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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214927/spatiotemporal-differentiation-in-auditory-and-motor-regions-during-auditory-phoneme-discrimination
#1
Annelies Aerts, Gregor Strobbe, Pieter van Mierlo, Robert J Hartsuiker, Paul Corthals, Patrick Santens, Miet De Letter
Auditory phoneme discrimination (APD) is supported by both auditory and motor regions through a sensorimotor interface embedded in a fronto-temporo-parietal cortical network. However, the specific spatiotemporal organization of this network during APD with respect to different types of phonemic contrasts is still unclear. Here, we use source reconstruction, applied to event-related potentials in a group of 47 participants, to uncover a potential spatiotemporal differentiation in these brain regions during a passive and active APD task with respect to place of articulation (PoA), voicing and manner of articulation (MoA)...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214051/effects-of-a-straw-phonation-protocol-on-acoustic-measures-of-an-satb-chorus-singing-two-contrasting-renaissance-works
#2
Jeremy N Manternach, Chad Clark, James F Daugherty
BACKGROUND: Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213999/application-of-the-acoustic-voice-quality-index-for-objective-measurement-of-dysphonia-severity
#3
Faustino Núñez-Batalla, Estefanía Díaz-Fresno, Andrea Álvarez-Fernández, Gabriela Muñoz Cordero, José Luis Llorente Pendás
INTRODUCTION: Over the past several decades, many acoustic parameters have been studied as sensitive to and to measure dysphonia. However, current acoustic measures might not be sensitive measures of perceived voice quality. A meta-analysis which evaluated the relationship between perceived overall voice quality and several acoustic-phonetic correlates, identified measures that do not rely on the extraction of the fundamental period, such the measures derived from the cepstrum, and that can be used in sustained vowel as well as continuous speech samples...
February 14, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213595/qualitative-study-of-the-breather-trial-short-cycle-antiretroviral-therapy-is-it-acceptable-to-young-people-living-with-hiv
#4
Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley, Stella Namukwaya Kihika, Diana Gibb, Tim Rhodes
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8-24) living with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation, acceptability and experience of SCT to inform intervention development. SETTING: Paediatric HIV clinics in the UK (2), Ireland (1), the USA (1) and Uganda (1)...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212504/-kicked-out-lgbtq-youths-bathroom-experiences-and-preferences
#5
Carolyn M Porta, Amy L Gower, Christopher J Mehus, Xiaohui Yu, Elizabeth M Saewyc, Marla E Eisenberg
Attention toward who can use which gender binary, multi-stall bathroom has brought to the forefront, once again, the ways in which youth are supported or marginalized. No study has documented sexual and gender minority youths' experiences with and perspectives about bathrooms. We collected qualitative data in 2014-2015. Participants were 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, aged 14-19, in the United States and Canada. Their comments describe first- and second-hand bathroom experiences, identify advocacy efforts, and highlight the roles of peers and adults in making bathrooms safe (or not)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212078/demographic-analysis-from-biometric-data-achievements-challenges-and-new-frontiers
#6
Yunlian Sun, Man Zhang, Zhenan Sun, Tieniu Tan
Biometrics is the technique of automatically recognizing individuals based on their biological or behavioral characteristics. Various biometric traits have been introduced and widely investigated, including fingerprint, iris, face, voice, palmprint, gait and so forth. Apart from identity, biometric data may convey various other personal information, covering affect, age, gender, race, accent, handedness, height, weight, etc. Among these, analysis of demographics (age, gender, and race) has received tremendous attention owing to its wide realworld applications, with significant efforts devoted and great progress achieved...
