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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215006/balancing-ecosystem-function-services-and-disservices-resulting-from-expanding-goose-populations
#1
Ralph Buij, Theodorus C P Melman, Maarten J J E Loonen, Anthony D Fox
As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#2
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214830/hyper-elongation-in-colorectal-cancer-tissue-cerotic-acid-is-a-potential-novel-serum-metabolic-marker-of-colorectal-malignancies
#3
Adriana Mika, Jaroslaw Kobiela, Aleksandra Czumaj, Michał Chmielewski, Piotr Stepnowski, Tomasz Sledzinski
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cells show some alterations of lipid metabolism. Elongation of fatty acids (FA) has not been studied in CRC tissues thus far. The aim of this study was to verify if CRC specimens and normal colon mucosa differ in terms of their levels of very long-chain FAs, a product of FA elongation. Moreover, the expression of elongase genes has been studied in normal tissue and CRC. Finally, we searched for some specific products of FA elongation in serum of CRC patients...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214733/flexible-camphor-diamond-like-carbon-coating-on-polyurethane-to-prevent-candida-albicans-biofilm-growth
#4
Thaisa B Santos, Angela A Vieira, Luciana O Paula, Everton D Santos, Polyana A Radi, Sônia Khouri, Homero S Maciel, Rodrigo S Pessoa, Lucia Vieira
Camphor was incorporated in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to prevent the Candida albicans yeasts fouling on polyurethane substrates, which is a material commonly used for catheter manufacturing. The camphor:DLC and DLC film for this investigation was produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using an apparatus based on the flash evaporation of organic liquid (hexane) containing diluted camphor for camphor:DLC and hexane/methane, mixture for DLC films. The film was deposited at a low temperature of less than 25°C...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214713/comparative-analysis-of-metagenomes-of-italian-top-soil-improvers
#5
Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Rosangela Tozzoli, Valeria Michelacci, Stefano Morabito
Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214626/green-synthesis-of-a-novel-flower-like-cerium-vanadate-microstructure-for-electrochemical-detection-of-tryptophan-in-food-and-biological-samples
#6
J Vinoth Kumar, R Karthik, Shen-Ming Chen, S Marikkani, A Elangovan, V Muthuraj
In this present investigation, we introduced a novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of tryptophan (TRP) based on green pompoms flower-like cerium vanadate (CeVO4). The flower-like CeVO4 microstructure was prepared by the simple hydrothermal treatment with the assistance of urea for the first time. The as-prepared flower-like CeVO4 microstructure was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214604/the-measurement-of-dlno-and-dlco-a-manufacturer-s-perspective
#7
X Giraud, N N Le-Dong, K Hogben, J B Martinot
The simultaneous measurement of the lung transfer factor for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) is now available as a powerful method for studying the alveolar-capillary gas exchange. However, application of the DLNO-CO technique in daily settings is still limited by some technical drawbacks. This paper provides a manufacturer's overview of the measuring principles, technical challenges and current available solutions for implementing the DLNO-CO measurement in to a marketed device. This includes the recent developments in technology for NO sensors, latest findings on NO uptake and new statistical methods...
February 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214548/global-stability-of-an-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenase-taud-and-its-related-complexes
#8
Kate L Henderson, Mingjie Li, Salette Martinez, Edwin A Lewis, Robert P Hausinger, Joseph P Emerson
BACKGROUND: TauD is a nonheme iron(II) and α-ketoglutarate (αKG) dependent dioxygenase, and a member of a broader family of enzymes that oxidatively decarboxylate αKG to succinate and carbon dioxide thereby activating O2 to perform a range of oxidation reactions. However before O2 activation can occur, these enzymes bind both substrate and cofactor in an effective manner. Here the thermodynamics associated with substrate and cofactor binding to FeTauD are explored. METHODS: Thermal denaturation of TauD and its enzyme-taurine, enzyme-αKG, and enzyme-taurine-αKG complexes are explored using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214442/hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-sewage-sludge-under-isothermal-and-fast-conditions
#9
Lili Qian, Shuzhong Wang, Phillip E Savage
We investigated the effects of water loading, sludge moisture content, recovery solvent, and additives on the product yields and compositions from isothermal (673K, 60min) and fast (773K, 1min) hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sewage sludge. The water loading (which affects pressure within the reactor) plays a small role in product yields. The sludge moisture content had a larger effect with the highest biocrude yields (26.8wt% from isothermal HTL and 27.5wt% from fast HTL) being produced from sludge that was 85wt% moisture...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214440/achieving-short-cut-nitrification-and-denitrification-in-modified-intermittently-aerated-constructed-wetland
#10
Jie Hou, Ling Xia, Tao Ma, Yiqing Zhang, Yiyong Zhou, Xugang He
This study aim to enhance nitrogen removal performance via shifting nitrogen removal pathway from nitrate to nitrite pathway. It was demonstrated that nitrite pathway was successfully and stably achieved in CWs by using modified intermittent aeration control with aeration 20min/non-aeration 100min and reducing DO concentration during aeration, nitrite in the effluent could accumulate to over 70% of the total oxidized nitrogen. Q-PCR analysis showed that nitrifying microbial communities were optimized under the alternating anoxic and aerobic conditions, ammonia oxidizing bacteria increased from 7...
