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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453968/lipoprotein-lipase-biosynthesis-regulatory-factors-and-its-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-other-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420166/curcumin-mediated-regulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-the-mechanism-underlying-its-beneficial-effects
#2
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417476/qi-fu-yin-a-ming-dynasty-prescription-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Wei-Yi Ong, Ya-Jun Wu, Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq A Farooqui
The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399292/anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-of-ethanolic-extract-of-black-chokeberry-aronia-melanocapa-l-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-cells-and-icr-mice
#4
Kang Pa Lee, Nan Hee Choi, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sanghyun Ahn, In-Sik Park, Dea Won Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: One of the mechanisms considered to be prevalent in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hyper-stimulation of microglia. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocapa L.) is widely used to treat diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is known to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its neuroprotective effects have not been elucidated thus far. MATERIALS/METHODS: We undertook to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of black chokeberry friut (BCE) in BV2 cells, and evaluate its neuroprotective effect in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of AD...
February 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384096/-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
Marine Groslambert, Bénédicte F Py
The innate immunity constitutes an efficient barrier by rapidly detecting pathogens and tissue damages through pattern recognition receptors including NLRP3. Moreover, inappropriate NLRP3 activation causes deleterious inflammation and contributes to various conditions including atherosclerosis, diabetes, gout and Alzheimer's diseases. NLRP3 assembles a multimeric inflammasome complex serving as an activation platform for caspase-1 that controls processing and release of cytosolic inflammatory factors and cytokines including IL-1β Inflammasome assembly is tightly controlled and requires coordinated NLRP3 priming, through cytokine or other pattern recognition receptors, followed by activation by cellular stress...
January 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376091/abca7-and-risk-of-dementia-and-vascular-disease-in-the-danish-population
#6
Emilie W Kjeldsen, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt
Objective: ATP-binding-cassette transporter A7(ABCA7) is suggested to be involved in lipid transport as well as in phagocytosis of amyloid-β in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic variant in ABCA7 is associated with dementia, ischemic heart disease, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and with lipid levels in the general population, independent of the common apolipoprotein E(APOE) genotype. Methods: For this purpose, we genotyped a common genetic variant in ABCA7, identified in genome-wide-association-studies of Alzheimer's disease, in 104,258 individuals from the Danish general population, and also meta-analyzed our results with publicly available consortia data...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370749/intraventricular-infusion-of-clusterin-ameliorated-cognition-and-pathology-in-tg6799-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Xue-Mei Qi, Cheng Wang, Xing-Kun Chu, Gen Li, Jian-Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with Aβ aggregation, toxicity and transport through blood-brain barrier, may play a key role in the development of AD. Recently, clusterin peptide D-[113-122] was shown to mimic clusterin's function and exerted therapeutic effect in atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether this clusterin peptide also affected (Aβ) deposition in AD transgenic mouse...
January 25, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360436/comprehensive-circular-rna-profiles-in-plasma-reveals-that-circular-rnas-can-be-used-as-novel-biomarkers-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Haixia Li, Kaifei Li, Weinan Lai, Xin Li, Hongxia Wang, Jia Yang, Shuai Chu, Haifang Wang, Chunmin Kang, Yurong Qiu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of widespread endogenous noncoding RNAs, have been involved in the development of various diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and several types of cancers, but there is little knowledge about their associations with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study is aimed to identify the expression profiles of circRNAs in 6 paired SLE and normal participants plasma samples by using a circRNA microarray. The microarray analysis showed that 207 circRNAs were differentially expressed between these two groups, including 113 upregulated and 94 downregulated circRNAs...
January 19, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346450/cloning-and-spatiotemporal-expression-of-xenopus-laevis-apolipoprotein-ci
#9
Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C Weinstein
Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease in humans. In this study we report the isolation of Xenopus laevis apoCI and describe the expression pattern of this gene during early development, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole mount in situ hybridization. Xenopus apoCI is enriched in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is subsequently expressed in sensory placodes, neural tube and cranial neural crest...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344304/atherosclerosis-is-exacerbated-by-chitinase-3-like-1-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#10
Yu Yeon Jung, Ki Cheon Kim, Mi Hee Park, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park, Min Hee Park, Jun Chang, Dae Youn Hwang, Sang Bae Han, Sanghyeon Kim, Dong Ju Son, Jin Tae Hong
Although the important role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vascular diseases associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences are unclear. We aimed to evaluate vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in Swedish mutant of human APP transgenic (APPsw-Tg) and ApoE-/-/APPsw-Tg mice. We also aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying any changes observed in these mice compared with non-Tg controls. Methods: The transgenic and non-Tg mouse strains were subjected to partial ligation of the left carotid artery to induce atherosclerotic changes, which were measured using histological approaches, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and gene expression microarrays...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333090/gene-and-protein-expression-profiles-in-a-mouse-model-of-collagen-induced-arthritis
#11
Sun-Yeong Gwon, Ki-Jong Rhee, Ho Joong Sung
The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, in the elderly population increases along with that of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Identifying specific biomarkers for RA can clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and can aid diagnosis and patient care. To this end, the present study investigated the genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in RA using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We performed gene microarray and proteome array analyses using blood samples from the mice and found that 50 genes and 24 proteins were upregulated and 48 genes were downregulated by more than 2-fold in the CIA model relative to the control...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331080/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-novel-oxazaborine-inhibitors-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#12
Alex George Baldwin, Victor S Tapia, Tessa Swanton, Claire S White, James A Beswick, David Brough, Sally Freeman
The NLRP3 inflammasome is an important regulator of the sterile inflammatory response and its activation by host-derived sterile molecules leads to the intracellular activation of caspase-1, processing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL 1β)/IL-18, and pyroptotic cell death. Inappropriate activation of NLRP3 drives a chronic inflammatory response and is implicated in several non-communicable diseases, including gout, atherosclerosis, type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel boron compounds (NBCs) as NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors...