February 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211839/use-of-speech-generating-devices-can-improve-perception-of-qualifications-for-skilled-verbal-and-interactive-jobs
#7
Steven E Stern, Chelsea M Chobany, Alexander A Beam, Brittany N Hoover, Thomas T Hull, Melissa Linsenbigler, Courtney Makdad-Light, Courtney N Rubright
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that when speech generating devices (SGD) are used as assistive technologies, they are preferred over the users' natural voices. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether using SGDs would affect listener's perceptions of hirability of people with complex communication needs. METHODS: In a series of three experiments, participants rated videotaped actors, one using SGD and the other using their natural, mildly dysarthric voice, on (a) a measurement of perceptions of speaker credibility, strength, and informedness and (b) measurements of hirability for jobs coded in terms of skill, verbal ability, and interactivity...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211817/post-stroke-acquired-amusia-a-comparison-between-right-and-left-brain-hemispheric-damages
#8
Zahra Jafari, Mahdiye Esmaili, Ahmad Delbari, Masoud Mehrpour, Majid H Mohajerani
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. METHODS: Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209437/the-accuracy-of-preoperative-rigid-stroboscopy-in-the-evaluation-of-voice-disorders-in-children
#9
Jobran Mansour, Ofer Amir, Doron Sagiv, Eran E Alon, Michael Wolf, Adi Primov-Fever
OBJECTIVES: Stroboscopy is considered the most appropriate tool for evaluating the function of the vocal folds but may harbor significant limitations in children. Still, direct laryngoscopy (DL), under general anesthesia, is regarded the "gold standard" for establishing a diagnosis of vocal fold pathology. The aim of the study is to examine the accuracy of preoperative rigid stroboscopy in children with voice disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208177/feasibility-and-associated-limitations-of-office-based-laryngeal-surgery-using-carbon-dioxide-lasers
#10
Hao-Chun Hu, Shu-Yi Lin, Yi-Ting Hung, Shyue-Yih Chang
Importance: There are few reports evaluating awake, office-based carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery for laryngeal lesions. To date, this study was the largest reported case series of office-based laryngeal surgery by fiber delivery CO2 laser. Office-based laryngeal surgical procedures have become increasingly popular. Technical problems and treatment outcomes associated with the use of a CO2 laser for office-based laryngeal surgery have yet to be fully addressed. Objectives: To discuss a single institution's clinical experience with office-based CO2 laser laryngeal surgery and the feasibility and limitations associated with this procedure...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#11
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
February 23, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207734/a-causal-inference-model-explains-perception-of-the-mcgurk-effect-and-other-incongruent-audiovisual-speech
#12
John F Magnotti, Michael S Beauchamp
Audiovisual speech integration combines information from auditory speech (talker's voice) and visual speech (talker's mouth movements) to improve perceptual accuracy. However, if the auditory and visual speech emanate from different talkers, integration decreases accuracy. Therefore, a key step in audiovisual speech perception is deciding whether auditory and visual speech have the same source, a process known as causal inference. A well-known illusion, the McGurk Effect, consists of incongruent audiovisual syllables, such as auditory "ba" + visual "ga" (AbaVga), that are integrated to produce a fused percept ("da")...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204998/discrimination-between-emboli-and-artifacts-for-outpatient-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-data
#13
Blaise Kévin Guépié, Bruno Sciolla, Fabien Millioz, Marilys Almar, Philippe Delachartre
This paper addresses the detection of emboli in transcranial Doppler ultrasound data acquired from an original portable device. The challenge is the removal of several artifacts (motion and voice) intrinsically related to long-duration (up to 1 h 40 mn per patient) outpatient signals monitoring from this device, as well as high intensities due to the stochastic nature of blood flow. This paper proposes an adapted removal procedure. This firstly consists of reducing the background noise and detecting the blood flow in the time-frequency domain using a likelihood method for contour detection...
