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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#1
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430215/relationship-of-the-drying-process-of-a-corn-grain-with-the-thermal-emissivity-and-optical-interference-in-the-mid-infrared-range
#2
Carlos Villaseñor-Mora, Francisco J Gantes-Nunez, Arturo Gonzalez-Vega, Victor H Hernandez-Gonzalez
A study of the effect of the thin layer of free water in corn kernels on the emissivity and interference in the mid infrared range was performed. The emissivity was measured through thermal infrared images by direct method for 8 days, allowing observance that the thickness of free water modifies the quantity of emitted energy and emissivity; however, in the first days when the layer of free water is not optically thick the interference caused by the thin film of superficial water averts a correct measurement of the emissivity...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429576/suppression-of-osmads7-in-rice-endosperm-stabilizes-amylose-content-under-high-temperature-stress
#3
Hua Zhang, Heng Xu, Mengjie Feng, Ying Zhu
High temperature significantly alters the amylose content of rice, resulting in mature grains with poor eating quality. However, only few genes and/or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in this process have been isolated and the molecular mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. Here, we describe a floral organ identity gene, OsMADS7, involved in stabilizing rice amylose content at high temperature. OsMADS7 is greatly induced by high temperature at the early filling stage. Constitutive suppression of OsMADS7 stabilizes amylose content under high temperature stress but results in low spikelet fertility...
April 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421099/progress-in-high-amylose-cereal-crops-through-inactivation-of-starch-branching-enzymes
#4
REVIEW
Juan Wang, Pan Hu, Zichun Chen, Qiaoquan Liu, Cunxu Wei
High-amylose cereal starches provide many health benefits for humans. The inhibition or mutation of starch branching enzyme (SBE) genes is an effective method to develop high-amylose cereal crops. This review summarizes the development of high-amylose cereal crops through the inactivation of one or more SBE isoforms or combination with other genes. This review also reveals the causes of increase in amylose content in high-amylose crops. A series of changes, including amylopectin structure, crystalline structure, thermal properties, and hydrolysis properties, occurs as amylose content increases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415032/comparative-metabolome-analysis-of-wheat-embryo-and-endosperm-reveals-the-dynamic-changes-of-metabolites-during-seed-germination
#5
Caixia Han, Shoumin Zhen, Gengrui Zhu, Yanwei Bian, Yueming Yan
In this study, we performed the first comparative metabolomic analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination using GC-MS/MS. In total, 82 metabolites were identified in the embryo and endosperm. Principal component analysis (PCA), metabolite-metabolite correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed distinct dynamic changes in metabolites between the embryo and endosperm during seed germination. Generally, the metabolite changes in the embryo were much greater than those in the endosperm, suggesting that the embryo is more active than the endosperm during seed germination...
April 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412632/seed-dormancy-and-germination-of-the-medicinal-holoparasitic-plant-cistanche-deserticola-from-the-cold-desert-of-northwest-china
#6
Jia Wang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Guofang Liu, Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang
Cistanche deserticola is a holoparasitic plant with high medicinal value that reproduces only by seeds. However, the requirements for seed dormancy break and germination of this species remain unclear. The freshly matured dust-like seeds consist of a water-permeable seed coat and an undifferentiated oval-shaped embryo embedded in endosperm. No fresh seeds germinated in water or a 10(-5) M fluridone solution at any incubation temperature within 60 days. Length of embryos in seeds incubated in warm- and cold-started stratification sequences had increased 10...
