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Sport biomechanics

Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Sebastian Zabierek, Jakub Zabierek, Adam Kwapisz, Marcin E Domzalski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The patella plays an important role in knee biomechanics and provides anterior coverage of the knee joint. One to two percent of the population has an anatomical variant of patella called a bipartite patella that usually does not case pain. However, occasionally after injury or overuse during sport it can be a source of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare variant of bipartite patella and highlight conservative treatment of this condition...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Mark W Creaby, Conor Honeywill, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Anthony G Schache, Kay M Crossley
PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a prevalent injury in running sports. Understanding the biomechanical factors associated with AT will assist in its management and prevention. The purpose of this study was to compare hip and ankle kinematics and kinetics in runners with and without AT. METHODS: Fourteen male runners with AT and eleven healthy male runners (CTRL) ran over-ground whilst lower-limb joint motion and ground reaction force data were synchronously captured...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joshua M Abzug, Karan Dua, Andrea Sesko Bauer, Roger Cornwall, Theresa O Wyrick
Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits for fractures in the United States. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Akinori Nagano, Masahiro Fujimoto, Shoma Kudo, Ryosuke Akaguma
Walking and running speed is a fundamental parameter studied in a wide range of areas such as sport biomechanics, rehabilitation, health promotion of the elderly, etc. Given that walking or running speed is not constant even within a stride, instantaneous changes in the body motion need to be evaluated to better understand one's performance. In this study, a new cost- and time- efficient methodology to determine instantaneous horizontal walking and running speed was developed. The newly developed method processes the movies taken with a (high-speed) camera...
September 16, 2016: Gait & Posture
Brian D Stemper, Brian D Corner
Synopsis Despite considerable research effort, the incidence of whiplash injury during automotive collisions has continued to rise. This is due, at least in part, to a limited recognition of biomechanical injury mechanisms and factors influencing injury risk. While automotive safety modifications reduced injury risk in some cases, impact on the overall whiplash incidence was limited. This is likely attributable to significant occupant-related differences that have a profound impact on injury risk. Many of those differences were outlined in research studies, and examples include female sex and the associated sex-based anthropometrical variation that can affect seating orientation; cervical spinal posture; and anatomical attributes, including cervical column slenderness and neck muscle morphometry...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
N Balagué, C Torrents, R Hristovski, J A S Kelso
The aim of the paper is to point out one way of integrating the supposedly incommensurate disciplines investigated in sports science. General, common principles can be found among apparently unrelated disciplines when the focus is put on the dynamics of sports-related phenomena. Dynamical systems approaches that have recently changed research in biological and social sciences among others, offer key concepts to create a common pluricontextual language in sport science. This common language, far from being homogenising, offers key synthesis between diverse fields, respecting and enabling the theoretical and experimental pluralism...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Alexandre Rambaud, Bertrand Semay, Jean-Benoit Morin, Rémi Phillipot, Pierre Samozino, Pascal Edouard
OBJECTIVE: A criterion of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) success is the return to sport at the same level as before surgery. Return to sport (RtS) decision seems to be a key element in this success: if too early RtS exposes to risk of injury, too late RtS influences the motivation to return to the same level. Functional tests (Hop Tests) and isokinetic assessments (Isok Tests) are usually performed to guide this decision. However, a precise and objective biomechanical analysis of running pattern would be more similarly to the sport activity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Johann Beaudreuil, Jean Marie Coudreuse, Christelle N Guyen, Philippe Deat, Aurore Chabaud, Bruno Pereira, Alain Lorenzo, Frédéric Sailhan, François Rannou, Emmanuel Coudeyre
OBJECTIVE: To develop an algorithm to help orthosis prescription for knee osteoarthritis patients. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Systematic review of the literature using a qualitative analysis on Pubmed databases, Cochrane Library and Pedro from 1966 to 2015, using the keywords "knee osteoarthritis", "orthosis" with recommendations and highest quality trials. Development of a preliminary version of the algorithm using data from the literature and taking into account experience of different health professionals involved in the management of osteoarthritis patients...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Romain Slotala, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
Hamstring muscle injury is the main injury related to athletics, but also other sports including acceleration and sprints, with important consequences (time loss of sport and re-injury risk). In a prevention approach, a better knowledge of risk factors and mechanisms of these lesions seem relevant, and it can pass through a better understanding of the biomechanical and muscular determinants of performance in sprint and acceleration. The ability to produce a horizontal force on the ground [i.e. orienting the total push backward (or ground force reaction forward)], and to do so despite the increase in running speed, is an important determinant of sprint performance...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jo Gibson, Jim Kerss, Chris Morgan, Peter Brownson
BACKGROUND: Advances in arthroscopic surgery have resulted in biomechanically stronger repairs that might allow for accelerated rehabilitation protocols and hence faster return to play. Evidence for such regimes in the shoulder, particularly in elite athletes, is lacking. METHODS: This prospective single surgeon (PB) series included 34 professional footballers undergoing an accelerated rehabilitation programme following arthroscopic soft tissue stabilization subsequent to traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation...
October 2016: Shoulder & Elbow
Dimitrios Challoumas, Antonio Stavrou, Georgios Dimitrakakis
In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified...
September 23, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Yingzhou Han, Yalu Cao, Jingjing Zhao, Yajiang Yin, Liangchen Ye, Xiaofeng Wang, Zheng You
Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure...
2016: Sensors
Ali M Naraghi, Lawrence M White
Acute knee injuries are a common source of morbidity in athletes and if overlooked may result in chronic functional impairment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MR examination and is an indispensable tool in the appropriate management of the injured athlete. Meniscal and ligamentous tearing are the most frequent indications for surgical intervention in sports injuries and an understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, and patterns of injury are all critical to accurate diagnosis and appropriate management...
October 2016: Radiology
Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes
CONTEXT: Knee joint position sense (JPS) is a key parameter for optimum performance in many sports, but is frequently negatively affected by injuries and/or fatigue during training sessions. Although evaluation of JPS may provide key information to reduce the risk of injury, it often requires expensive and/or complex tools that make monitoring proprioceptive deterioration difficult. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to analyze the validity and reliability of a digital inclinometer to measure knee JPS in a closed kinetic chain (CKC)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jacob J Janicki, Craig L Switzler, Bradley T Hayes, Charlie A Hicks-Little
CONTEXT: Functional movement screening (FMS) has been gaining popularity in the fields of sports medicine and performance. Currently limited research has examined whether FMS screening that identifies low FMS scores is attributed primarily to limits in range of motion (ROM). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare scores from the FMS hurdle step movement, to ROM measurements for ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion. DESIGN: Correlational research design...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Steven F DeFroda, Charles A Thigpen, Peter K Kriz
Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is the gold standard for analyzing the biomechanics of the baseball pitching motion. Historically, 3D analysis has been available primarily to elite athletes, requiring advanced cameras, and sophisticated facilities with expensive software. The advent of newer technology, and increased affordability of video recording devices, and smartphone/tablet-based applications has led to increased access to this technology for youth/amateur athletes and sports medicine professionals...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Leesa Huguenin
BACKGROUND: Paediatric sports injuries are common. Fortunately, most children self-modulate their activity levels when injured until they recover, but some will seek medical help. Injury pattern varies with age, mechanism and the chosen sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to give a general overview of some of the more common paediatric sports injuries, including common patterns of pathogenesis, the effects of growth and biomechanics on tissue load, and issues particular to specific sports...
July 2016: Australian Family Physician
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