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Takashi Tomita, Hidekazu Goto, Kenji Sumiya, Tadashi Yoshida, Katsuya Tanaka, Yukinao Kohda
Because adenine is effective for managing cases of radiation-induced and drug-induced leukopenia, it may be effective in cases of antipsychotic-induced leukopenia and neutropenia. Here, we report our experience with patients with leukopenia and neutropenia caused by an antipsychotic overdose or discontinuation of lithium carbonate, in whom adenine administration ameliorated the white blood cell and neutrophil counts. The progress of patients suggests that adenine is effective in cases of leukopenia and neutropenia associated with lithium carbonate discontinuation and an antipsychotic overdose...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jian Wang, Radovan Krejci, Scott Giangrande, Chongai Kuang, Henrique M J Barbosa, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Jennifer Comstock, Florian Ditas, Jost Lavric, Hanna E Manninen, Fan Mei, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Beat Schmid, Rodrigo A F Souza, Stephen R Springston, Jason M Tomlinson, Tami Toto, David Walter, Daniela Wimmer, James N Smith, Markku Kulmala, Luiz A T Machado, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O Andreae, Tuukka Petäjä, Scot T Martin
The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Chang-Gui Pan, You-Sheng Liu, Guang-Guo Ying
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Thi Xuan Trang Nguyen, Marc Amyot, Michel Labrecque
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of diverse plant species (four herbaceous and four woody species) on the labile pool of six metals (Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Se) present in their rhizosphere. After three months of cultivation, concentrations of trace elements (TE) in above and below-ground biomass of each species were determined. The labile and presumably bioavailable fraction of these TE in the rhizosphere as well as key soil parameters (e.g. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), percent of organic matter and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were also measured and compared as a function of plant species...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Ali E Aliev, Sahila Perananthan, John P Ferraris
Thermoacoustic performance of thin freestanding sheets of carbonized poly(acrylonitrile) and polybenzimidazole nanofibers are studied as promising candidates for thermophones. We analyze thermodynamic properties of sheets using transport parameters of single nanofibers and their aligned and randomly electrospun thin film assemblies. The electrical and thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and infrared blackbody radiation are investigated to extract the heat exchange coefficient and enhance the energy conversion efficiency...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu, Ye Yi Zhang, Xiao Ping Zhang
Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment...
2016: PloS One
Sandra Utz, Claus-Christian Carbon
Thompson (1980) first detected and described the Thatcher Illusion, where participants instantly perceive an upright face with inverted eyes and mouth as grotesque, but fail to do so when the same face is inverted. One prominent but controversial explanation is that the processing of configural information is disrupted in inverted faces. Studies investigating the Thatcher Illusion either used famous faces or non-famous faces. Highly familiar faces were often thought to be processed in a pronounced configural mode, so they seem ideal candidates to be tested in one Thatcher study against unfamiliar faces-but this has never been addressed so far...
2016: PloS One
Richard A Boucher, Jürgen Bauch, Dietmar Wünsche, Gerhard Lackner, Anindya Majumder
X-ray detectors based on metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors couple instantaneous measurement with high accuracy. However, they only have a limited measurement lifetime because they undergo permanent degradation due to x-ray beam exposure. A field effect transistor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), however, overcomes this drawback of permanent degradation, because it can be reset into its starting state after being exposed to the x-ray beam. In this work the CNTs were deposited using a dielectrophoresis method on SiO2 coated p-type (boron-doped) Si substrates...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Yongxin Guan, Yangyang Feng, Yanping Mu, Ling Fang, Huijuan Zhang, Yu Wang
Known as an excellent energy storage material, ZnMn2O4 has a wide range of applications in supercapacitors. In this report, a special sandwich-like structure of ZnMn2O4/C has been first designed and synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and subsequent calcinations. The designed special sandwich-like structure can benefit ion exchange and remit the probable volume changes during a mass of electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, the porous carbon nanosheets, derived from low-cost glucose, can effectively increase ion flux...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Deb P Jaisi, Hui Li, Adam F Wallace, Prajwal Paudel, Mingjing Sun, Avula Balakrishna, Bob N Lerch
Degradation of glyphosate in the presence of Mn oxide and UV light was analyzed using phosphate oxygen isotope ratios and density function theory (DFT). Preference of C-P or C-N bond cleavage was found to vary with changing glyphosate:Mn oxide ratios indicating the potential role of sorption-induced conformational changes on the composition of intermediate degradation products. Isotope data confirmed that one oxygen atom derived solely from water was incorporated into the released phosphate during glyphosate degradation and this might suggest similar nucleophilic substitution at P centers and C-P bond cleavage both in Mn oxide- and UV light-mediated degradation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
B Caglar, M Olus Ozbek, J W Hans Niemantsverdriet, C J Kees-Jan Weststrate
