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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511572/mtor-drives-cerebral-blood-flow-and-memory-deficits-in-ldlr-mice-modeling-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#1
Jordan B Jahrling, Ai-Ling Lin, Nicholas DeRosa, Stacy A Hussong, Candice E Van Skike, Milena Girotti, Martin Javors, Qingwei Zhao, Leigh Ann Maslin, Reto Asmis, Veronica Galvan
We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488732/involvement-of-the-warburg-effect-in-non-tumor-diseases-processes
#2
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Meiqing Liu, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
Warburg effect, as an energy shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, is extensively found in various cancers. Interestingly, increasing researchers show that Warburg effect plays a crucial role in non-tumor diseases. For instance, inhibition of Warburg effect can alleviate pulmonary vascular remodeling in the process of pulmonary hypertension. Interference of Warburg effect improves mitochondrial function and cardiac function in the process of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488154/impact-of-multiple-pathologies-on-the-threshold-for-clinically-overt-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Alifiya Kapasi, Charles DeCarli, Julie A Schneider
Longitudinal clinical-pathological studies have increasingly recognized the importance of mixed pathologies (the coexistence of one or more neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease pathologies) as important factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. Older persons with AD pathology, often have concomitant cerebrovascular disease pathologies (macroinfarcts, microinfarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy) as well as other concomitant neurodegenerative disease pathologies (Lewy bodies, TDP-43, hippocampal sclerosis)...
May 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444734/highly-electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-evokes-microglial-activation-and-creates-a-neuroinflammatory-stress-via-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling
#4
Liang-En Yu, Chiou-Lian Lai, Ching-Tien Lee, Jiz-Yuh Wang
Atherogenic risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, are associated with increased risk of neurodegeneration, especially Alzheimer's dementia. Human plasma electronegative low-density lipoprotein [LDL(-)], especially L5, may serve as an important contributing factor. L5 promoting an inflammatory action in atherosclerosis has been extensively studied. However, the role of L5 in inducing neuroinflammation remains unknown. Here, we examined the impact of L5 on immune activation and cell viability in cultured BV-2 microglia...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399252/association-between-midlife-vascular-risk-factors-and-estimated-brain-amyloid-deposition
#5
Rebecca F Gottesman, Andrea L C Schneider, Yun Zhou, Josef Coresh, Edward Green, Naresh Gupta, David S Knopman, Akiva Mintz, Arman Rahmim, A Richey Sharrett, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Dean F Wong, Thomas H Mosley
Importance: Midlife vascular risk factors have been associated with late-life dementia. Whether these risk factors directly contribute to brain amyloid deposition is less well understood. Objective: To determine if midlife vascular risk factors are associated with late-life brain amyloid deposition, measured using florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-PET Amyloid Imaging Study, a prospective cohort study among 346 participants without dementia in 3 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi) who have been evaluated for vascular risk factors and markers since 1987-1989 with florbetapir PET scans in 2011-2013...
April 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384320/direct-administration-of-2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-into-guinea-pig-cochleae-effects-on-physiological-and-histological-measurements
#6
J T Lichtenhan, K Hirose, C A Buchman, R K Duncan, A N Salt
2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) can be used to treat Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis. But, a consequence is that HPβCD can cause hearing loss. HPβCD was recently found to be toxic to outer hair cells (OHCs) in the organ of Corti. Previous studies on the chronic effects of in vivo HPβCD toxicity did not know the intra-cochlear concentration of HPβCD and attributed variable effects on OHCs to indirect drug delivery to the cochlea. We studied the acute effects of known HPβCD concentrations administered directly into intact guinea pig cochleae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374233/neurological-deficits-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#7
REVIEW
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Giulia Elisabetta Lombardi, Sara Marelli, Andrea Galbiati
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway. The prevalence of this disorder is strictly dependent on its gravity. At ≥15 events/h apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), it ranges from 6 to 17% in the general population, with higher rates in men and increasing with age. The hypoxia induced by OSA severely affects the structure and function of blood vessels, culminating in mortality and morbidity...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350821/neuropathological-diagnoses-and-clinical-correlates-in-older-adults-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Claudia K Suemoto, Renata E L Ferretti-Rebustini, Roberta D Rodriguez, Renata E P Leite, Luciana Soterio, Sonia M D Brucki, Raphael R Spera, Tarcila M Cippiciani, Jose M Farfel, Alexandre Chiavegatto Filho, Michel Satya Naslavsky, Mayana Zatz, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Ricardo Nitrini, Lea T Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321471/feasibility-of-in-vivo-18-f-florbetaben-pet-mr-imaging-of-human-carotid-amyloid-%C3%AE
#9
Jan Bucerius, Henryk Barthel, Solveig Tiepolt, Peter Werner, Judith C Sluimer, Joachim E Wildberger, Marianne Patt, Swen Hesse, Hermann-Josef Gertz, Erik A L Biessen, Felix M Mottaghy, Osama Sabri
PURPOSE: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides are involved in the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis. (18)F-Florbetaben is a PET tracer for clinical imaging of cerebral Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether specific uptake of (18)F-florbetaben in the carotid arteries can be identified using a fully integrated hybrid PET/MRI system and whether this uptake is associated with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: Carotid (18)F-florbetaben uptake was quantified as the mean of the maximum target-to-background ratio (meanTBRmax) in 40 cognitively impaired subjects (age 68...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228072/curcumin-and-endothelial-function-evidence-and-mechanisms-of-protective-effects
#10
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a large paracrine organ regulating cell growth, vascular tone and thrombogenicity as well as platelet and leukocyte interactions. Endothelial function can be assessed by non-invasive techniques [e.g. flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity] and measuring specific circulating biomarkers [cell adhesion molecules, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells]. Impaired endothelial function plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions...