February 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202319/the-women-s-empower-survey-women-s-knowledge-and-awareness-of-treatment-options-for-vulvar-and-vaginal-atrophy-remains-inadequate
#14
Michael Krychman, Shelli Graham, Brian Bernick, Sebastian Mirkin, Sheryl A Kingsberg
INTRODUCTION: Postmenopausal women's knowledge about vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) and available treatment options has historically been inadequate. Recent direct-to-consumer marketing and educational efforts would have been expected to increase awareness and treatment options. AIM: To compare results of the Women's EMPOWER survey with other available VVA surveys to assess progress in women's understanding and approaches to treatment of VVA. METHODS: The Women's EMPOWER survey, an internet-based survey of US women with VVA symptoms, assessed women's awareness of VVA and their behaviors and attitudes associated with symptom treatment...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199505/influence-of-left-right-asymmetries-on-voice-quality-in-simulated-paramedian-vocal-fold-paralysis
#15
Robin A Samlan, Brad H Story
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric settings of parameters controlling glottal configuration. These parameters were then altered individually to determine their effect on maximum flow declination rate, spectral slope, cepstral peak prominence, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and perceived voice quality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199035/utility-approach-to-decision-making-in-extended-t1-and-limited-t2-glottic-carcinoma
#16
Yda van Loon, Anne M Stiggelbout, Marieke M Hakkesteegt, Ton P M Langeveld, Rob J Baatenburg de Jong, Elisabeth V Sjögren
BACKGROUND: It is still undecided if endoscopic laser surgery or radiotherapy is the preferable treatment in extended T1 and limited T2 glottic tumors. Health utilities assessed from patients can aid in decision-making. METHODS: Patients treated for extended T1 or limited T2 glottic carcinoma by laser surgery (n = 12) or radiotherapy (n = 14) assigned health utilities using a visual analog scale (VAS), time tradeoff (TTO) technique and scored their voice handicap using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)...
February 15, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198942/normative-analysis-of-the-voice-of-children-in-brazilian-child-protection-legislation
#17
Renata de Moura Bubadué, Ivone Evangelista Cabral, Franco Carnevale, Felipe Dutra Asensi
Objective: to identify and analyse children's voices in healthcare decision making in the discourse of Brazil's child protection laws. Method: Documentary normative analysis of Brazil's child protection legislation (1988-2012) based on the content analysis of nine texts, conducted in 2015. Results: The legislation acknowledges and stresses the voice of children in the decision-making process in research and healthcare. Any recognition of the right to dignity, liberty, information, and protection depends on what the adult decision-maker (with parental authority) believes is the child's capacity for discernment and whether the situation will cause self-harm...
February 9, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198937/-prenuptial-medical-exams-in-debate-a-proposed-eugenic-intervention-in-brazil-1910-1940
#18
Priscila Bermudes Peixoto
This text results from research undertaken for a master's degree that focused on the proposed introduction of prenuptial medical exams in the early 1900s in Brazil. This was strongly defended by Brazilian eugenicists as a much-needed means of bringing about the racial improvement of the population. The exam would help prevent the marriage and reproduction of individuals considered degenerate or inferior, seen as inadequate for the eugenic development of future generations. The debate in Brazil between doctors and intellectuals who supported the introduction of a law that would make a prenuptial medical exam mandatory is analyzed, as are the controversies and objections voiced by its critics, ultimately helping ensure it was not adopted in the country...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198724/engaging-learners-to-advance-medical-education
#19
Jesse Burk-Rafel, R Logan Jones, Janice L Farlow
Learners are a pillar of academic medicine, yet their voice is seldom heard in national and international scholarly conversations on medical education. However, learners are eager to contribute: in response to a recent open call from Academic Medicine, medical students and residents representing 98 institutions across 11 countries submitted 224 Letters to the Editor on wide-ranging topics. In this Invited Commentary, the authors-three medical students serving in national leadership roles-contextualize several themes discussed in these learner-authored letters...
February 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198309/give-people-with-dementia-a-voice-in-discussions-about-sex
#20
Wendy Perry
In 2015, a 78-year-old man in the US was charged with third-degree felony sexual abuse for having sex with his wife who was living in a care home. One of the factors behind the prosecution was that his wife's daughter felt her mother was unable to give consent for sexual activity.
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
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