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Yubo Wei, Qiang Zeng, Qiong Hu, Min Wang, Jia Tao, Lishi Wang
Herein, the self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a free radical polymerization method. Combining the advantages of thermo-responsive molecular imprinted polymers and electrochemistry, the resulted biosensor presents a novel self-cleaned ability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous media. As a temperature controlled gate, the hydrogel film undergoes the adsorption and desorption of BSA basing on a reversible structure change with the external temperature stimuli...
July 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Simona Granchi, Enrico Vannacci, Luca Breschi, Elena Biagi
The promising minimally invasive laser thermal therapy technique may be improved if thermal lesions induced into the tissue can be carefully monitored in extension and morphology during the treatment. According to results obtained in several recent experimentations, solutions that avoid tissue carbonization during the treatment have been proposed, in order to allow deeper and longer lasting light penetration in treated tissue and to reduce failures of the applicator tip and fiber optic, dangerous for patients...
July 19, 2017: Ultrasonics
Alexandra Outsiou, Zacharias Frontistis, Rui S Ribeiro, Maria Antonopoulou, Ioannis K Konstantinou, Adrián M T Silva, Joaquim L Faria, Helder T Gomes, Dionissios Mantzavinos
An advanced oxidation process comprising sodium persulfate (SPS) and a novel magnetic carbon xerogel was tested for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a model endocrine-disrupting compound. The catalyst, consisting of interconnected carbon microspheres with embedded iron and cobalt microparticles, was capable of activating persulfate to form sulfate and hydroxyl radicals at ambient conditions. The pseudo-first order degradation rate of BPA in ultrapure water (UPW) was found to increase with (i) increasing catalyst (25-75 mg/L) and SPS (31-250 mg/L) concentrations, (ii) decreasing BPA concentration (285-14,200 μg/L), and (iii) changing pH from alkaline to acidic values (9-3)...
July 24, 2017: Water Research
P Rice, D O'Brien, L Shalloo, N M Holden
A major methodological issue for life cycle assessment, commonly used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from livestock systems, is allocation from multifunctional processes. When a process produces more than one output, the environmental burden has to be assigned between the outputs, such as milk and meat from a dairy cow. In the absence of an objective function for choosing an allocation method, a decision must be made considering a range of factors, one of which is the availability and quality of necessary data...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Wenhui Yao, Kwang-Jin Bae, Myung Yung Jung, Young-Rae Cho
Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings were fabricated on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a spray method. Different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entwined with SiO2 nanoparticles, which originated from the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate, were sprayed to form MWCNTs/SiO2 nanocomposite coatings. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and other analytical techniques...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hao Huang, Yuhui Weng, Lihao Zheng, Bixia Yao, Wen Weng, Xiuchun Lin
The application of fluorescent nanoparticles to the detection of inorganic ions and organic compounds has been attracted wide attention recently. In this paper, an "off-on" method for highly sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) and l-cysteine (l-Cys) or Hg(2+) and I(-) using home-made nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) as fluorescent probe was reported. The N-CQDs with a fluorescence quantum yield of 42.2% were prepared using tartaric acid, citric acid and ethanediamine as the precursors in the oleic acid media...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gerard F Ricardo, Ross J Jones, Mikaela Nordborg, Andrew P Negri
Successful recruitment in corals is important for the sustenance of coral reefs, and is considered a demographic bottleneck in the recovery of reef populations following disturbance events. Yet several factors influence larval settlement behaviour, and here we quantified thresholds associated with light attenuation and accumulated sediments on settlement substrates. Sediments deposited on calcareous red algae (CRA) directly and indirectly impacted coral settlement patterns. Although not avoiding direct contact, Acropora millepora larvae were very reluctant to settle on surfaces layered with sediments, progressively shifting their settlement preference from upward to downward facing (sediment-free) surfaces under increasing levels of deposited sediment...
July 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ana Navas, Marc Oliva, Jesús Ruiz-Fernández, Leticia Gaspar, Laura Quijano, Iván Lizaga
Many ice-free environments in Maritime Antarctica are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to recent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, SSI), where the glacier retreat recorded during the last six decades exposed 17% of this small peninsula, namely a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. In the southern margin of the peninsula, a sequence of Holocene raised beaches and several bedrock plateaus are also distributed...
July 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Bethan M Jones, Sonia Blanco-Ameijeiras, Mervyn Greaves, Maria Huete-Ortega, Mario Lebrato
Upwelling is the process by which deep, cold, relatively high-CO2, nutrient-rich seawater rises to the sunlit surface of the ocean. This seasonal process has fueled geoengineering initiatives to fertilize the surface ocean with deep seawater to enhance productivity and thus promote the drawdown of CO2. Coccolithophores, which inhabit many upwelling regions naturally 'fertilized' by deep seawater, have been investigated in the laboratory in the context of ocean acidification to determine the extent to which nutrients and CO2 impact their physiology, but few data exist in the field except from mesocosms...
2017: PloS One
Bruno Merk, Dzianis Litskevich, Mark Bankhead, Richard J Taylor
A solution for the nuclear waste problem is the key challenge for an extensive use of nuclear reactors as a major carbon free, sustainable, and applied highly reliable energy source. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) promises a solution for improved waste management. Current strategies rely on systems designed in the 60's for the massive production of plutonium. We propose an innovative strategic development plan based on invention and innovation described with the concept of developments in s-curves identifying the current boundary conditions, and the evolvable objectives...