January 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316784/clusterin-induces-muc5ac-expression-via-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#13
Chang Hoon Bae, Hyung Gyun Na, Yoon Seok Choi, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
Objectives: Clusterin (CLU) is known as apolipoprotein J, and has three isoforms with different biological functions. CLU is associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and some malignancies. Recent studies report an association of CLU with inflammation and immune response in inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effect of CLU on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells has not yet been understood. Therefore, the effect and brief signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC (as a major secreted mucin) expression were investigated in human airway epithelial cells...
January 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301530/understanding-amd-by-analogy-systematic-review-of-lipid-related-common-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-amd-ad-as-and-gn
#14
REVIEW
Qinyuan Xu, Sijia Cao, Sanjeeva Rajapakse, Joanne A Matsubara
RATIONALE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the elderly. Due to its complex etiology, current treatments have been insufficient. Previous studies reveal three systems closely involved in AMD pathogenesis: lipid metabolism, oxidation and inflammation. These systems are also involved in Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis. Understanding commonalities of these four diseases may provide insight into AMD etiology...
January 4, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250170/liver-x-receptors-as-potential-targets-for-cancer-therapeutics
#15
Xiaoli Ju, Pan Huang, Miao Chen, Qiang Wang
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important members of the nuclear receptor family that were originally determined to function in cholesterol transport and the regulation of immune responses. Synthetic LXR ligands have been developed to treat various diseases including diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Previous studies have suggested that LXRs are also involved in numerous types of cancer and are therefore potential targets for cancer therapeutics. The present review summarizes LXR ligands and their mechanisms of action, the effects of LXRs in different types of cancer and their potential applications in clinical treatment...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247791/immune-senescence-and-biomarkers-profile-of-bambu%C3%A3-aged-population-based-cohort
#16
Karen Cecília Lima Torres, Vitor Bortolo de Rezende, Maria Luiza Lima-Silva, Lorena Júnia de Souza Santos, Carla Gabriela Costa, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Sérgio William Viana Peixoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho
During immunosenescence many proinflammatory markers such as cytokines and chemokines are increased. This process called by Franceschi and colleagues as inflammaging is associated with chronic inflammation and the ethiology and pathophysiolgy of many ageing diseases as Alzheimer's and atherosclerosis. The knowledge of immune profile during ageing may provide some interventions that would improve the immune function in elderly and quality of life for old people. However, the identification of a group of potential biomarkers to monitor the ageing process is very difficult...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210129/effect-of-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-on-aging-and-longevity
#17
REVIEW
Yi-Rong Li, Shiming Li, Chi-Chien Lin
Over the past years, several studies have found that foods rich in polyphenols protect against age-related disease, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol and pterostilbene, the polyphenol found in grape and blueberries, have beneficial effects as anti-aging compounds through modulating the hallmarks of aging, including oxidative damage, inflammation, telomere attrition and cell senescence...
December 6, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207114/elderly-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mice-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-the-aorta-do-not-develop-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies
#18
Reut Shnerb Ganor, Dror Harats, Ginette Schiby, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Irit Lubitz, Aviv Shaish, Ophira Salomon
Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. These diseases share common risk factors, which are exhibited in old age, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein (Apo) ε4 allele. We previously demonstrated that factor XI (FXI) deficiency in mice reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area in coronary sinuses and the aortic arch. This led us to investigate whether FXI deficiency in elderly ApoE knockout (KO) mice would decrease pathological alterations compatible with atherosclerosis and AD...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197144/protein-folding-by-water-soluble-cyclic-diselenides-with-novel-oxidoreductase-and-isomerase-activities
#19
Kenta Arai, Haruhito Ueno, Yuki Asano, Gaurango Chakrabarty, Shingo Shimodaira, Govindasamy Mugesh, Michio Iwaoka
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells, catalyzes the formation and cleavage of disulfide bonds and thereby helps in protein folding. A decrease in PDI activity under ER stress conditions lead to protein misfolding, which is responsible for the progression of various human diseases, such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In this paper, we report that water-soluble cyclic diselenides mimic the multifunctional activity of PDI family by facilitating oxidative folding, disulfide formation/reduction and repair of the scrambled disulfide bonds in misfolded proteins...
December 2, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195510/cerebrovascular-pathology-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-disease
#20
Elizabeth Head, Michael J Phelan, Eric Doran, Ronald C Kim, Wayne W Poon, Frederick A Schmitt, Ira T Lott
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) with age. Typically, by age 40 years, most people with DS have sufficient neuropathology for an AD diagnosis. Interestingly, atherosclerosis and hypertension are atypical in DS with age, suggesting the lack of these vascular risk factors may be associated with reduced cerebrovascular pathology. However, because the extra copy of APP leads to increased beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation in DS, we hypothesized that there would be more extensive and widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with age in DS relative to sporadic AD...
December 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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