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Paulina Schuller, Alejandra Castillo, Gabriele Voigt, Natalia Semioshkina
The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y-1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m-2 and activity concentrations measured...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ellen Jessica Kayendeke, Frank Kansiime, Helen K French, Yazidhi Bamutaze
Papyrus wetlands are predominant in permanently inundated areas of tropical Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and offer both provisioning and regulatory services. Although a wealth of literature exists on wetland functions, the seasonal behaviour of the papyrus mat and function in water storage has received less attention. The objective of this study was to assess the response of the papyrus root mat to changing water levels in a tropical wetland system in Eastern Uganda. We delineated seven transects through a section of a wetland system and mapped wetland bathymetry along these transects...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Candice Y Lumibao, Stephen Formel, Vijaikrishnah Elango, John H Pardue, Michael Blum, Sunshine A Van Bael
The plant microbiome, composed of diverse interacting microorganisms, is thought to undergird host integrity and well-being. Though it is well understood that environmental perturbations like oil pollution can alter the diversity and composition of microbiomes, remarkably little is known about how disturbance alters plant-fungal associations. Using Next-Generation sequencing of the 18S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region, we examined outcomes of enduring oil exposure on aboveground leaf and belowground endophytic root and rhizosphere fungal communities of Spartina alterniflora, a highly valued ecosystem engineer in southeastern Louisiana marshes affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Youqiang Fu, Xujian Yang, Hong Shen
Iron plaque (IP) on root surface can enhance the tolerance of plants to environmental stresses. However, it remains unclear the impact of Fe2+ on cadmium (Cd) toxicity to rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. In this study, the effects of different Fe2+ and Cd2+ concentration combinations on rice growth were examined hydroponically. Results indicated that Fe2+ concentration up to 3.2 mM did not damage rice roots while induced IP formation obviously. Cd2+ of 10 μM repressed rice growth significantly, while the addition of 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hui Han, Xiafang Sheng, Jingwen Hu, Linyan He, Qi Wang
In this study, metal-tolerant bacteria Serratia liquefaciens CL-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis X30 were compared for their Cd and Pb immobilization in solution and impacts on biomass and Cd and Pb uptake in a radish in metal-contaminated soils under field conditions. Strains CL-1 and X30 significantly reduced water-soluble Cd and Pb concentrations (45-67%) and increased the pH in solution compared to the controls. These strains significantly increased the biomass (25-99%) and decreased edible tissue Cd and Pb uptake in the radish (37-81%) and DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb contents (18-44%) of the rhizosphere soil compared to the un-inoculated controls...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Noura Kka, James Rookes, David Cahill
Cell division is a fundamental biological process governed by molecular networks that are initiated in the apical meristems of plants. l-ascorbic acid (AsA) commonly known as vitamin C is a crucial molecular modulator involved in cell proliferation. In this study, we used AsA application to Arabidopsis and four AsA pathway mutants to investigate the influence of AsA on the root apical meristem (RAM) and root growth. Treatment of seeds of wild-type Col-0 with AsA prior to sowing showed a significant increase in the activity of cell division of the RAM, root growth rate and root length when compared with untreated seeds...
June 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Duc Dat Le, Duc Hung Nguyen, Bing Tian Zhao, Jeong Ah Kim, Seok Kyu Kim, Byung Sun Min, Jae Sue Choi, Mi Hee Woo
Four undescribed 23,24-O-isopropylidene-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids and an undescribed 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoid, together with five known 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids, were isolated and identified. In addition, three undescribed iridoid glucosides and four known ones were also identified. All the isolates were identified using spectroscopic techniques, and the absolute configurations of 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids were determined by CD method for the first time...
June 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
Yongwen Guo, Weihua Guo, Jie Chen, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian, Ding Bai
OBJECTIVE: The role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in periodontal formation has been controversial. This study aimed to further clarify whether HERS cells participate in formation of the periodontium, and the necessity of HERS cells in differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs) for periodontal regeneration. DESIGN: HERS cells and DFCs were isolated and identified from post-natal 7-day Sprauge-Dawley rats. In vitro, direct co-culture of HERS cells and DFCs as well as the individual culture of HERS and DFCs were performed and followed by alizarin red staining and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mark A Pacult, Fraser C Henderson, Mathew D Wooster, Abhay K Varma
The authors report the case of a 76 year-old woman presenting with leg pain, numbness and weakness mimicking a lumbosacral radiculopathy. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mild root compression but lumbar decompression afforded only transient symptomatic relief. Post-operative MRI of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic nerve revealed a gluteal venous varix compressing the sciatic nerve just distal to the piriformis muscle. Neurolysis and surgical resection of the offending varix resulted in resolution of her symptoms...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Rebecca Scherzer, Mitchell H Grayson
OBJECTIVE: It is a well-known fact that there is significant heterogeneity in the origins of asthma in adults and children. This article examines the roots of asthma across the ages including atopy, the role of the microbiome and viral infections, along with comorbidities/confounders such as obesity, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), neutrophilic asthma, cigarette smoking and the possibility of an asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Data was taken from various scientific search engines including PubMed and Science Direct databases...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Chi Huang, Tian Xia, Junfeng Niu, Yu Yang, Sijie Lin, Xiangke Wang, Guoqing Yang, Liang Mao, Baoshan Xing
The exciting commercial application of graphene materials will increasingly lead to their release into soils, however, their potential transformation in agricultural crops and associated environmental effects are yet unknown due to difficulty in tracing the material. Our study focused on using carbon-14 labeled few-layer graphene (FLG) to determine its uptake, distribution, transformation, and depuration in rice plants. After 7 d hydroponic exposure to FLG suspension at 250 μg/L, roots accumulated 694.8 mg/kg graphene and shoots had 53...