February 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214399/magnetite-platinum-nanoparticles-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode-as-electrochemical-detector-for-nitrophenol-isomers
#11
Giles G Gerent, Almir Spinelli
A glassy carbon electrode was modified with magnetite and platinum nanoparticles stabilized with 3-n-propyl-4-picoline silsesquioxane chloride. This chemically-modified electrode is proposed for the first time for the individual or simultaneous electrochemical detection of nitrophenol isomers. Nanoparticles act as catalysts and also increase the surface area. The polymer stabilizes the particles and provides the electrochemical separation of isomers. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents, obtained by differential-pulse voltammetry, of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol increased linearly with increases in their concentration in the range of 0...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214398/effects-of-recirculation-in-a-three-tank-pilot-scale-system-for-pharmaceutical-removal-with-powdered-activated-carbon
#12
Victor Kårelid, Gen Larsson, Berndt Björlenius
The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214122/anaerobic-co-digestion-of-recalcitrant-agricultural-wastes-characterizing-of-biochemical-parameters-of-digestate-and-its-impacts-on-soil-ecosystem
#13
Adele Muscolo, Giovanna Settineri, Teresa Papalia, Emilio Attinà, Carmelo Basile, Maria Rosaria Panuccio
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is a promising alternative to landfilling for reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) and it is encouraged by current regulation in Europe. Biogas-AD produced, represents a useful source of green energy, while its by-product (digestate) is a waste, that needs to be safely disposal. The sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants partly depends on the management of their digestion residues. This study has been focused on the environmental and economic benefits of co-digest recalcitrant agricultural wastes such olive wastes and citrus pulp, in combination with livestock wastes, straw and cheese whey for biogas production...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214121/a-molecular-zoom-into-soil-humeome-by-a-direct-sequential-chemical-fractionation-of-soil
#14
Marios Drosos, Antonio Nebbioso, Pierluigi Mazzei, Giovanni Vinci, Riccardo Spaccini, Alessandro Piccolo
A Humeomics sequential chemical fractionation coupled to advanced analytical identification was applied directly to soil for the first time. Humeomics extracted ~235% more soil organic carbon (SOC) than by the total alkaline extraction traditionally employed to solubilise soil humic molecules (soil Humeome). Seven fractions of either hydro- or organo-soluble components and a final unextractable humic residue were separated from soil. These materials enabled an unprecedented structural identification of solubilised heterogeneous humic molecules by combining NMR, GC-MS, and ESI-Orbitrap-MS...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#15
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#16
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214114/effects-of-salvage-logging-on-soil-properties-and-vegetation-recovery-in-a-fire-affected-mediterranean-forest-a-two-year-monitoring-research
#17
F García-Orenes, V Arcenegui, K Chrenková, J Mataix-Solera, J Moltó, A B Jara-Navarro, M P Torres
Post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Salvage logging (SL) is a common practice in most fire-affected areas. The management of burnt wood can determine microclimatic conditions and seriously affect soil properties. In some cases, the way of doing it, using heavy machinery, and the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation can make this management potentially aggressive to soil. Research was done in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" (E Spain)...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213734/dehalococcoides-and-general-bacterial-ecology-of-differentially-trichloroethene-dechlorinating-flow-through-columns
#18
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, Daniel J McGlinn, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
The diversity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) and/or other organohalide respiring or associated microorganisms in parallel, partial, or complete trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenating systems has not been well described. The composition of Dhc populations and the associated bacterial community that developed over 7.5 years in the top layer (0-10 cm) of eight TCE-fed columns were examined using pyrosequencing. Columns biostimulated with one of three carbon sources, along with non-stimulated controls, developed into complete (ethene production, whey amended), partial (cis-dichloroethene (DCE) and VC, an emulsified oil with nonionic surfactant), limited (<5 % cis-DCE and 95 % TCE, an emulsified oil), and non- (controls) TCE dehalogenating systems...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213731/fungi-based-treatment-of-brewery-wastewater-biomass-production-and-nutrient-reduction
#19
M Hultberg, H Bodin
The beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. In the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. Different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for further work...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213709/high-efficiency-removal-of-triclosan-by-structure-directing-agent-modified-mesoporous-mil-53-al
#20
Rongni Dou, Junya Zhang, Yuancai Chen, Siyuan Feng
In order to expand the potential applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), structure directing agents modified mesoporous MIL-53(Al) (MIL-53(Al)-1) was investigated to adsorb triclosan (TCS) with two different initial concentrations. MIL-53(Al)-1 with high mesoporosity and total pore volume exhibited higher adsorption capacity and 4.4 times faster adsorption of TCS at low concentration (1 mg L(-1)) than that of microporous MIL-53(Al). Also, mesoporous as well as microporous MIL-53(Al) showed significant higher adsorption capacity and two orders of magnitude greater fast uptake of TCS than two kinds of mesoporous-activated carbon...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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