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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#1
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938471/low-vitamin-b12-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-adipose-derived-circulating-mirs-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Manu Vatish, Mohammad Tauqeer Alam, Sascha Ott, Sudhesh Kumar, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Context: Low vitamin B12 (B12) during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal obesity, insulin resistance(IR) and gestational diabetes(GDM). B12 is a key co-factor in 1-carbon metabolism. Objective: We hypothesize that B12 plays a role in epigenetic regulation by altering circulating miRNAs(miRs) during adipocyte differentiation and results in an adverse metabolic phenotype. Design, settings and main-outcome measure: Human pre-adipocyte cell-line(Chub-S7) were differentiated in various B12 concentrations: Control(500nM), LowB12(0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938216/efficient-removal-of-priority-hazardous-priority-and-emerging-pollutants-with-prunus-armeniaca-functionalized-biochar-from-aqueous-wastes-experimental-optimization-and-modeling
#3
Maja Turk Sekulić, Sabolč Pap, Zoran Stojanović, Nikola Bošković, Jelena Radonić, Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
This paper investigates the ability of the phosphoric acid functionalized Prunus armeniaca stones biochar (AsPhA) prepared by thermochemical activation to remove lead (Pb(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), naproxen and chlorophenols from aqueous wastes. The engineered biochar was characterized using the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique. The batch studies were performed by varying the initial pH of the solution (2-9), adsorbent dosage (0...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938201/achieving-enhanced-denitrification-via-hydrocyclone-treatment-on-mixed-liquor-recirculation-in-the-anoxic-aerobic-process
#4
Yi Liu, Hualin Wang, Yinxiang Xu, Qingsong Tu, Xiurong Chen
This work presents the novel application of hydrocyclones for mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) treatment in the anoxic/aerobic (A/O) process to enhance the denitrification process. An exhaustive investigation on treated activated sludge and A/O effluents was conducted in batch and continuous operation tests. The median diameter of the sludge flocs was decreased from 78.82 μm to 15.77-23.31 μm, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) desorption was observed, thus leading to the release of the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)...
September 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938186/electrochemiluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-system-between-gnrs-and-ru-bpy-3-2-application-in-magnetic-aptasensor-for-%C3%AE-amyloid
#5
Hong Ke, Haifeng Sha, Yinfang Wang, Weiwei Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Chusen Huang, Nengqin Jia
Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay has gradually drawn increasing interest in the biomedical analysis. This paper proposed a new methodology for ultrasensitive and facile detection of Alzheimer's disease marker β-amyloid (Aβ) by fabricating a sandwich-type ECL sensing platform. Herein, electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) was employed to determine Aβ concentration, which can be attributed to the quenching effect from RET between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and gold nanorods (GNRs) acting as ECL-RET electron donor and acceptor, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938176/genotypic-differences-in-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l-plants-prospects-for-selection-of-salt-tolerant-landraces
#6
Behrooz Sarabi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Nasser Ghaderi, Jaleh Ghashghaie
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran often cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the country with salinity problems. The objective of this work was to better understand the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress of five Iranian melon landraces "Samsuri", "Kashan", "Khatouni", "Suski-e-Sabz", and "Ghobadlu" from different geographical origins, and "Galia" F1 cultivar. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with half-strength Hoagland solution containing 0, 30, 60, or 90 mM NaCl for 60 days...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938169/effect-of-nitrogen-plasma-afterglow-on-the-1000-1800-cm-1-band-in-ft-ir-spectra-of-amorphous-carbon-nitride-thin-films
#7
Kamal Kayed
The aim of this paper is to develop the understanding of the mechanism which explains the formation of the (1000-1800) cm(-1) band in FT-IR spectra of amorphous carbon nitride thin films prepared by laser ablation method. The study results show that the bonds C(sp(3))N is have significant role in the formation of the (1000-1800) cm(-1) band, and it is necessary to provide a minimum amount of these bonds to be able to contribute in breaking the symmetry of the sp(2) carbon bonds.
