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Atherosclerosis Alzheimer

Zhiyou Cai, Chuanling Wang, Wenming Yang
Berberine, an important protoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid, has several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, antitumoral, and immunomodulatory properties. Substantial studies suggest that berberine may be beneficial to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by limiting the pathogenesis of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Increasing evidence has indicated that berberine exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis related to lipid- and glucose-lowering properties, implicating that berberine has the potential to inhibit these risk factors for AD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Robert G Salomon
Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and tumor growth) continue to emerge...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Jane Chen, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Wan-Yu Tseng, Chiu-Po Chan, Hseuh-Jen Lin, Wan-Chuen Liao, Ya-Ching Chang, Po-Yuan Jeng, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardiac infarction etc.) are the major systemic diseases of elder peoples in the world. This is possibly due to increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that damage vascular endothelial cells, induce inflammatory responses, to elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However the toxic effects of 7-KC on endothelial cells are not known...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Hossam M Abdallah, Hany M El-Bassossy, Gamal A Mohamed, Ali M El-Halawany, Khalid Z Alshali, Zainy M Banjar
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Yasumasa Sugita, Chikako Ohwada, Takeharu Kawaguchi, Tomoya Muto, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Yusuke Takeda, Naoya Mimura, Masahiro Takeuchi, Emiko Sakaida, Naomi Shimizu, Hiroaki Tanaka, Daijiro Abe, Motoharu Fukazawa, Takeaki Sugawara, Nobuyuki Aotsuka, Kaichi Nishiwaki, Katsuhiro Shono, Hiroyuki Ebinuma, Kengo Fujimura, Hideaki Bujo, Koutaro Yokote, Chiaki Nakaseko
BACKGROUND: LR11 (also called SorLA or SORL1) is a type I membrane protein, originally identified as a biomarker for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. We recently found that LR11 was specifically expressed in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells, and high serum sLR11 concentrations in retrospective cohort indicated inferior survival. In this study, we prospectively validated the clinical impact of serum sLR11 in 97 patients with newly-diagnosed, untreated DLBCL. RESULTS: Serum sLR11 concentrations were increased in DLBCL patients compared to normal controls (mean±SD: 21...
October 8, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Courtney Lane-Donovan, Wen Mai Wong, Murat S Durakoglugil, Catherine R Wasser, Shan Jiang, Xunde Xian, Joachim Herz
UNLABELLED: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in individuals over the age of 65 years. The most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD is the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), and novel AD treatments that target ApoE are being considered. One unresolved question in ApoE biology is whether ApoE is necessary for healthy brain function. ApoE knock-out (KO) mice have synaptic loss and cognitive dysfunction; however, these findings are complicated by the fact that ApoE knock-out mice have highly elevated plasma lipid levels, which may independently affect brain function...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shivaprasad H Venkatesha, Kamal D Moudgil
Celastrol, a triterpenoid derived from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Celastrol has shown preventive/therapeutic effects in experimental models of several chronic diseases. These include, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis), neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), atherosclerosis, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and cancer...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Preetham Elumalai, Sreeja Lakshmi
Neurodegenerative disorders are often life threatening and hired as an economic burden to the health-care system. Nutritional interventions principally involving polyphenols were practiced to arrest or reverse the age-related health disorders. Flavonoids, a class of dietary polyphenols, are rising to superstardom in preventing brain disorders with their potent antioxidant defense mechanism. Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid reported to have all-natural myriad of health benefits. Citrus fruits, apple, onion, parsley, berries, green tea, and red wine comprise the major dietary supplements of quercetin apart from some herbal remedies like Ginkgo biloba...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Je-Wook Yu, Myung-Shik Lee
The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled and activated in certain types of myeloid cells upon sensing microbe-derived toxins or host-derived danger signals. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by endogenous ligands has been discovered in various disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, reperfusion injury of the heart, neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease, chronic kidney diseases, and macular degeneration of the eyes. Despite the potential significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of several diseases, details on the activation mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome by a variety of stimulators have yet to be reported...
September 7, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Marija Macesic, Nebojsa M Lalic, Vladimir S Kostic, Aleksandra Jotic, Katarina Lalic, Elka Stefanova, Tanja Milicic, Ljiljana Lukic, Jelena Stanarcic Gajovic, Nina Krako
OBJECTIVE: We analysed: (a) insulin sensitivity, (b) insulin secretion capacity, (c) plasma insulin, (d) adiponectin levels, and, (e) lipid parameters in normoglycaemic, nonobese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (group A, n=62), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (group B, n=41), and healthy controls (group C, n=25). METHOD: Insulin sensitivity was determined both by euglycemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (M value) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), insulin secretion capacity by acute insulin response and first-phase insulin response (FPIR), plasma insulin by RIA and adiponectin by ELISA methods, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides by enzymatic method...
