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Francesco Menichetti, Simone Giuliano, Simona Fortunato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires a multifaceted approach, consisting of surgical source control with immediate surgical debridement along with life support, clinical monitoring, and antimicrobial therapy. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of this life-threatening infectious disease, and the purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the newest therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: Because most necrotizing soft tissue infections are polymicrobial, broad-spectrum coverage is advisable...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
S M Purrello, J Garau, E Giamarellos, T Mazzei, F Pea, A Soriano, S Stefani
This review is the result of discussions that took place at the 5th MRSA Working Group Consensus Meeting and explores the possible treatment options available for different types of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), focusing on those antibiotics that could represent a valid alternative to vancomycin. In fact, whilst vancomycin remains a viable option, its therapy is moving towards individualised dosing. Other drugs, such as the new lipoglycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin and telavancin) and fifth-generation cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole), are showing good in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, especially for patients infected with micro-organisms with higher vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
E Hodille, L Delouere, C Bouveyron, H Meugnier, M Bes, A Tristan, F Laurent, F Vandenesch, G Lina, O Dumitrescu
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the in vitro activity of ceftobiprole on 440 Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains isolated from bronchopulmonary infections (2010-2014). METHODS: S. aureus isolates were characterized for methicillin resistance, PVL status, and clonal complex. All isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determination by broth microdilution method for ceftobiprole, ceftaroline fosamil, and comparator antibiotics (linezolid, tigecycline, vancomycin, and daptomycin)...
November 14, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Amelia Deitchman, Daniel de Jong, April Barbour, Hartmut Derendorf
With resistance of S. aureus, the most prevalent identified pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections, on the rise, the need for safe, effective, and well-tolerated antibiotics is crucial. Ceftobiprole medocaril (BAL-5788), ceftobiprole's parenteral prodrug, is a bactericidal cephalosporin with broad Gram-positive and Gram-negative activity that has shown to be well-tolerated and noninferior to vancomycin and vancomycin plus ceftazidime in the treatment of MRSA complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) in clinical trials...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Antonio Torres, Johan Willem Mouton, Federico Pea
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are among the most common infections treated in the hospital setting, and together they place a significant burden on healthcare systems. Successful management of HAP and CAP depends on rapid initiation of empirical antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Ceftobiprole is a new-generation, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for the treatment of HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia) and CAP. It displays potent in vitro activity against a broad range of pathogens important in pneumonia...
December 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Alexander L Greninger, Som S Chatterjee, Liana C Chan, Stephanie M Hamilton, Henry F Chambers, Charles Y Chiu
Fifth-generation cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, are promising drugs for treatment of bacterial infections from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These antibiotics are able to bind native PBP2a, the penicillin-binding protein encoded by the mecA resistance determinant that mediates broad class resistance to nearly all other beta-lactam antibiotics, at clinically achievable concentrations. Mechanisms of resistance to ceftaroline based on mecA mutations have been previously described...
2016: PloS One
Nikolas Rae, Anna Jarchow-MacDonald, Dilip Nathwani, Charis Ann Marwick
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin, as well as to other beta-lactam antibiotics, including flucloxacillin, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, particularly in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use...
February 16, 2016: Clinical Evidence
Philippe Montravers, Adela Harpan, Elise Guivarch
UNLABELLED: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are leading causes of death, morbidity, and resource utilization in hospitalized patients, and are associated with a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Here, we discuss the different definitions of HAP and HCAP, review current guidelines regarding the treatment of these conditions, highlight the shortcomings of current therapeutic options, and discuss new antibiotic treatments...
February 2016: Advances in Therapy
Evgeny A Idelevich, Frieder Schaumburg, Dennis Knaack, Anna S Scherzinger, Wolfgang Mutter, Georg Peters, Andreas Peschel, Karsten Becker
HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0...
April 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Prescrire International
W V Kern
After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin)...
November 2015: Der Internist
Frieder Schaumburg, Georg Peters, Abraham Alabi, Karsten Becker, Evgeny A Idelevich
OBJECTIVES: Ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are new cephalosporins, which are active against MRSA by inhibiting PBP2a. Recently, high rates of resistance to ceftaroline were reported from Ghana. The objective of this study was to assess rates of resistance to ceftaroline and ceftobiprole in MRSA from Africa and to describe potential missense mutations of PBP2a. METHODS: MRSA isolates derived from Staphylococcus aureus colonization (n = 37) and infection (n = 23) and were collected in Côte d'Ivoire (n = 17), DR Congo (n = 6), Gabon (n = 21) and Nigeria (n = 16)...