September 14, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938156/removal-of-intra-and-extracellular-microcystin-by-submerged-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-combined-with-coagulation-flocculation-and-powdered-activated-carbon-pac-adsorption
#8
Ayşe Büşra Şengül, Gamze Ersan, Neşe Tüfekçi
In this study, we investigated the performance of conventional (coagulation/flocculation→powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) and advanced treatment (coagulation/flocculation→PAC adsorption→submerged ultrafiltration [UF] membrane) processes separately and sequentially for the removal of total (intra- and extracellular) microcystin. Results of the conventional treatment process demonstrated that coagulation/flocculation alone was not effective (up to 70%) for the removal of total microcystin, while the uptake of total microcystin was achieved up to 84% by PAC adsorption (PAC dose of 20mg/L)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938145/six-scalemic-mixtures-of-6-monosubstituted-dihydrobenzophenanthridine-alkaloids-from-chelidonium-majus-and-optically-active-structures-of-enantiomers
#9
An-Jun Deng, Hai-Jing Zhang, Qian Li, Zhi-Hong Li, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Lian-Qiu Wu, Li Li, Hai-Lin Qin
Six pairs of previously undescribed 6-monosubstituted dihydrobenzophenanthridine alkaloids were separated as corresponding six scalemic mixtures from the aerial part of Chelidonium majus. The elucidation for the 2D structures of these alkaloids was achieved using regular spectroscopic and chemical methods. The assignment of scalemic-mixture nature was achieved using combined examinations of their NMR data, CD spectra, calculation of specific rotations, and chiral HPLC profiles. The identification for the relative configurations of alkaloids possessing two asymmetric carbons directly connected up by a rotatable sp(3)-sp(3) carbon-carbon single bond was significantly facilitated by discussing the erythro and threo relative configurations defined by the mutuality of the orders of decreasing steric hindrances between the two sets of ligands linked to the two chiral centers...
September 19, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938113/a-spatial-interactome-reveals-the-protein-organization-of-the-algal-co2-concentrating-mechanism
#10
Luke C M Mackinder, Chris Chen, Ryan D Leib, Weronika Patena, Sean R Blum, Matthew Rodman, Silvia Ramundo, Christopher M Adams, Martin C Jonikas
Approximately one-third of global CO2 fixation is performed by eukaryotic algae. Nearly all algae enhance their carbon assimilation by operating a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) built around an organelle called the pyrenoid, whose protein composition is largely unknown. Here, we developed tools in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the localizations of 135 candidate CCM proteins and physical interactors of 38 of these proteins. Our data reveal the identity of 89 pyrenoid proteins, including Rubisco-interacting proteins, photosystem I assembly factor candidates, and inorganic carbon flux components...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938058/the-gall-wasp-leptocybe-invasa-hymenoptera-eulophidae-stimulates-different-chemical-and-phytohormone-responses-in-two-eucalyptus-varieties-that-vary-in-susceptibility-to-galling
#11
X Q Li, Y Z Liu, W F Guo, M K Solanki, Z D Yang, Y Xiang, Z C Ma, Y G Wen
Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938020/seasonal-variations-in-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-concentrations-and-c-n-p-stoichiometry-in-different-organs-of-a-larix-principis-rupprechtii-mayr-plantation-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#12
Hailiang Li, M James C Crabbe, Fuli Xu, Weiling Wang, Lihui Ma, Ruilong Niu, Xing Gao, Xingxing Li, Pei Zhang, Xin Ma, Haikui Chen
Understanding how concentrations of elements and their stoichiometry change with plant growth and age is critical for predicting plant community responses to environmental change. We used long-term field experiments to explore how the leaf, stem and root carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry changed with growth and stand age in a L. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation from 2012-2015 in the Qinling Mountains, China. Our results showed that the C, N and P concentrations and stoichiometric ratios in different tissues of larch stands were affected by stand age, organ type and sampling month and displayed multiple correlations with increased stand age in different growing seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938019/fabrication-of-3-methoxyphenol-sensor-based-on-fe3o4-decorated-carbon-nanotube-nanocomposites-for-environmental-safety-real-sample-analyses
#13
Mohammed M Rahman, Mohammad Musarraf Hussain, Abdullah M Asiri
Iron oxide ornamented carbon nanotube nanocomposites (Fe3O4.CNT NCs) were prepared by a wet-chemical process in basic means. The optical, morphological, and structural characterizations of Fe3O4.CNT NCs were performed using FTIR, UV/Vis., FESEM, TEM; XEDS, XPS, and XRD respectively. Flat GCE had been fabricated with a thin-layer of NCs using a coating binding agent. It was performed for the chemical sensor development by a dependable I-V technique. Among all interfering analytes, 3-methoxyphenol (3-MP) was selective towards the fabricated sensor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938018/genome-wide-identification-of-bacterial-plant-colonization-genes
#14
