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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932380/absence-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-suppression-causes-alopecia-in-vdr-null-mice
#1
Vaibhav Saini, Hengguang Zhao, Elizabeth T Petit, Francesca Gori, Marie B Demay
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutations in humans and mice cause alopecia. VDR-null mice (VDR(-/-)) exhibit lack of postmorphogenic hair cycles as a result of impaired keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) function. To identify the molecular basis for abnormal KSC function, RNA sequencing of wild-type (WT) and VDR(-/-) KSCs was performed. These studies demonstrated that >80% of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated in VDR(-/-) KSCs; thus, the VDR is a transcriptional suppressor in WT KSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1β (PGC1β), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were among the up-regulated genes identified...
December 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918883/platelet-rich-plasma-in-androgenic-alopecia-indications-technique-and-potential-benefits
#2
REVIEW
Elie M Ferneini, Daniel Beauvais, Concetta Castiglione, Moniek V Ferneini
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injected into the scalp for the management of androgenic alopecia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed to evaluate the benefits of PRP in androgenic alopecia. RESULTS: Hair restoration has been increasing. PRP's main components of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor have the potential to stimulate hard and soft tissue wound healing...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908934/gata6-promotes-hair-follicle-progenitor-cell-renewal-by-genome-maintenance-during-proliferation
#3
Alex B Wang, Ying V Zhang, Tudorita Tumbar
Cell proliferation is essential to rapid tissue growth and repair, but can result in replication-associated genome damage. Here, we implicate the transcription factor Gata6 in adult mouse hair follicle regeneration where it controls the renewal of rapidly proliferating epithelial (matrix) progenitors and hence the extent of production of terminally differentiated lineages. We find that Gata6 protects against DNA damage associated with proliferation, thus preventing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that in vivo Gata6 stimulates EDA-receptor signaling adaptor Edaradd level and NF-κB pathway activation, known to be important for DNA damage repair and stress response in general and for hair follicle growth in particular...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880005/s-nitrosoglutathione-promotes-cell-wall-remodelling-alters-the-transcriptional-profile-and-induces-root-hair-formation-in-the-hairless-root-hair-defective-6-rhd6-mutant-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Camila Fernandes Moro, Marilia Gaspar, Felipe Rodrigues da Silva, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G Hahn, Ione Salgado, Marcia Regina Braga
Nitric oxide (NO) exerts pleiotropic effects on plant development; however, its involvement in cell wall modification during root hair formation (RHF) has not yet been addressed. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered root hair phenotypes were used to assess the involvement of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the primary NO source, in cell wall dynamics and gene expression in roots induced to form hairs. GSNO and auxin restored the root hair phenotype of the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant...
November 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869308/signaling-in-the-auditory-system-implications-in-hair-cell-regeneration-and-hearing-function
#5
REVIEW
Rahul Mittal, Luca H Debs, Desiree Nguyen, Amit P Patel, M'hamed Grati, Jeenu Mittal, Denise Yan, Adrien A Eshraghi, Xue Zhong Liu
Ear is a sensitive organ involved in hearing and balance function. The complex signaling network in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining normal physiological function of the ear. The inner ear is comprised of a variety of host signaling pathways working in synergy to deliver clear sensory messages. Any disruption, as minor as it can be, has the potential to affect this finely tuned system with temporary or permanent sequelae including vestibular deficits and hearing loss. Mutations linked to auditory symptoms, whether inherited or acquired, are being actively researched for ways to reverse, silence, or suppress them...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864084/development-and-regeneration-of-vestibular-hair-cells-in-mammals
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Burns, Jennifer Stone
Vestibular sensation is essential for gaze stabilization, balance, and perception of gravity. The vestibular receptors in mammals, Type I and Type II hair cells, are located in five small organs in the inner ear. Damage to hair cells and their innervating neurons can cause crippling symptoms such as vertigo, visual field oscillation, and imbalance. In adult rodents, some Type II hair cells are regenerated and become re-innervated after damage, presenting opportunities for restoring vestibular function after hair cell damage...
