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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911404/using-capillary-electrophoresis-to-quantify-organic-acids-from-plant-tissue-a-test-case-examining-coffea-arabica-seeds
#1
Michael Joe Vaughan, Ann Chanon, Joshua J Blakeslee
Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more terminal carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. Short chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs; carboxylic acids containing three to six carbons), such as malate and citrate, are critical to the proper functioning of many biological systems, where they function in cellular respiration and can serve as indicators of cell health. In foods, organic acid content can have significant impact on taste, with increased SCCA levels resulting in a sour or "acid" taste. Because of this, methods for the rapid analysis of organic acid levels are of particular interest to the food and beverage industries...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911139/volumetric-response-of-intracranial-meningioma-after-photon-or-particle-irradiation
#2
Petra Mozes, Jan Oliver Dittmar, Daniel Habermehl, Eric Tonndorf-Martini, Katalin Hideghety, Anne Dittmar, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are usually slow growing, well circumscribed intracranial tumors. In symptom-free cases observation with close follow-up imaging could be performed. Symptomatic meningiomas could be surgically removed and/or treated with radiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the volumetric response of intracranial meningiomas at different time points after photon, proton, and a mixed photon and carbon ion boost irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Group A 38 patients received proton therapy (median dose: 56 GyE in 1...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911034/improved-li-storage-through-homogeneous-n-doping-within-highly-branched-tubular-graphitic-foam
#3
Jinyang Dong, Yanming Xue, Chao Zhang, Qunhong Weng, Pengcheng Dai, Yijun Yang, Min Zhou, Cuiling Li, Qiuhong Cui, Xiaohong Kang, Chengchun Tang, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Xi Wang
A novel carbon structure, highly branched homogeneous-N-doped graphitic (BNG) tubular foam, is designed via a novel N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediated chemical vapor deposition method. More structural defects are found at the branched portions as compared with the flat tube domains providing abundant active sites and spacious reservoirs for Li(+) storage. An individual BNG branch nanobattery is constructed and tested using in situ transmission electron microscopy and the lithiation process is directly visualized in real time...
December 2, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910981/cu-cdots-nanocorals-as-electrocatalyst-for-highly-efficient-co2-reduction-to-formate
#4
Sijie Guo, Siqi Zhao, Jin Gao, Cheng Zhu, Xiuqin Wu, Yijun Fu, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Zhenhui Kang
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a key component of many prospective artificial technologies for renewable carbon-containing fuels, but it still suffers from the high overpotentials required to drive the process, low selectivity for diversiform products and the high cost of the catalyst. Here, we report that Cu-CDots nanocorals is a highly efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction in aqueous solution. The major product of CO2 reduction on the Cu-CDots nanocorals is HCOOH with an inconceivable low overpotential of 0...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910977/acylboranes-synthetic-strategies-and-applications
#5
REVIEW
Florian Korbinian Scharnagl, Shubhankar Kumar Bose, Todd B Marder
An overview of the synthesis and chemistry of acylborane compounds is presented. Acylboranes are a rare class of boron compounds, previously proposed as intermediates in several transformations and considered to be difficult to prepare. Methodologies for the preparation of acylborane compounds are based on both electrophilic and nucleophilic sources of boron. The former methods include addition of electrophilic boron reagents to acyl-anion equivalents, while the latter methods are based on boryl anion reagents which are trapped by electrophiles, such as aldehydes, diethyl carbonate and ethyl acetate...
December 2, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#6
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910777/gastric-adenocarcinoma-biomarker-expression-profiles-and-their-prognostic-value
#7
Serkan Senol, Abdullah Aydin, Duygu Kosemetin, Dilek Ece, Ibrahim Akalin, Hasan Abuoglu, Esra Akdeniz Duran, Dincer Aydin, Burcak Erkol
Expression levels of several molecules implicated in carcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the prognostic significance of their expression levels in gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) was evaluated. A total of 115 GA and 20 control gastric tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using 33 antibodies targeting molecules known to play a part in the development of various tumors. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and loss of AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and CD44 expression in GA patients were significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis, advanced tumor stage, and poor prognosis...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910761/investigation-of-requisites-for-the-optimal-mycelial-growth-of-the-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes-on-oil-palm-biomass-in-malaysia
#8
Surya Sudheer, Asgar Ali, Sivakumar Manickam
Rigorous research has been carried out regarding the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum using different agricultural residues. Nevertheless, large-scale cultivation and the separation of active compounds of G. lucidum are still challenges for local farmers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of oil palm waste fibers such as empty fruit bunch fibers and mesocarp fibers as effective substrates for the growth of G. lucidum mycelia to study the possibility of solid-state cultivation and to determine the optimum conditions necessary for the growth of mycelia of this mushroom on these waste fibers...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910651/fabrication-of-sharp-atomic-force-microscope-probes-using-in-situ-local-electric-field-induced-deposition-under-ambient-conditions
#9
Alexei Temiryazev, Sergey I Bozhko, A Edward Robinson, Marina Temiryazeva
We demonstrate a simple method to significantly improve the sharpness of standard silicon probes for an atomic force microscope or to repair a damaged probe. The method is based on creating and maintaining a strong, spatially localized electric field in the air gap between the probe tip and the surface of conductive sample. Under these conditions, nanostructure growth takes place on both the sample and the tip. The most likely mechanism is the decomposition of atmospheric adsorbate with subsequent deposition of carbon structures...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910579/in-situ-calibration-of-the-foil-detector-for-an-infrared-imaging-video-bolometer-using-a-carbon-evaporation-technique