February 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223234/advanced-glycation-end-products-produced-systemically-and-by-macrophages-a-common-contributor-to-inflammation-and-degenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Kyunghee Byun, YongCheol Yoo, Myeongjoo Son, Jaesuk Lee, Goo-Bo Jeong, Young Mok Park, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Bonghee Lee
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor have been implicated in the progressions of many intractable diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and are also critical for pathologic changes in chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and alcoholic brain damage. Recently activated macrophages were found to be a source of AGEs, and the most abundant form of AGEs, AGE-albumin excreted by macrophages has been implicated in these diseases and to act through common pathways...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219828/treating-cognitive-impairment-with-transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Jack C de la Torre
This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans...
March 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215160/cathepsin-d-as-a-promising-target-for-the-discovery-of-novel-anticancer-agents
#13
Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin D (CATD), one of the aspartyl endoproteinase involved in different physiological processes and signaling pathways, is accountable for metabolic breakdown of intracellular proteins, activation of growth factors, hormones, and precursors of enzyme, processing of antigens, enzyme inhibitors and activators and regulation of apoptosis. Implication as a Target: Studies have confirmed the role and significance of CATD in an assortment of pathological conditions like Atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Huntington and Parkinson diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153452/adenosine-receptors-modulators-of-lipid-availability-that-are-controlled-by-lipid-levels
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Leiva, Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Bárbara Fuenzalida, Claudette Cantin, Lorena Carvajal, Rocío Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Luis Sobrevia
Adenosine as well as agonists and antagonists for the four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1R, A2AR, A2BR and A3R) play a role in several key physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the adenosine-mediated regulation of lipid availability in the cell and in the systemic circulation as well in humans and animal models. Therefore, adenosine, mainly by acting on A1R, inhibits lipolysis activity, leading to reduction of the circulating fatty acid levels...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133531/in-vitro-assesment-of-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-coumarin-and-indonesian-cassia-extract-in-raw264-7-murine-macrophage-cell-line
#15
Ni Made Dwi Sandhiutami, Moordiani Moordiani, Dian Ratih Laksmitawati, Nurul Fauziah, Maesaroh Maesaroh, Wahyu Widowati
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is an immune response toward injuries. Although inflammation is healing response, but in some condition it will lead to chronic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and various cancer. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannil C. Nees & T. Ness) known to contain coumarin, is widely used for alternative medicine especially as an anti-inflammatory. This study was conducted to determine the anti-inflammatory properties of coumarin and Indonesian cassia extract (ICE) in LPS-induced RAW264...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116245/7-ketocholesterol-induces-apoptosis-of-mc3t3-e1-cells-associated-with-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-caspase-3-7-dependent-pathway
#16
Yuta Sato, Noriko Ishihara, Daiji Nagayama, Atsuhito Saiki, Ichiro Tatsuno
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures without reduction of bone mineral density. The cholesterol oxide 7-ketocholesterol (7KCHO) has been implicated in numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, age-related macular degeneration and T2DM. In the present study, 7KCHO decreased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptotic rate, and upregulated the caspase-3/7 pathway...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049396/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-potential-of-one-hundred-medicinal-plants
#17
Waseem Hassan, Hamsa Noreen, Shakila Rehman, Shehnaz Gul, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Jean Paul Kamdem, Bakht Zaman, Joao B T da Rocha
Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc...
January 2, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026009/transcriptomic-profiling-of-platelet-senescence-and-platelet-extracellular-vesicles
#18
Annika Pienimaeki-Roemer, Tatiana Konovalova, Melina M Musri, Alexander Sigruener, Alfred Boettcher, Gunter Meister, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Platelets (PLTs) are derived from megakaryocytes during PLT shedding. Senescent or activated PLTs are expanded in vascular and neurological diseases and release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs). A systematic analysis of regular messenger RNA (mRNA) and small RNA composition in PLTs and PL-EVs during in vitro PLT senescence has not yet been published. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We isolated PLTs, total PL-EVs, and PL-EV subsets on Days 0 and 5 from human stored donor platelet concentrates...
January 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999408/cyclodextrins-as-emerging-therapeutic-tools-in-the-treatment-of-cholesterol-associated-vascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Caroline Coisne, Sébastien Tilloy, Eric Monflier, Daniel Wils, Laurence Fenart, Fabien Gosselet
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the existence of biological barriers such as intestinal and blood-brain barriers which participate in the organ homeostasis and are major defense systems against xenobiotics...
December 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#20
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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