November 15, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843925/the-role-of-hair-restoration-surgery-in-primary-cicatricial-alopecia
#7
REVIEW
Maurice J Dahdah, Matilde Iorizzo
Primary scarring alopecias are a group of inflammatory conditions in which the main target of the inflammation is the hair follicle. They represent up to 7.3% of the hair loss cases presenting to specialty hair clinics. They are poorly understood, their pathogeneses are mostly unknown and their management is guided at best by the results of small case series and expert opinions. These alopecias are frequently referred to as a trichologic emergency as their progression can be rapid and the hair loss they induce is permanent...
September 2016: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835849/nitric-oxide-signaling-is-involved-in-the-response-to-iron-deficiency-in-the-woody-plant-malus-xiaojinensis
#8
Longmei Zhai, Dashuang Xiao, Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang
To cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, plants have evolved a wide range of adaptive responses from changes in morphology to altered physiological responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the Fe-deficiency response through hormonal signaling pathways. Here, we report that NO plays a significant role in Malus xiaojinensis, an Fe-efficient woody plant. Fe deficiency triggered significant accumulation of NO in the root system, predominantly in the outer cortical and epidermal cells of the elongation zone...
November 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830323/study-of-frontal-hairline-patterns-for-natural-design-and-restoration
#9
Suzan Sirinturk, Hassan Bagheri, Figen Govsa, Yelda Pinar, Mehmet Asim Ozer
OBJECTIVE: Hair loss is one of the most noticeable esthetic problems of the mankind. Hair transplantation has been a highly effective technique in reducing wide foreheads and recontouring the hairline. Creating a natural hairline is one of the most important elements of a successful hair transplant. This study aims at the requirements which are essential in designing hairline morphometrics and natural frontline. METHODS: Standard photographs of the forehead region were obtained from two hundred young Turkish adults participated in this study...
November 10, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805613/spiral-ganglion-neuron-explant-culture-and-electrophysiology-on-multi-electrode-arrays
#10
Stefan Hahnewald, Marta Roccio, Anne Tscherter, Jürg Streit, Ranjeeta Ambett, Pascal Senn
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) participate in the physiological process of hearing by relaying signals from sensory hair cells to the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem. Loss of hair cells is a major cause of sensory hearing loss. Prosthetic devices such as cochlear implants function by bypassing lost hair cells and directly stimulating SGNs electrically, allowing for restoration of hearing in deaf patients. The performance of these devices depends on the functionality of SGNs, the implantation procedure and on the distance between the electrodes and the auditory neurons...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799284/multiple-phytohormones-promote-root-hair-elongation-by-regulating-a-similar-set-of-genes-in-the-root-epidermis-in-arabidopsis
#11
Shan Zhang, Linli Huang, An Yan, Yihua Liu, Bohan Liu, Chunyan Yu, Aidong Zhang, John Schiefelbein, Yinbo Gan
Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and overlapping roles in root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana Our results show that among auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, only ethylene induces ectopic root hair cells in wild-type plants, implying a special role of ethylene in the hair initiation stage...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785535/-conversion-of-sound-into-auditory-nerve-action-potentials
#12
J Encke, J Kreh, F Völk, W Hemmert
Outer hair cells play a major role in the hearing process: they amplify the motion of the basilar membrane up to a 1000-fold and at the same time sharpen the excitation patterns. These patterns are converted by inner hair cells into action potentials of the auditory nerve. Outer hair cells are delicate structures and easily damaged, e. g., by overexposure to noise. Hearing aids can amplify the amplitude of the excitation patterns, but they cannot restore their degraded frequency selectivity. Noise overexposure also leads to delayed degeneration of auditory nerve fibers, particularly those with low a spontaneous rate, which are important for the coding of sound in noise...