September 5, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Ilaria Canobbio, Caterina Visconte, Barbara Oliviero, Gianni Guidetti, Marta Zarà, Giordano Pula, Mauro Torti
Vascular dysfunctions and Alzheimer's disease show significant similarities and overlaps. Cardiovascular risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes) increase the risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, Alzheimer's patients have considerably increased predisposition of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Platelets are major players in haemostasis and thrombosis and are involved in inflammation. We have investigated morphology and function of platelets in 3xTg-AD animals, a consolidate murine model for Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Printha Wijesinghe, S K Shankar, T C Yasha, Catherine Gorrie, Dhammika Amaratunga, Sanjayah Hulathduwa, K Sunil Kumara, Kamani Samarasinghe, Yoo-Hun Suh, Harry W M Steinbusch, K Ranil D De Silva
BACKGROUND: Evidence from various consortia on vascular contributions has been inconsistent in determining the etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular pathologies associated in manifestation of AD-related neuropathological changes of an elderly population. METHODS: Postmortem brain samples from 76 elderly subjects (≥50 years) were used to study genetic polymorphisms, intracranial atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis (IASCW), and microscopic infarcts in deep white matters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bimal Prasanna Mohanty, Satabdi Ganguly, Arabinda Mahanty, T V Sankar, R Anandan, Kajal Chakraborty, B N Paul, Debajit Sarma, J Syama Dayal, G Venkateshwarlu, Suseela Mathew, K K Asha, D Karunakaran, Tandrima Mitra, Soumen Chanda, Neetu Shahi, Puspita Das, Partha Das, Md Shahbaz Akhtar, P Vijayagopal, N Sridhar
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kilmer S McCully
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and low blood levels of folate and cobalamin are associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and AD. In elderly subjects with cognitive decline, supplementation with folate, cobalamin, and pyridoxal demonstrated reduction of cerebral atrophy in gray matter regions vulnerable to the AD process. Multiple pathogenic microbes are implicated as pathogenic factors in AD and atherosclerosis, and the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ), phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis in AD are secondary to microbial infection...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ayşe Arslan, Fatma Aykan Tüzün, Harun Arslan, Halit Demir, Sibel Tamer, Canan Demir, Muhterem Tasin
Low paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and carotid atherosclerosis have been suggested to be important risk factors for dementia. However, the studies to date could not fully clarify the relationship between PON1, carotid atherosclerosis and dementia. The present study aimed to measure carotid atherosclerosis and PON1 activity in Alzheimer's Disease and to evaluate the relationship between them. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and 25 control subjects, for a total of 50 individuals. The study measured the serum PON1 activity and other biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerotic plaque values of the participants...
July 26, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Frank A Scannapieco, Albert Cantos
Oral diseases, such as caries and periodontitis, not only have local effects on the dentition and on tooth-supporting tissues but also may impact a number of systemic conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that poor oral health influences the initiation and/or progression of diseases such as atherosclerosis (with sequelae including myocardial infarction and stoke), diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and others). Aspiration of oropharyngeal (including periodontal) bacteria causes pneumonia, especially in hospitalized patients and the elderly, and may influence the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
Shijin Xia, Xinyan Zhang, Songbai Zheng, Ramin Khanabdali, Bill Kalionis, Junzhen Wu, Wenbin Wan, Xiantao Tai
Inflamm-aging is a challenging and promising new branch of aging-related research fields that includes areas such as immunosenescence. Increasing evidence indicates that inflamm-aging is intensively associated with many aging diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart disease, type II diabetes, and cancer. Mounting studies have focused on the role of inflamm-aging in disease progression and many advances have been made in the last decade. However, the underlying mechanisms by which inflamm-aging affects pathological changes and disease development are still unclear...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Nikolett Lénárt, David Brough, Ádám Dénes
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders is increasingly recognised. Inflammatory processes are associated with the aetiology and clinical progression of migraine, psychiatric conditions, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, dementia and neurodegeneration, such as seen in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Both central and systemic inflammatory actions have been linked with the development of brain diseases, suggesting that complex neuro-immune interactions could contribute to pathological changes in the brain across multiple temporal and spatial scales...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ken Nagata, Takashi Yamazaki, Daiki Takano, Tetsuya Maeda, Yumi Fujimaki, Taizen Nakase, Yuichi Sato
Cerebral circulation is known to be protected by the regulatory function against the hypoperfusion that will affect the cognitive function as a result of brain ischemia and energy failure. The regulatory function includes cerebrovascular autoregulation, chemical control, metabolic control, and neurogenic control, and those compensatory mechanisms can be influenced by hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and aging. On the other hand, large and/or small infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, atherosclerosis, amylod angiopathy are also more directly associated with cognitive decline not only in those with vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia but also those with Alzheimer's disease...
September 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Pamela L Lutsey, Faye L Norby, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas Mosley, Richard F MacLehose, Naresh M Punjabi, Eyal Shahar, Clifford R Jack, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. METHODS: Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013)...
2016: PloS One
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