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Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Nurul Izzati Osman, Norrizah Jaafar Sidik, Asmah Awal, Nurul Athirah Mohamad Adam, Nur Inani Rezali
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. RESULTS: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Aymeric Goyer
Thiamin is essential for human health. While plants are the ultimate source of thiamin in most human diets, staple foods like white rice have low thiamin content. Therefore, populations whose diets are mainly based on low-thiamin staple crops suffer from thiamin deficiency. Biofortification of rice grain by engineering the thiamin biosynthesis pathway has recently been attempted, with up to 5-fold increase in thiamin content in unpolished seeds. However, polished seeds that retain only the starchy endosperm had similar thiamin content than that of non-engineered plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
William C Plaxton
Leucoplasts are colorless plastids of nonphotosynthetic plant tissues that support a variety of anabolic roles, particularly the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids in storage tissues of developing oil seeds. They also perform other important metabolic functions including the biosynthesis of amino acids and tetrapyrrole compounds. Leucoplasts use a complex set of membrane carriers and channels to actively translocate nuclear-encoded precursor proteins from the cytosol, while exchanging various metabolites with the cytosol...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masatoshi Kubota, Reiko Watanabe, Miki Yamaguchi, Michihiro Hosojima, Akihiko Saito, Mikio Fujii, Shinobu Fujimura, Motoni Kadowaki
We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Chatree Saensuk, Samart Wanchana, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Sugunya Wongpornchai, Tippaya Kraithong, Wachiraya Imsabai, Ekawat Chaichoompu, Vinitchan Ruanjaichon, Theerayut Toojinda, Apichart Vanavichit, Siwaret Arikit
Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Francesco Sestili, Francesca Sparla, Ermelinda Botticella, Michela Janni, Renato D'Ovidio, Giuseppe Falini, Lucia Marri, Jose A Cuesta-Seijo, Stefano Moscatello, Alberto Battistelli, Paolo Trost, Domenico Lafiandra
In rice, maize and barley, the lack of Isoamylase 1 activity materially affects the composition of endosperm starch. Here, the effect of this deficiency in durum wheat has been characterized, using transgenic lines in which Isa1 was knocked down via RNAi. Transcriptional profiling confirmed the partial down-regulation of Isa1 and revealed a pleiotropic effect on the level of transcription of genes encoding other isoamylases, pullulanase and sucrose synthase. The polysaccharide content of the transgenic endosperms was different from that of the wild type in a number of ways, including a reduction in the content of starch and a moderate enhancement of both phytoglycogen and β-glucan...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Xin Qi, Shixue Li, Yaxi Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
To explore the function of Dof transcription factors during kernel development in maize, we first identified Dof genes in the maize genome. We found that ZmDof3 was exclusively expressed in the endosperm of maize kernel and had the features of a Dof transcription factor. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype with reduced starch content and a partially patchy aleurone layer. The expression levels of starch synthesis-related genes and aleurone differentiation-associated genes were down-regulated in ZmDof3 knockdown kernels, indicating that ZmDof3 plays an important role in maize endosperm development...
October 5, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Ying-Xue Zhang, Heng-Heng Xu, Shu-Jun Liu, Ni Li, Wei-Qing Wang, Ian M Møller, Song-Quan Song
Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Heng-Heng Xu, Shu-Jun Liu, Shun-Hua Song, Wei-Qing Wang, Ian Max Møller, Song-Quan Song
Seed dormancy provides optimum timing for seed germination and subsequent seedling growth, but the mechanism of seed dormancy is still poorly understood. Here, we used Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) seeds to investigate the dormancy behavior and the differentially changed proteome in embryo and endosperm during dormancy release. DXWR seed dormancy was caused by interaction of embryo and its surrounding structure, and was an intermediate physiological dormancy. During seed dormancy release, a total of 109 and 97 protein spots showed significant change in abundance and were successfully identified in embryo and endosperm, respectively...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jianzhou Qu, Chuang Ma, Jiaojiao Feng, Shutu Xu, Lei Wang, Feifei Li, Yibo Li, Renhe Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, Jiquan Xue, Dongwei Guo
The endosperm is a major organ of the seed that plays vital roles in determining seed weight and quality. However, genome-wide transcriptome patterns throughout maize endosperm development have not been comprehensively investigated to date. Accordingly, we performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after pollination (DAP). We found that more than 11,000 protein-coding genes underwent alternative splicing (AS) events during the four developmental stages studied...