Benjamin J Cole, Meghan E Feltcher, Robert J Waters, Kelly M Wetmore, Tatiana S Mucyn, Elizabeth M Ryan, Gaoyan Wang, Sabah Ul-Hasan, Meredith McDonald, Yasuo Yoshikuni, Rex R Malmstrom, Adam M Deutschbauer, Jeffery L Dangl, Axel Visel
Diverse soil-resident bacteria can contribute to plant growth and health, but the molecular mechanisms enabling them to effectively colonize their plant hosts remain poorly understood. We used randomly barcoded transposon mutagenesis sequencing (RB-TnSeq) in Pseudomonas simiae, a model root-colonizing bacterium, to establish a genome-wide map of bacterial genes required for colonization of the Arabidopsis thaliana root system. We identified 115 genes (2% of all P. simiae genes) with functions that are required for maximal competitive colonization of the root system...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937978/a-new-discrete-dynamic-model-of-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-predicts-key-feedback-loops
#15
Réka Albert, Biswa R Acharya, Byeong Wook Jeon, Jorge G T Zañudo, Mengmeng Zhu, Karim Osman, Sarah M Assmann
Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937864/determination-of-seven-pyrethroid-pesticides-residue-in-vegetables-by-gas-chromatography-using-carboxylated-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-as-dispersion-solid-phase-extraction-sorbent
#16
Peng Sun, Yuling Gao, Chong Xu, Yongfu Lian
:A novel carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method combined with gas chromatography (GC) with ECD detection was developed for the determination of seven pyrethroid pesticides in cucumber, spinach, eggplant, tomato and carrot. We optimized d-SPE conditions including the type and volume of the extractant, the type and amount of the sorbent, and shaking time. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range was from 2.0 to 2000 μg kg(-1). The recoveries were from 88...
September 22, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937850/environmental-transport-of-endogenous-dairy-manure-estrogens
#17
Inna E Popova, Matthew J Morra
Although estrogens originating from dairy manure applied to agricultural soils as a fertilizer can potentially contaminate surface water and groundwater, the variables that control transport are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the potential for off-site movement of endogenous dairy cattle estrogens when manure is applied on fields at agronomically relevant fertilization rates. Estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (α-E2), and 17β-estradiol (β-E2) were used in laboratory sorption, desorption, and transformation incubations with both manure and an agriculturally relevant soil...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937751/high-precision-simultaneous-18-o-16-o-13-c-12-c-and-17-o-16-o-analyses-for-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-quantities-of-caco3-by-tunable-infrared-laser-absorption-spectroscopy
#18
Saburo Sakai, Shinichi Matsuda, Toshihide Hikida, Akio Shimono, Barry J McManus, Mark S Zahniser, David D Nelson, David Dettman, Danzhou Yang, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Stable isotope ratios ((18)O/(16)O, (13)C/(12)C and (17)O/(16)O) in carbonates have contributed greatly to understanding of Earth and planetary systems, climates, and history. Current methods for measuring isotopologues of CO2 derived from CaCO3 are primarily gas-source isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). However, IRMS has drawbacks, such as mass overlap by multiple CO2 isotopologues and contaminants, the requirement of careful sample purification, and use of major instrumentation needing permanent installation and a high power electrical supply...
September 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937742/inorganic-nanoparticles-metal-organic-framework-hybrid-membrane-reactors-for-efficient-photocatalytic-conversion-of-co2
#19
James Wainaina Maina, Jurg Schutz, Luke Grundy, Elise Des Ligneris, Zhifeng Yi, Lingxue Kong, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Mihail Ionescu, Ludovic F Dumée
Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to useful products has potential to address the adverse environmental impact of global warming. However, most photocatalysts used to date exhibit limited catalytic performance, due to poor CO2 adsorption capacity, inability to efficiently generate photoexcited electrons, and/or poor transfer of the photo-generated electrons to CO2 molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The integration of inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles across metal organic framework (MOF) materials has potential to yield new hybrid materials, combining high CO2 adsorption capacity of MOF and the ability of the semiconductor nanoparticles to generate photoexcited electrons...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937741/influence-of-carbon-nanotube-characteristics-on-macroscopic-fiber-properties
#20
Dmitri E Tsentalovich, Robert James Headrick, Francesca Mirri, Junli Hao, Natnael Behabtu, Colin C Young, Matteo Pasquali
We study how intrinsic parameters of CNT samples affect the properties of macroscopic CNT fibers with optimized structure. We measure CNT diameter, number of walls, aspect ratio, graphitic character, and purity (residual catalyst and non-CNT carbon) in samples from 19 suppliers; we process the highest quality CNT samples into aligned, densely packed fibers, by using an established wet-spinning solution process. We find that fiber properties are mainly controlled by CNT aspect ratio and that sample purity is important for effective spinning...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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