April 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408540/small-kernel2-encodes-a-glutaminase-in-vitamin-b6-biosynthesis-essential-for-maize-seed-development
#7
Yan-Zhuo Yang, Shuo Ding, Yong Wang, Cui-Ling Li, Yun Shen, Robert Meeley, Donald R McCarty, Bao-Cai Tan
Vitamin B6, an essential co-factor for a range of biochemical reactions and a potent antioxidant, plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes embryo lethality in Arabidopsis, but the specific role of vitamin B6 synthesis in endosperm development has not been fully addressed, especially in monocot crops where endosperm constitutes the major portion of the grain. Through molecular characterization of a small kernel2 (smk2) mutant in maize, we reveal that vitamin B6 has differential effects on embryogenesis and endosperm development in maize...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407006/functional-and-structural-characterization-of-plastidic-starch-phosphorylase-during-barley-endosperm-development
#8
Jose A Cuesta-Seijo, Christian Ruzanski, Katarzyna Krucewicz, Sebastian Meier, Per Hägglund, Birte Svensson, Monica M Palcic
The production of starch is essential for human nutrition and represents a major metabolic flux in the biosphere. The biosynthesis of starch in storage organs like barley endosperm operates via two main pathways using different substrates: starch synthases use ADP-glucose to produce amylose and amylopectin, the two major components of starch, whereas starch phosphorylase (Pho1) uses glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), a precursor for ADP-glucose production, to produce α-1,4 glucans. The significance of the Pho1 pathway in starch biosynthesis has remained unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#9
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385670/spatial-profiling-of-maytansine-during-the-germination-process-of-maytenus-senegalensis-seeds
#10
Dennis Eckelmann, Souvik Kusari, Michael Spiteller
The ecological role of maytansine, an important antineoplastic and antimicrobial compound with high cytotoxicity, particularly as a chemical defense compound has remained elusive since its discovery in the 1970s in Maytenus and Putterlickia plants. In the present study, we have used MALDI-imaging-HRMS to visualize the occurrence as well as spatial and temporal distribution of maytansine in a Maytenus senegalensis plant, seeds obtained from the mother plant during seeding stage, through the germination of the seeds, and finally up to the establishment of seedlings (or daughter plants)...
April 3, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371241/adp-glucose-pyrophosphorylase-genes-associated-with-kernel-weight-underwent-selection-during-wheat-domestication-and-breeding
#11
Jian Hou, Tian Li, Yamei Wang, Chenyang Hao, Hongxia Liu, Xueyong Zhang
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), comprising two small subunits and two large subunits, is considered a key enzyme in the endosperm starch synthesis pathway in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two genes, TaAGP-S1-7A and TaAGP-L-1B, were investigated in this study. Haplotypes of these genes were associated with thousand kernel weight (TKW) in different populations. Mean TKWs of favored haplotypes were significantly higher than those of non-favored ones. Two molecular markers developed to distinguish these haplotypes could be used in molecular breeding...
April 1, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364133/in-brachypodium-a-complex-signaling-is-actuated-to-protect-cells-from-proteotoxic-stress-and-facilitate-seed-filling
#12
Sang-Jin Kim, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Curtis Wilkerson, Federica Brandizzi
A conserved UPR machinery is required for Brachypodium ER stress resistance and grain filling. Human and livestock diets depend on the accumulation of cereal storage proteins and carbohydrates, including mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), in the endosperm during seed development. Storage proteins and proteins responsible for the production of carbohydrates are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Unfavorable conditions during growth that hamper the ER biosynthetic capacity, such as heat, can cause a potentially lethal condition known as ER stress, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling response designed to mitigate ER stress...
March 31, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363538/biophysical-features-of-cereal-endosperm-that-decrease-starch-digestibility
#13
Laura Roman, Manuel Gomez, Cheng Li, Bruce R Hamaker, Mario M Martinez
The influence of the physical structure of cereal endosperm on the natural structural integrity (intact cells) and starch bioaccessibility of the resultant flours was studied using maize as example. Endosperm hardness, defined by its intracellular (protein matrix) and extracellular (cell walls) constituents, affected the granular and molecular damage of the starch of the resultant flours leading to higher digestibility of raw hard than soft endosperm flours, but comparatively lower digestibility after cooking...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358983/differences-in-viscosity-of-superior-and-inferior-spikelets-of-japonica-rice-with-varying-percentage-apparent-amylose-content
#14
Zhao-Hui Ma, Hai-Tao Cheng, Y Nitta, Naohiro Aoki, Yun Chen, Heng-Xue Chen, Ryu Ohsugi, Wen-Yan Lyu
Viscosity, a crucial characteristic for rice palatability, is affected by endosperm characters. We compared correlations between differences in viscosity of japonica rice with varying palatability and endosperm characters. Changes in apparent amylose and protein content (AAC and PC%, respectively), and amylopectin side-chain distribution, and the relationship of these traits with palatability were investigated in superior and inferior spikelets of good cultivars with low amylose content from Hokkaido and common cultivars from northeastern Japan, using rapid visco analyser characteristics and rice-grain microstructures...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357537/influence-of-cooking-conditions-on-carotenoid-content-and-stability-in-porridges-prepared-from-high-carotenoid-maize
#15
Joana Díaz-Gómez, Antonio Javier Ramos, Changfu Zhu, Olga Martín-Belloso, Robert Soliva-Fortuny
Maize is a staple food crop in many developing countries, hence becoming an attractive target for biofortification programs toward populations at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. A South African white endosperm maize inbred line was engineered with a carotenogenic mini-pathway to generate high-carotenoid maize, which accumulates β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. As maize porridge is a traditional meal for poor populations in sub-Saharan African countries, high-carotenoid maize was used as raw material to prepare different maize meals...