January 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rodrigo E Mendes, Lalitagauri M Deshpande, Andrew J Costello, David J Farrell, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm
Baseline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia collected during Phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole were characterized. Eighty-four unique isolates from patients enrolled in Europe (50.0%), Asia-Western Pacific region (APAC; 20.2%), North America (19.0%), Latin America (8.3%), and South Africa (2.4%) were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and isolates screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin...
January 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Liana C Chan, Li Basuino, Binh Diep, Stephanie Hamilton, Som S Chatterjee, Henry F Chambers
The role of mecA mutations in conferring resistance to ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, cephalosporins with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity, was determined with MRSA strains COL and SF8300. The SF8300 ceftaroline-passaged mutant carried a single mecA mutation, E447K (E-to-K change at position 447), and expressed low-level resistance. This mutation in COL conferred high-level resistance to ceftobiprole but only low-level resistance to ceftaroline. The COL ceftaroline-passaged mutant, which expressed high-level resistance to ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, had mutations in pbp2, pbp4, and gdpP but not mecA...
May 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to define what the best therapeutic approach is for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. RECENT FINDINGS: Although two meta-analyses reported conflicting findings, recent retrospective studies reported higher success rates in patients with MRSA pneumonia treated with linezolid when compared to vancomycin. Only registration trials are available for some anti-MRSA antibiotics, such as telavancin, ceftaroline, and ceftobiprole...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Shio-Shin Jean, Wen-Sen Lee, Kwok-Woon Yu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chin-Wang Hsu, Feng-Yi Chang, Wen-Chien Ko, Ray-Jade Chen, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Jien-Wei Liu, Min-Chi Lu, Carlos Lam, Cheng-Yi Liu, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND: Data on susceptibility to ceftobiprole and colistin, and the complete evolutionary trends of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of important carbapenem agents among important pathogens collected in intensive care units (ICUs) in Taiwan are lacking. METHODS: We surveyed the MIC distribution patterns of ceftobiprole and colistin and susceptibility profiles of some important pathogens collected from patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) of major teaching hospitals throughout Taiwan in 2007...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Nicholas M Fusco, Kimberly A Toussaint, William Allan Prescott
OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated acute pulmonary exacerbations (APEs) in cystic fibrosis (CF). DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and databases through November 2014 was conducted using the search terms Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pulmonary exacerbations, and cystic fibrosis. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language research articles, case reports, and case series were evaluated...
April 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Brian J Werth, Katie E Barber, Kieu-Nhi T Tran, P Nonejuie, G Sakoulas, J Pogliano, Michael J Rybak
OBJECTIVES: The synergistic combination of daptomycin plus ampicillin has proven to be effective against VRE including daptomycin-non-susceptible strains. Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin with broad binding affinity for enterococcal PBP subtypes including PBP5. Given the synergy between β-lactams and daptomycin against VRE, it was of interest to determine whether ceftobiprole offered any synergistic advantage with daptomycin compared with ampicillin. METHODS: MICs were determined by broth microdilution in the presence and absence of ampicillin or ceftobiprole for 20 ampicillin-resistant VRE...
February 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Nidhi Rani, Saravanan Vijayakumar, Lakshmi Palanisamy Thanga Velan, Annamalai Arunachalam
The PBP2a is a cell wall synthesizing protein, which causes resistivity in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from β-lactam antibiotics but it is susceptible to 5th generation cephalosporin, ceftobiprole. Ceftobiprole inhibits the growth of MRSA by targeting the PBP2a-mediated cell wall synthesis, but it is reported to have adverse side effects. Due to this, there is a constant need to develop natural alternatives, which are generally free from adverse side effects. Hence in this study, in silico based docking analysis was performed with 37 quercetin derivatives towards PBP2a inhibition and their efficiencies were compared with β-lactam antibiotic, ceftobiprole...
December 2014: Molecular BioSystems
Natasha E Holmes, Benjamin P Howden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vancomycin has been the cornerstone of treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. This review describes new MRSA-active antibiotics that have recently been introduced and highlights emerging resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Elevations in the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration within the susceptible range are associated with treatment failure and mortality in the treatment of MRSA infections. Ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are anti-MRSA cephalosporins and are noninferior to comparator agents in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and pneumonia...
December 2014: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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