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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652660/cognitive-function-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-disease-activity-but-not-carotid-atherosclerotic-changes
#1
Ji Hyun Lee, Geun-Tae Kim, Yun-Kyung Kim, Seung-Geun Lee
OBJECTIVES: Although the relationship between atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment has been studied and replicated, whether cognitive deficits in RA can be attributed to atherosclerotic changes is not well understood. This study investigated cognitive function in patients with RA and evaluated whether cognitive function was affected by carotid arterial atherosclerosis. METHODS: We examined 70 RA patients and 40 healthy controls. RA activity was assessed by disease activity score with 28 joint-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR)...
April 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623835/apoe4-may-be-a-promising-target-for-treatment-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wei Chen, Fengzhong Jin, Guihua Cao, Rong Mei, Yayun Wang, Pan Long, Xiaoming Wang, Wei Ge
Alzheimer disease (AD) is most common neurodegenerative disorder of dementia, as we all know, ApoE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Coronary heart disease (CHD) lead to one-fourth of all deaths in industrialized countries, it is reported that ApoE4 increases the risk of coronary heart disease as well. Furthermore, evidence show that coronary heart disease also increases the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Whether ApoE4 is a bridge connecting AD with CHD or not? And what are the special mechanism and therapeutic methods? Researchers found that cholesterol metabolic disorder is common causes and risk factors of AD and CHD...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614647/reduced-cerebrovascular-reserve-capacity-as-a-biomarker-of-microangiopathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Barbora Soukupova Urbanova, Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova, Hana Magerova, Petr Jansky, Hana Markova, Martin Vyhnalek, Jan Laczo, Jakub Hort, Ales Tomek
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microangiopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes chronic hypoperfusion and probably accelerates neurodegenerative changes. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize microvascular impairment could be present already in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be revealed using transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and the breath-holding maneuver. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (AD in the stage of dementia, MCI, and cognitively normal controls) with detailed neuropsychological testing and low cerebrovascular burden (no history of stroke, no intra- or extracranial artery stenoses, and no severe vascular lesions on brain MRI), underwent a TCCS assessment of peak systolic (PSV), mean flow (MFV), and end diastolic velocities (EDV) and resistance and pulsatility indices (RI, PI) in large intracranial vessels bilaterally...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602454/optimise-the-microbial-flora-with-milk-and-yoghurt-to-prevent-disease
#4
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575574/no-effects-without-causes-the-iron-dysregulation-and-dormant-microbes-hypothesis-for-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#5
Douglas B Kell, Etheresia Pretorius
Since the successful conquest of many acute, communicable (infectious) diseases through the use of vaccines and antibiotics, the currently most prevalent diseases are chronic and progressive in nature, and are all accompanied by inflammation. These diseases include neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), vascular (e.g. atherosclerosis, pre-eclampsia, type 2 diabetes) and autoimmune (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis) diseases that may appear to have little in common. In fact they all share significant features, in particular chronic inflammation and its attendant inflammatory cytokines...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559889/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance
#6
Daiqiang Liu, Yaqun Zhou, Yawen Peng, Peng Su, Zheng Li, Qiaoqiao Xu, Ye Tu, Xuebi Tian, Hui Yang, Zhen Wu, Wei Mei, Feng Gao
Morphine tolerance remains an intractable problem, which hinders its prolonged use in clinical practice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proved to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that ER stress may be a significant driver of morphine tolerance. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), the ER stress marker, was significantly upregulated in neurons in spinal dorsal horn in rats being treated with morphine for 7 days...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552692/causes-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-its-pathological-significance
#7
REVIEW
Jihyun Kim, Hyunhee Kim, Heewon Roh, Youngjoo Kwon
In the last 10 years, homocysteine has been regarded as a marker of cardiovascular disease and a definite risk factor for many other diseases. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine through multiple steps and then goes through one of two major metabolic pathways: remethylation and transsulfuration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a state in which too much homocysteine is present in the body. The main cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is a dysfunction of enzymes and cofactors associated with the process of homocysteine biosynthesis...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549223/arterial-stiffness-and-dementia-pathology-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-pet-study
#8
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535509/health-status-health-behaviors-and-the-ability-to-perform-everyday-activities-in-poles-aged-%C3%A2-65-years-staying-in-their-home-environment
#9
Izabela Wróblewska, Iwona Zborowska, Anna Dąbek, Robert Susło, Zuzanna Wróblewska, Jarosław Drobnik
Background: The incidence of chronic diseases increases with age; about 73% of people who are aged ≥60 years suffer from at least 1 chronic disease, and among those older than 70 years, chronic diseases afflict more than >84% of the population. According to epidemiological data, at least 4 chronic disease types coexist in senior citizens, causing their disability. These are mainly cardiovascular diseases; motor system diseases; ophthalmological, auditory, neurological, and mental diseases; and mental impairment...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534716/genetic-variation-in-clusterin-and-risk-of-dementia-and-ischemic-vascular-disease-in-the-general-population-cohort-studies-and-meta-analyses-of-362-338-individuals