#10
K Mukai, B J Peterson, S Takayama, R Sano
The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910536/experimental-study-on-the-fluorescence-spectrum-in-the-near-ultraviolet-and-visible-regions-of-a-carbon-dioxide-gas-cerenkov-medium
#11
Xingyin Guan, Huasi Hu, Zhaohui Song, Hetong Han
We investigated the faint fluorescence spectrum of carbon dioxide in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions using an intense relativistic electron beam accelerator with an energy of 0.2-0.3 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out in advance to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio and a self-normalization pulse experimental layout was designed to overcome the shot-to-shot fluctuations in different pulses of the accelerator. Ultimately, the relative proportion sequences in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions of a carbon dioxide fluorescence spectrum were successfully obtained for the first time...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910524/spatially-resolved-thomson-scattering-measurements-of-the-transition-from-the-collective-to-the-non-collective-regime-in-a-laser-produced-plasma
#12
D B Schaeffer, C G Constantin, A S Bondarenko, E T Everson, C Niemann
We present optical Thomson scattering results that image for the first time in a single measurement the spatial transition from collective to non-collective scattering. Data were taken in the Phoenix laser laboratory at the University of California, Los Angeles. The Raptor laser was used to ablate a carbon plasma, which was diagnosed with the frequency-doubled Phoenix laser serving as a Thomson scattering probe. Scattered light was collected from the laser plasma up to 10 cm from the target surface and up to 10 us after ablation, and imaged with high spatial and spectral resolutions...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910523/first-measurement-of-the-edge-charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy-on-east-tokamak
#13
Y Y Li, X H Yin, J Fu, D Jiang, S Y Feng, B Lyu, Y J Shi, Y Yi, X J Zhou, C D Hu, M Y Ye, B N Wan
An edge toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (eCXRS) diagnostic, based on a heating neutral beam injection (NBI), has been deployed recently on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The eCXRS, which aims to measure the plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity in the edge region simultaneously, is a complement to the exiting core CXRS (cCXRS). Two rows with 32 fiber channels each cover a radial range from ∼2.15 m to ∼2.32 m with a high spatial resolution of ∼5-7 mm...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910515/proton-pinhole-imaging-on-the-national-ignition-facility
#14
A B Zylstra, H-S Park, J S Ross, F Fiuza, J A Frenje, D P Higginson, C Huntington, C K Li, R D Petrasso, B Pollock, B Remington, H G Rinderknecht, D Ryutov, F H Séguin, D Turnbull, S C Wilks
Pinhole imaging of large (mm scale) carbon-deuterium (CD) plasmas by proton self-emission has been used for the first time to study the microphysics of shock formation, which is of astrophysical relevance. The 3 MeV deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion proton self-emission from these plasmas is imaged using a novel pinhole imaging system, with up to five different 1 mm diameter pinholes positioned 25 cm from target-chamber center. CR39 is used as the detector medium, positioned at 100 cm distance from the pinhole for a magnification of 4 ×...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910501/multicharged-carbon-ion-generation-from-laser-plasma
#15
Oguzhan Balki, Hani E Elsayed-Ali
Carbon ions generated by ablation of a carbon target using an Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength λ = 1064 nm, pulse width τ = 7 ns, and laser fluence of 10-110 J cm(-2)) are characterized. Time-of-flight analyzer, a three-mesh retarding field analyzer, and an electrostatic ion energy analyzer are used to study the charge and energy of carbon ions generated by laser ablation. The dependencies of the ion signal on the laser fluence, laser focal point position relative to target surface, and the acceleration voltage are described...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910464/a-classification-scheme-for-edge-localized-modes-based-on-their-probability-distributions
#16
A Shabbir, G Hornung, G Verdoolaege
We present here an automated classification scheme which is particularly well suited to scenarios where the parameters have significant uncertainties or are stochastic quantities. To this end, the parameters are modeled with probability distributions in a metric space and classification is conducted using the notion of nearest neighbors. The presented framework is then applied to the classification of type I and type III edge-localized modes (ELMs) from a set of carbon-wall plasmas at JET. This provides a fast, standardized classification of ELM types which is expected to significantly reduce the effort of ELM experts in identifying ELM types...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910401/a-novel-carbon-coating-technique-for-foil-bolometers
#17
U A Sheikh, B P Duval, B Labit, F Nespoli
Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910392/real-time-radiative-divertor-feedback-control-development-for-the-nstx-u-tokamak-using-a-vacuum-ultraviolet-spectrometer
#18
V A Soukhanovskii, R Kaita, B Stratton
A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW. In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase plasma volumetric power and momentum losses. A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration. The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910361/an-ultrafast-reciprocating-probe
#19
Wenbin Liu, Yi Tan, Wenhao Wang, Zhe Gao
For tokamak plasma diagnostics, an ultrafast reciprocating probe system driven by magnetic field coils, achieving a maximum velocity of 21 m/s, is introduced. The probes are attached with a driving hoop made of carbon steel and accelerated by three acceleration coils in series, then decelerated by two deceleration coils and buffer springs and return slowly. The coils with a current of about 1 kA generate a magnetic field of about 1 T. This probe system has been tested on the SUNIST (Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak) spherical tokamak...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910357/diagnostics-for-molybdenum-and-tungsten-erosion-and-transport-in-nstx-u
#20
F Scotti, V A Soukhanovskii, M E Weller
A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-off layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing components which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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