March 29, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349595/spatiotemporal-modulation-of-abscisic-acid-and-gibberellin-metabolism-and-signaling-mediates-the-effect-of-suboptimal-and-supraoptimal-temperatures-on-seed-germination-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#16
Conrad Izydorczyk, Tran-Nguyen Nguyen, SeoHyun Jo, SeungHyun Son, Pham Anh Tuan, Belay T Ayele
Germination is a complex process regulated by intrinsic hormonal cues such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) and environmental signals including temperature. Using pharmacological, molecular and metabolomics approaches, we show that supraoptimal temperature delays wheat seed germination through maintaining elevated embryonic ABA level via increased expression of ABA biosynthetic genes (TaNCED1 and TaNCED2), increasing embryo ABA sensitivity through upregulation of genes regulating ABA signaling positively (TaPYL5, TaSnRK2, ABI3 and ABI5) and decreasing embryo GA sensitivity via induction of TaRHT1 that regulates GA signalling negatively...
March 28, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348403/transcriptome-and-functional-analysis-reveals-hybrid-vigor-for-oil-biosynthesis-in-oil-palm
#17
Jingjing Jin, Yanwei Sun, Jing Qu, Rahmad Syah, Chin-Huat Lim, Yuzer Alfiko, NurEstyaBte Rahman, Antonius Suwanto, Genhua Yue, Limsoon Wong, Nam-Hai Chua, Jian Ye
Oil palm is the most productive oil crop in the world and composes 36% of the world production. However, the molecular mechanisms of hybrids vigor (or heterosis) between Dura, Pisifera and their hybrid progeny Tenera has not yet been well understood. Here we compared the temporal and spatial compositions of lipids and transcriptomes for two oil yielding organs mesocarp and endosperm from Dura, Pisifera and Tenera. Multiple lipid biosynthesis pathways are highly enriched in all non-additive expression pattern in endosperm, while cytokinine biosynthesis and cell cycle pathways are highly enriched both in endosperm and mesocarp...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348169/developmental-patterning-of-the-sub-epidermal-integument-cell-layer-in-arabidopsis-seeds
#18
Olivier Coen, Elisa Fiume, Wenjia Xu, Delphine De Vos, Jing Lu, Christine Pechoux, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
Angiosperm seed development is a paradigm of tissue cross-talk. Proper seed formation requires spatial and temporal coordination of the fertilization products - embryo and endosperm - and the surrounding seed coat maternal tissue. In early Arabidopsis seed development, all seed integuments were thought to respond homogenously to endosperm growth. Here, we show that the sub-epidermal integument cell layer has a unique developmental program. We characterized the cell patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer, which initiates a previously uncharacterized extra cell layer, and identified TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and SEEDSTICK MADS box transcription factors as master regulators of its polar development and cell architecture...
April 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346745/emp10-encodes-a-mitochondrial-ppr-protein-that-affects-the-cis-splicing-of-nad2-intron-1-and-seed-development-in-maize
#19
Manjun Cai, L Shuzhen, Feng Sun, Qin Sun, Hailiang Zhao, Xuemei Ren, Yanxin Zhao, Baocai Tan, Zuxin Zhang, Fazhan Qiu
In higher plants, many mitochondrial genes contain group II-type introns that are removed from RNAs by splicing to produce mature transcripts that are then translated into functional proteins. However, the factors involved in the splicing of mitochondrial introns and their biological functions are not well understood in maize. Here, we isolated an empty pericarp 10 (emp10) mutant and identified the underlying gene by map-based cloning. Emp10 encodes a P-type mitochondria-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with 10 PPR motifs...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339688/an-activity-staining-method-on-filtration-paper-enables-high-throughput-screening-of-temperature-sensitive-and-inactive-mutations-of-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-for-improvement-of-rice-grain-quality
#20
Hiromoto Yamakawa, Rieko Hirai-Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi
α-Amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme (EC 3.2.1.1) indispensable for germination of cereal seeds, but it is also expressed during the ripening stage. Previous studies demonstrated that the enzyme is activated in developing rice seeds under extremely hot weather and triggers a loss of grain quality by hindering the accumulation of storage starch in the endosperm. Since inactive or, preferably, heat-labile α-amylases are preferable for breeding premium rice, we developed a method for rapid screening of inactive and temperature-sensitive mutants of the enzyme by combining the random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and an on-filter activity test of the recombinant enzyme expressed by Escherichia coli...
April 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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