#10
Liv Tybjærg Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Katrine Laura Rasmussen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J (apoJ), is one of the most abundantly expressed apolipoproteins in the brain after apolipoprotein E (apoE). Like the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), the clusterin gene (CLU) is a risk locus for Alzheimer's disease, and may play additional roles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We tested whether genetic variation in CLU was associated with either Alzheimer's disease or atherosclerosis-related diseases. METHODS: We studied individual data on 103,987 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) and the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS)...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531009/-communication-melatonin-hyperhomocysteinemia-thioretinaco-ozonide-adenosylmethionine-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aging-and-dementia
#11
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514054/the-long-lived-octodon-degus-as-a-rodent-drug-discovery-model-for-alzheimer-s-and-other-age-related-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Hurley, Robert M J Deacon, Katrin Beyer, Elena Ioannou, Agustin Ibáñez, Jessica L Teeling, Patricia Cogram
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disease. Despite decades of research, no disease modifying therapy is available and a change of research objectives and/or development of novel research tools may be required. Much AD research has been based on experimental models using animals with a short lifespan that have been extensively genetically manipulated and do not represent the full spectrum of late-onset AD, which make up the majority of cases. The aetiology of AD is heterogeneous and involves multiple factors associated with the late-onset of the disease like disturbances in brain insulin, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, metabolic syndrome, retinal degeneration and sleep disturbances which are all progressive abnormalities that could account for many molecular, biochemical and histopathological lesions found in brain from patients dying from AD...
March 4, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510495/age-related-changes-in-the-behavior-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#13
Dasha Fuentes, Nidia Fernández, Yenela García, Teidy García, Ana Ruth Morales, Roberto Menéndez
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning...
March 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494336/telomere-biology-and-age-related-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Markus Herrmann, Irene Pusceddu, Winfried März, Wolfgang Herrmann
Telomeres are the protective end caps of chromosomes and shorten with every cell division. Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of biological age and a risk factor for age-related diseases. Epidemiologic studies show an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mortality. There is solid evidence that links LTL with cardiovascular disease. Short telomeres promote atherosclerosis and impair the repair of vascular lesions. Alzheimer's disease patients have also a reduced LTL. Telomeres measured in tumor tissue from breast, colon and prostate are shorter than in healthy tissue from the same organ and the same patient...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466287/comparison-of-inhibitory-capacities-of-6-8-and-10-gingerols-shogaols-on-the-canonical-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-secretion
#15
Su-Chen Ho, Yi-Huang Chang
Endogenous noninfectious substances that mediate the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion causes inappropriate sterile inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, dietary phytochemicals exhibiting capacities to suppress canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion can be a reliable supplement to prevent such diseases...
February 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453968/lipoprotein-lipase-biosynthesis-regulatory-factors-and-its-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-other-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420166/curcumin-mediated-regulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-the-mechanism-underlying-its-beneficial-effects
#17
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417476/qi-fu-yin-a-ming-dynasty-prescription-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Wei-Yi Ong, Ya-Jun Wu, Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq A Farooqui
The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399292/anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-of-ethanolic-extract-of-black-chokeberry-aronia-melanocapa-l-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-cells-and-icr-mice
#19
Kang Pa Lee, Nan Hee Choi, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sanghyun Ahn, In-Sik Park, Dea Won Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: One of the mechanisms considered to be prevalent in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hyper-stimulation of microglia. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocapa L.) is widely used to treat diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is known to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its neuroprotective effects have not been elucidated thus far. MATERIALS/METHODS: We undertook to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of black chokeberry friut (BCE) in BV2 cells, and evaluate its neuroprotective effect in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of AD...
February 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384096/-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#20
Marine Groslambert, Bénédicte F Py
The innate immunity constitutes an efficient barrier by rapidly detecting pathogens and tissue damages through pattern recognition receptors including NLRP3. Moreover, inappropriate NLRP3 activation causes deleterious inflammation and contributes to various conditions including atherosclerosis, diabetes, gout and Alzheimer's diseases. NLRP3 assembles a multimeric inflammasome complex serving as an activation platform for caspase-1 that controls processing and release of cytosolic inflammatory factors and cytokines including IL-1β Inflammasome assembly is tightly controlled and requires coordinated NLRP3 priming, through cytokine or other pattern recognition receptors, followed by activation by cellular stress...
January 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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