The adsorption and decomposition of ethanol on Rh(100) was studied as a model reaction to understand the role of C-OH functionalities in the surface chemistry of biomass-derived molecules. A combination of experimental surface science and computational techniques was used: (i) temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS), reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), work function measurements (Kelvin Probe - KP), and density functional theory (DFT). Ethanol produces ethoxy (CH3CH2O) species via O-H bond breaking upon adsorption at 100 K...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jillian M Petersen, Anna Kemper, Harald Gruber-Vodicka, Ulisse Cardini, Matthijs van der Geest, Manuel Kleiner, Silvia Bulgheresi, Marc Mußmann, Craig Herbold, Brandon K B Seah, Chakkiath Paul Antony, Dan Liu, Alexandra Belitz, Miriam Weber
Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are the primary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host's nutrition. We sequenced genomes of the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes lucinalis and the stilbonematid nematode Laxus oneistus. The symbionts of both host species encoded nitrogen fixation genes. This is remarkable as no marine chemosynthetic symbiont was previously known to be capable of nitrogen fixation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Sten König, Olivier Gros, Stefan E Heiden, Tjorven Hinzke, Andrea Thürmer, Anja Poehlein, Susann Meyer, Magalie Vatin, Didier Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Jennifer Tocny, Ruby Ponnudurai, Rolf Daniel, Dörte Becher, Thomas Schweder, Stephanie Markert
The shallow water bivalve Codakia orbicularis lives in symbiotic association with a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in its gills. The endosymbiont fixes CO2 and thus generates organic carbon compounds, which support the host's growth. To investigate the uncultured symbiont's metabolism and symbiont-host interactions in detail we conducted a proteogenomic analysis of purified bacteria. Unexpectedly, our results reveal a hitherto completely unrecognized feature of the C. orbicularis symbiont's physiology: the symbiont's genome encodes all proteins necessary for biological nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy)...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Hayriye Genç, Ramazan Kalin, Zeynep Köksal, Nastaran Sadeghian, Umit M Kocyigit, Mustafa Zengin, İlhami Gülçin, Hasan Özdemir
β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a-k) were 0.44-6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93-8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Claudia Melis, Rita Meleddu, Andrea Angeli, Simona Distinto, Giulia Bianco, Clemente Capasso, Filippo Cottiglia, Rossella Angius, Claudiu T Supuran, Elias Maccioni
The isatin scaffold is the constitutive fragment of several natural and synthetic bioactive molecules. Albeit several benzene sulphonamide-based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) have been reported, only recently isatin benzene sulphonamides have been studied and proposed as CAIs. In this study we have designed, synthesised, and evaluated the biological activity of a series of differently substituted isatin-based benzene sulphonamides which have been designed for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
M Cebová, M Košútová, O Pecháňová
Gasotransmitters represent a subfamily of the endogenous gaseous signaling molecules that include nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S). These particular gases share many common features in their production and function, but they fulfill their physiological tasks in unique ways that differ from those of classical signaling molecules found in tissues and organs. These gasotransmitters may antagonize or potentiate each other's cellular effects at the level of their production, their downstream molecular targets and their direct interactions...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Zhi Zhou, Guixia Liu, Xiyan Lu
A mild, regiocontrolled coupling of aromatic and vinylic amides with α-allenols to form γ-lactams via rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation has been demonstrated. This [4 + 1] annulation reaction provides an efficient method for the synthesis of isoindolinones and 1,5-dihydro-pyrrol-2-ones bearing a tetrasubstituted carbon atom α to the nitrogen atom with good functional group tolerance. The hydroxyl group in the allene substrate is essential in controlling the chemo- and regioselectivity of the reaction probably by coordination interaction with the rhodium catalyst...
October 24, 2016: Organic Letters
Tarak Karmakar, Sundaram Balasubramanian
Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methyl malonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates of industrial and medicinal importance. Herein, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to delineate the mechanism of the release of product molecules, phenylacetate (PAC) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from the wild-type (WT) and its G74C/C188S mutant enzymes. Both the product molecules follow a crystallographically characterized solvent-accessible channel to come out of the protein interior...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
J Rodrigo Magana, Yury V Kolen'ko, Francis Leonard Deepak, Conxita Solans, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Jonathan P Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Carlos Rodriguez-Abreu
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with high surface area (820 m2/g) have been successfully prepared by a nanocasting approach using silica nanofibers obtained from chromonic liquid crystals as a template. CNFs with randomly oriented graphitic layers show outstanding electrochemical supercapacitance performance exhibiting a specific capacitance of 327 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s with long life cycling capability. Approximately 95% capacitance retention is observed after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, about 80% of capacitance is retained at higher scan rates (up to 500 mV/s) and current densities (from 1 to 10 A/g)...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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