNAi, TaGT47_2 RNAi) or decreased arabinose 3-linked to mono-substituted xylose (TaXAT1 RNAi)...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314904/the-arabidopsis-orange-ator-gene-promotes-carotenoid-accumulation-in-transgenic-corn-hybrids-derived-from-parental-lines-with-limited-carotenoid-pools
#13
Judit Berman, Uxue Zorrilla-López, Vicente Medina, Gemma Farré, Gerhard Sandmann, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
The AtOR gene enhances carotenoid levels in corn by promoting the formation of plastoglobuli when the carotenoid pool is limited, but has no further effect when carotenoids are already abundant. The cauliflower orange (or) gene mutation influences carotenoid accumulation in plants by promoting the transition of proplastids into chromoplasts, thus creating intracellular storage compartments that act as metabolic sink. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis OR gene under the control of the endosperm-specific wheat LMW glutenin promoter in a white corn variety that normally accumulates only trace amounts of carotenoids...
March 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314828/widespread-contamination-of-arabidopsis-embryo-and-endosperm-transcriptome-datasets
#14
Michael Alan Schon, Michael Nodine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303339/evidence-for-post-zygotic-self-incompatibility-in-handroanthus-impetiginosus-bignoniaceae
#15
Nelson Sabino Bittencourt Júnior
Late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) has been defined as a genetically controlled self-sterility mechanism that prevents seed set by selfing, despite normal pollen tube growth and ovule penetration in self-pollinated pistils. In species of the Bignoniaceae with LSI, such as Handroanthus impetiginosus, the selfed pistils are characterized by a marked delay in ovule penetration, fertilization, and endosperm initiation, followed by uniform pistil abscission. This highlights the contentious possibility of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility system...
March 16, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299373/examining-two-sets-of-introgression-lines-reveals-background-independent-and-stably-expressed-qtl-that-improve-grain-appearance-quality-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#16
Xianjin Qiu, Kai Chen, Wenkai Lv, Xiaoxue Ou, Yajun Zhu, Danying Xing, Longwei Yang, Fangjun Fan, Jie Yang, Jianlong Xu, Tianqing Zheng, Zhikang Li
A novel QTL cluster for appearance quality on Chr07 was identified using reciprocal introgression populations in different locations in China. Two secondary F 2 populations validated QTL with significant effect on appearance quality. Appearance quality (AQ) is the main determinants of market value of rice. Identification of QTL affecting AQ is the prerequisite for efficient improvement of AQ through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two sets of reciprocal introgression lines derived from indica Minghui 63 and japonica 02428 were used to dissect the stability of QTL affecting five AQ traits, including grain length, grain width, length to width ratio, percentage of grains with chalkiness, and degree of endosperm chalkiness using 4568 bin genotype produced from 58,000 SNPs across five different environments...
March 15, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295376/both-maternally-and-paternally-imprinted-genes-regulate-seed-development-in-rice
#17
Jingya Yuan, Sushu Chen, Wu Jiao, Longfei Wang, Limei Wang, Wenxue Ye, Jie Lu, Delin Hong, Siliang You, Zhukuan Cheng, Dong-Lei Yang, Z Jeffrey Chen
Genetic imprinting refers to the unequal expression of paternal and maternal alleles of a gene in sexually reproducing organisms, including mammals and flowering plants. Although many imprinted genes have been identified in plants, the functions of these imprinted genes have remained largely uninvestigated. We report genome-wide analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and small RNAs in the rice endosperm and functional tests of five imprinted genes during seed development using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated gene9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292258/production-of-bp178-a-derivative-of-the-synthetic-antibacterial-peptide-bp100-in-the-rice-seed-endosperm
#18
Laura Montesinos, Mireia Bundó, Esther Badosa, Blanca San Segundo, María Coca, Emilio Montesinos
BACKGROUND: BP178 peptide is a synthetic BP100-magainin derivative possessing strong inhibitory activity against plant pathogenic bacteria, offering a great potential for future applications in plant protection and other fields. Here we report the production and recovery of a bioactive BP178 peptide using rice seeds as biofactories. RESULTS: A synthetic gene encoding the BP178 peptide was prepared and introduced in rice plants. The gene was efficiently expressed in transgenic rice under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter...
March 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289425/characterization-of-changes-in-gluten-proteins-in-low-gliadin-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-response-to-application-of-different-nitrogen-regimes
#19
María Dolores García-Molina, Francisco Barro
Gluten proteins are major determinants of the bread making quality of wheat but also of important gluten-related disorders. The gluten protein accumulation during grain filling is strongly influenced by nitrogen fertilization. We have characterized the gluten proteins in low-gliadin wheat lines as influenced by nitrogen treatments in two experiments. These transgenic lines, D783, D793, C655, D577, and E82 were obtained by using two different RNAi silencing fragments and two endosperm-specific promoters to drive the silencing fragments (d-hordein and γ-gliadin)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283922/identification-of-alternatively-spliced-transcripts-of-rice-phytochelatin-synthase-2-gene-ospcs2-involved-in-mitigation-of-cadmium-and-arsenic-stresses
#20
Natasha Das, Surajit Bhattacharya, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K Maiti
The OsPCS2 exhibits root- and shoot-specific differential ratios of alternatively spliced transcripts in indica rice under Cd stress, and plays role in Cd and As stress tolerance and accumulation. Enzymatic activity of phytochelatin synthase (PCS) in plant produces phytochelatins, which help in sequestration of heavy metal(loid)s inside the cell vacuole to alleviate toxicity. Here we report that among the two PCS genes-OsPCS1 and OsPCS2 in indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, the OsPCS2 produces an alternatively spliced OsPCS2b transcript that bears the unusual premature termination codon besides the canonically spliced OsPCS2a transcript...
March 11, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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