June 21, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
N L Gerlach
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the pre-surgical assessment of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. For surgical procedures in the mandible, it is important to determine the position of the mandibular canal in order to avoid damage to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The best method to investigate this nerve is with the help of panoramic reconstructed images combined with cross-sectional reconstructed images. To protect the IAN during treatment, this research indicates that a minimal safety zone of 1...
June 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Ai-Min Wu, Kai Zhang, Xun-Lin Li, Xiao-Fei Cheng, Tang-Jun Zhou, Lin Du, Chen Chen, Hai-Jun Tian, Xiao-Jiang Sun, Chang-Qing Zhao, Yan Michael Li, Jie Zhao
Background: The L5 nerve root could be compressed at both L4-5 and L5-S1 regions. If L5 nerve root has confirmed compression at L4-5 level and questionable compression at L5-S1 foramina, performing both surgeries at L4-5 and L5-S1 levels may induce unnecessary extra surgery on L5-S1; however, ignoring foraminal stenosis of L5/S1 may require re-exploration. Methods: Two hundred seventeen patients with L5 nerve root compressed at L4-5 lateral access were performed with L4-5 decompression and interbody fusion...
May 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Kayo Suzuki, Taketoshi Yasuda, Toshihito Hiraiwa, Masahiko Kanamori, Tomoatsu Kimura, Yoshiharu Kawaguchi
Primary cauda equina lymphoma (CEL) is a rare malignant tumor among various neoplasms that affects the cauda equina nerve roots. The present case report described the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with cauda equina syndrome with progressive motor palsy in the legs and gait disturbance over the last 5 months. Magnetic resonance (MR) images showed enlargement of the cauda equina occupying the dural sac from the L1-S1 level with isointensity to the spinal cord signal on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Ali Soltani, Samira MafiMoghaddam, Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi, Katelynn Walter, Patrick J Kearns, Jose Vasquez-Guzman, Sujan Mamidi, Rian Lee, Ashley L Shade, Janette L Jacobs, Martin I Chilivers, David B Lowry, Phillip McClean, Juan M Osorno
Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Seu-Hwa Chen, June-Horng Lue, Yung-Jung Hsiao, Shu-Mei Lai, Hsin-Ying Wang, Chi-Te Lin, Ya-Chin Chen, Yi-Ju Tsai
In this study, we investigated temporal changes in galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2) expression in NF200-, galanin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-like immunoreactive (LI) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI), and the effects of GalR2 on c-Fos expression in the cuneate nucleus (CN). Double immunofluorescence labeling methods were used to appraise changes in GalR2 expression in NF200-LI, galanin-LI, NPY-LI, and nNOS-LI DRG neurons after CCI...
2018: PloS One
Yujuan Zhang, Donghua Li, Yanyan Wang, Rong Zhou, Linhai Wang, Yanxin Zhang, Jingyin Yu, Huihui Gong, Jun You, Xiurong Zhang
The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) family constitutes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, involved in many aspects of physiological processes and a variety of abiotic stresses. There is little information concerning the NAC family in Sesamum indicum. In this study, 87 sesame NAC genes were identified and phylogenetically clustered into 12 groups with Arabidopsis NAC genes. A total of 83 SiNAC genes were distributed non-randomly on the 16 linkage groups in sesame. Four and 49 SiNACs were found to be tandemly and segmentally duplicated, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Soibam Shyamchand Singh, Keilash Chirom, Romana Ishrat, R K Brojen Singh
The breast cancer network constructed from 70 experimentally verified genes is found to follow hierarchical scale free nature with heterogeneous modular organization and diverge leading hubs. The topological parameters (degree distributions, clustering co-efficient, connectivity and centralities) of this network obey fractal rules indicating absence of centrality lethality rule, and efficient communication among the components. From the network theoretical approach, we identified few key regulators out of large number of leading hubs, which are deeply rooted from top to down of the network, serve as backbone of the network, and possible target genes...
2018: PloS One
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
Santiago Sanz-Quinto, Raúl López-Grueso, Gabriel Brizuela, Andrew A Flatt, Manuel Moya-Ramón
Sanz-Quinto, S, López-Grueso, R, Brizuela, G, Flatt, AA, and Moya-Ramón, M. Influence of training models at 3,900-m altitude on the physiological response and performance of a professional wheelchair athlete: A case study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This case study compared the effects of two training camps using flexible planning (FP) vs. inflexible planning (IP) at 3,860-m altitude on physiological and performance responses of an elite marathon wheelchair athlete with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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