October 26, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702995/a-rhamnose-deficient-lipopolysaccharide-mutant-of-rhizobium-sp-irbg74-is-defective-in-root-colonization-and-beneficial-interactions-with-its-flooding-tolerant-hosts-sesbania-cannabina-and-wetland-rice
#13
Shubhajit Mitra, Arijit Mukherjee, Audrey Wiley-Kalil, Seema Das, Heather Owen, Pallavolu M Reddy, Jean-Michel Ané, Euan K James, Prasad Gyaneshwar
Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 develops a classical nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina (Retz.). It also promotes the growth of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known about the rhizobial determinants important for these interactions. In this study, we analyzed the colonization of S. cannabina and rice using a strain of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 dually marked with β-glucuronidase and the green fluorescent protein. This bacterium colonized S. cannabina by crack entry and through root hair infection under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679642/vacuolar-iron-transporter-bnmeb2-is-involved-in-enhancing-iron-tolerance-of-brassica-napus
#14
Wei Zhu, Rong Zuo, Rongfang Zhou, Junyan Huang, Minqiang Tang, Xiaohui Cheng, Yueying Liu, Chaobo Tong, Yang Xiang, Caihua Dong, Shengyi Liu
Iron toxicity is a nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield in some soil conditions. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT) members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, we identified a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D) homologs to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290). Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630546/persistent-thalamic-sound-processing-despite-profound-cochlear-denervation
#15
Anna R Chambers, Juan J Salazar, Daniel B Polley
Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in peripheral input through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where >95% of afferent synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, auditory cortex (ACtx) processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR) or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618392/single-hair-grafts-of-the-hairline-to-aesthetically-restore-eyebrows-by-follicular-unit-extraction-in-asians
#16
Yong Miao, Zhe-Xiang Fan, Zhi-Qi Hu, Jin-Dou Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612515/enhanced-expansion-and-sustained-inductive-function-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells-in-computer-controlled-stirred-suspension-bioreactors
#17
Natacha A Agabalyan, Breanna S Borys, Holly D Sparks, Kathryn Boon, Eko W Raharjo, Sepideh Abbasi, Michael S Kallos, Jeff Biernaskie
: : Endogenous dermal stem cells (DSCs) reside in the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and can be isolated and grown in vitro as self-renewing colonies called skin-derived precursors (SKPs). Following transplantation into skin, SKPs can generate new dermis and reconstitute the dermal papilla and connective tissue sheath, suggesting they could have important therapeutic value for the treatment of skin disease (alopecia) or injury. Controlled cell culture processes must be developed to efficiently and safely generate sufficient stem cell numbers for clinical use...
September 9, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610594/using-feily-s-method-prevented-scalp-necrosis-in-three-patients-incline-to-the-scalp-recipient-necrosis-what-is-new-in-prevention-of-scalp-necrosis
#18
Amir Feily, Ahmad Feily
Serious complications arising from surgical hair restoration are relatively uncommon following well-performed and well-planned surgery by skillful surgical techniques, good communication, and postoperative follow-up. Surgical complications often categorized as those which occur in the donor site and the recipient site. In this paper among recipient area complication we focused on recipient area necrosis that arises when an increased number of recipient grafts are utilized and de-vascularization of the scalp occurs as a result of the large wound area due to the dense packing splitting of recipient skin...
September 9, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601864/restoration-of-pigmentation-by-follicular-unit-extraction-transplant-in-three-cases-of-focal-vitiligo-recalcitrant-to-therapy-including-with-previous-nonculture-melanocyte-keratinocyte-transplant
#19
Shruti Mohankumar Menon, Yugal K Sharma, Prakhar Bansal, Shruti S Ghadgepatil
Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic depigmentary disease resisting satisfactory repigmentation despite multimodal therapy. Based on the concept of activation of the existing undifferentiated stem cells in the outer root sheet of the hair follicles, follicular unit extraction (FUE) transplant is an interesting advancement in the field of minimally invasive surgery for vitiligo. We herein present three cases of vitiligo whose residual recalcitrant foci as well as poliosis - refractory to therapy including with previous nonculture melanocyte-keratinocyte transplant - repigmented satisfactorily after FUE transplant...
April 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597871/hair-follicle-morphogenesis-in-the-treatment-of-mouse-full-thickness-skin-defects-using-composite-human-acellular-amniotic-membrane-and-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Wu Minjuan, Xiong Jun, Shao Shiyun, Xu Sha, Ni Haitao, Wang Yue, Ji Kaihong
Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding...
2016: Stem Cells International
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