2016: PloS One
Nabeela Abid, Asia Khatoon, Asma Maqbool, Muhammad Irfan, Aftab Bashir, Irsa Asif, Muhammad Shahid, Asma Saeed, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Kauser A Malik
Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds...
September 29, 2016: Transgenic Research
Shahin Noeparvar, Behrooz Darbani, Birgitte Tauris, Søren Husted, Daniel P Persson, Rebecca F Mills, Lorraine E William, Eva Vincze, Inger Holme, Søren Borg
Cereals are a major source of dietary energy and protein but are nutritionally poor in micronutrients. Zinc (Zn) biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a promising strategy to combat the global challenge of human Zn-deficiency. The aim of this study was to improve the Zn content in the edible part of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by enhancing Zn translocation into the developing seeds. We demonstrate that the barley plasma membrane P-type ATPase Zn transporter, HvHMA2 is an efficient candidate for mineral biofortification of crops...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Manuel Adrian Troncoso-Ponce, Guillaume Barthole, Geoffrey Tremblais, Alexandra To, Martine Miquel, Loic Lepiniec, Sébastien Baud
In angiosperms, double fertilization of the embryo sac initiates the development of the embryo and the endosperm. In Arabidopsis thaliana, an exalbuminous species, the endosperm is reduced to one cell layer during seed maturation and reserves such as oil are massively deposited in the enlarging embryo. Here, we consider the strikingly different fatty acid (FA) compositions of the oils stored in the two zygotic tissues. Endosperm oil is enriched in ω-7 monounsaturated FAs, that represent more than 20 Mol% of total FAs, whereas these molecular species are ten-fold less abundant in the embryo...
September 28, 2016: Plant Cell
Karen B Barnard-Kubow, Nina So, Laura F Galloway
Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here we show substantial postzygotic reproductive isolation in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness)...
September 28, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Silvio Tundo, Michela Janni, Ilaria Moscetti, Giulia Mandalà, Daniel Savatin, Ann Blechl, Francesco Favaron, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the precise means of pathogen entry and colonization of floral tissue is crucial to providing effective protection against FHB. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the activity of polygalacturonases (PGs), a class of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes secreted by microbial pathogens, including Fusaria...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Likai Chen, Weiwei Gao, Siping Chen, Liping Wang, Jiyong Zou, Yongzhu Liu, Hui Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Tao Guo
BACKGROUND: Grain appearance quality is a main determinant of market value in rice and one of the highly important traits requiring improvement in breeding programs. The genetic basis of grain shape and endosperm chalkiness have been given significant attention because of their importance in affecting grain quality. Meanwhile, the introduction of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) has a significant part to play in the area of genomics, and offers the possibility for high-resolution genetic map construction, population genetics analysis and systematic expression profile study...
December 2016: Rice
Maja Klosinska, Colette L Picard, Mary Gehring
In plants, imprinted gene expression occurs in endosperm seed tissue and is sometimes associated with differential DNA methylation between maternal and paternal alleles(1). Imprinting is theorized to have been selected for because of conflict between parental genomes in offspring(2), but most studies of imprinting have been conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana, an inbred primarily self-fertilizing species that should have limited parental conflict. We examined embryo and endosperm allele-specific expression and DNA methylation genome-wide in the wild outcrossing species Arabidopsis lyrata...
2016: Nature Plants
Raviraj Banakar, Ána Alvarez Fernández, Javier Abadía, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou
Many metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Bas J W Dekkers, Simon P Pearce, R P M van Bolderen-Veldkamp, Michael J Holdsworth, Leónie Bentsink
Seed dormancy is a genetically controlled block preventing the germination of imbibed seeds in favorable conditions. It requires a period of dry storage (after-ripening) or certain environmental conditions to be overcome. Dormancy is an important seed trait, which is under selective pressure, to control the seasonal timing of seed germination. Dormant and non-dormant (after-ripened) seeds are characterized by large sets of differentially expressed genes. However, little information is available concerning the temporal and spatial transcriptional changes during early stages of rehydration in dormant and non-dormant seeds...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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