2017: PloS One
Baran Eren, Heath R Kersell, Robert S Weatherup, Christian Heine, Ethan J Crumlin, Cynthia M Friend, Miquel B Salmeron
Using ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM) we show that in equilibrium with 0.01 to 0.2 Torr of methanol vapor, at room temperature, the Cu(100) surface is covered with methoxy species forming a c(2×2) overlayer structure. In contrast, no methoxy is formed if the surface is saturated with an ordered oxygen layer, even when the methanol pressure is 0.2 Torr. At oxygen coverages below saturation methanol dissociates and reacts with the atomic oxygen, producing methoxy and formate on the surface, and formaldehyde that desorbs to the gas phase...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Santigopal Mondal, Subrata Mukherjee, Santhivardhana Reddy Yetra, Rajesh G Gonnade, Akkattu T Biju
Enantioselective synthesis of pyrazolone-fused spirocyclohexenols by the secondary amine-catalyzed cascade reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with α-arylidene pyrazolinones is reported. This formal [3 + 3] organocascade reaction proceeds through a vinylogous Michael-aldol sequence to furnish the spiroheterocycles with three stereocenters including an all-carbon quaternary center in good yields and selectivities. The catalytic generation of α,β-unsaturated iminium ions from enals and tandem dienolate/enolate formation from pyrazolinones are the key for the success of this spiroannulation reaction...
July 27, 2017: Organic Letters
Ryan G Mullen, Edward J Maginn
The original reaction move for the reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (RxMC) method is adapted to align both the position and orientation of inserted product molecules and deleted reactant molecules. The accuracy and efficiency of this move is demonstrated for xylene isomerization in vapor, liquid, and supercritical phases. Classical RxMC requires the ideal gas free energy of reaction ∆G(ideal)rxn as an input. We compare three methods for computing ∆G(ideal)rxn: using tabulated enthalpies and entropies of formation, using the harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor approximations, and using QM/MM alchemical transformation combined with multistate Bennett acceptance ratio...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Chiara Fasciani, Anabel E Lanterna, Javier B Giorgi, Juan C Scaiano
Reduced graphene oxide modified by pulsed laser ablation causes water splitting under visible light illumination (532 nm). When the light source is a pulsed laser, water splitting is accompanied by carbon gasification (CO formation), however conventional (LED) light sources produce water splitting exclusively.
July 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yi Liu, Gang Nie, Zhongzhen Zhou, Lihui Jia, Yunfeng Chen
A copper-catalyzed three-component reaction of methyl ketones, organic azides and various one-carbon (C1) donors has been developed that provides 4-acyl 1,2,3-triazoles in moderate to good yields. While DMF, DMA, TMEDA or DMSO, can serve as the C1 donor, best yields were obtained using DMF. The transformation is proposed to proceed via an oxidative C-H/C-H cross-dehydrogenative coupling followed by an oxidative 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.
July 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Bo Li, Jingwei Zhou, Chad Priest, De-En Jiang
The Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 complex has been shown to be the dominant species of uranyl in different aqueous environments and thermodynamic data of the complexation have been measured accurately recently. However, a detailed understanding of the binding processes with explicit consideration of the water molecules in the presence of common salt ions such as Na+ and Cl- has been lacking. Here we use classical molecular dynamics combined with umbrella sampling to map the complete binding processes and their free-energy profiles leading to formation of the Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 complex from UO22+, CO32-, and Ca2+ in an aqueous NaCl solution to simulate the seawater conditions...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xiaoxing Zhang, Yi Li, Song Xiao, Ju Tang, Shuangshuang Tian, Zaitao Deng
SF6, the most widely used electrical-equipment-insulation gas, has serious greenhouse effects. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas in recent two years, but the environmental impact of its decomposition products is unclear. In this work, the decomposition characteristics of C5F10O were studied based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and density functional theory. We found that the amount of decomposition products of C5F10O, namely, CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, and C6F14, increased with increased number of discharges...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Zezhen Pan, Wenlu Li, John D Fortner, Daniel E Giammar
Surface-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles have high capacity for U(VI) adsorption and can be easily separated from the aqueous phase by applying a magnetic field. A surface-engineered bilayer structure enables the stabilization of nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Functional groups in stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and octadecylphosphonic acid (ODP) coatings led to different adsorption extents (SA≈ OA > ODP) under the same conditions. The impact of water chemistry (initial loading of U(VI), pH, and the presence of carbonate) has been systematically examined for U(VI) adsorption to OA-coated nanoparticles...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Maurizio Prato, Francesca Arcudi, Volker Strauss, Luka Dordevic, Alejandro Cadranel, Dirk Guldi
We report the synthesis and electron donor-acceptor features of a novel nano-hybrid, in which the light harvesting and electron donating properties of a meso-tetraarylporphyrin (TArP) are combined with the electron accepting features of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots (NCNDs). In particular, in a ultrafast process (> 1012 s-1), visible light excitation transforms the strongly quenched porphyrin singlet excited states into 225 ps lived charge separated states. On the other hand, ultraviolet light excitation triggers a non-resolvable transduction of singlet excited state energy from the NCNDs to the porphyrins, followed by the same charge separation observed upon visible light excitation...
July 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Márton Kőrösi, János Madarász, Tamás Sohajda, Edit Székely
A novel, green possibility of the further purification of the diastereomeric salt of 4-chloromandelic acid and 1-phenylethane-1-amine was developed. Gas antisolvent method using supercritical carbon dioxide was applied for the first time to precipitate the diastereomeric salts with increased purity followed by the supercritical fluid extraction of the dissolved diastereomers. The RR-salt can be purified to >99%, while fractionation-based purification of the SR-salt is limited to ~80%. The limiting initial diastereomeric excess correlates strongly with the atmospheric melting eutectic composition of the same salts, which suggests that despite the fast precipitation, the diastereomeric excess of the solid product is not kinetically determined...
July 27, 2017: Chirality
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