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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#1
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149747/analysis-of-effect-of-particles-on-cake-layer-compressibility-during-ultrafiltration-of-upflow-biological-activated-carbon-effluent
#2
Lu Ao, Wenjun Liu, Minglu Zhang, Xiaomao Wang
Three different hollow-fibre ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were applied to treat upflow biological activated carbon (UBAC) effluent to determine the characteristics of membrane biofouling by microorganisms and particles. At the beginning of filtration, the cake layer formed on the membrane was loose and highly compressible, and the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) rapidly increased. When compressed to a certain extent, cake layer with low compressibility was formed by the accumulated particles and resulted in slower TMP increment...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149738/associations-of-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-with-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Huizhen Sun, Jixuan Ma, Lili Xiao, Limin Cao, Wei Li, Bin Wang, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Exposure to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with inflammatory responses. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are both important inflammatory mediators especially in airways. However, few studies have investigated associations of PAH exposures with FeNO or eCO. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the associations of urinary PAH metabolites with FeNO and eCO levels, and investigate their potential effect modifiers by linear mixed models among 4133 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort in China...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149737/source-apportionment-of-black-carbon-during-winter-in-beijing
#4
Yue Liu, Caiqing Yan, Mei Zheng
Black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 was measured at an urban site in Beijing during winter 2015 using an aethalometer. The characteristics and sources of BC during pollution episodes and clean days were analyzed. The average hourly mass concentration of BC during the study period was 5.31±6.27μg/m(3). BC was highly correlated with PM2.5 (R(2)=0.80), with its concentration ranging from 0.17μg/m(3) in clean days to 35.33μg/m(3) in haze days. Source apportionment results showed that the average contribution of liquid fuel source (e...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#5
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149700/protective-role-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-against-early-blight-disease-in-solanum-lycopersicum
#6
Madhuree Kumari, Shipra Pandey, Arpita Bhattacharya, Aradhana Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Tomato suffers a huge loss every year because of early blight disease. This study focuses on efficient inhibition of Alternaria solani, the causative agent of early blight disease in tomato in vitro and in vivo. Foliar spray of 5 μg/mL of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles in A. solani infected plants resulted in significant increase of 32.58% in fresh weight and 23.52% in total chlorophyll content of tomato as compared to A. solani infected plants. A decrease of 48.57, 30, 39.59 and 28.57% was observed in fungal spore count, lipid peroxidation, proline content and superoxide dismutase respectively in infected tomato plants after treatment with synthesized silver nanoparticles as compared to A...
November 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149638/roles-of-n-and-c-terminal-domains-in-the-ligand-binding-properties-of-cytoglobin
#7
Shumpei Hanai, Hirofumi Tsujino, Taku Yamashita, Ryo Torii, Hitomi Sawai, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Koji Oohora, Takashi Hayashi, Tadayuki Uno
Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a member of the hexacoordinated globin protein family and is expressed ubiquitously in rat and human tissues. Although Cygb is reportedly upregulated under hypoxic conditions both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a physiological function to protect cells under hypoxic/ischemic conditions by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by signal transduction, the mechanisms associated with this function have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies comparing Cygbs among several species suggest that mammalian Cygbs show a distinctly longer C-terminal domain potentially involved in unique physiological functions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149570/seagrass-mediated-phosphorus-and-iron-solubilisation-in-tropical-sediments
#8
Kasper Elgetti Brodersen, Klaus Koren, Maria Mosshammer, Peter Ralph, Michael Kühl, Jakob Santner
Tropical seagrasses are nutrient limited owing to the strong phosphorus fixation capacity of carbonate-rich sediments, yet they form densely-vegetated, multi-species meadows in oligotrophic tropical waters. Using a novel combination of high-resolution, two-dimensional chemical imaging of O2, pH, iron, sulphide, calcium and phosphorus, we found that tropical seagrasses are able to mobilize the essential nutrients iron and phosphorus in their rhizosphere via multiple biogeochemical pathways. We show that tropical seagrasses mobilize phosphorus and iron within their rhizosphere via plant-induced local acidification, leading to dissolution of carbonates and release of phosphate, and via local stimulation of microbial sulphide production, causing reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxides to dissolved Fe(II) with concomitant phosphate release into the rhizosphere porewater...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149558/quantification-of-humic-substances-in-natural-water-using-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots
#9
Yan-Fang Guan, Bao-Cheng Huang, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aqueous environments and plays a significant role in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical circulation. DOM is also capable of forming carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection treatment processes of drinking water. Thus, efficient methods for DOM quantification are highly desired. In this work, a novel sensor for rapid and selective detection of humic substances (HS), a key component of DOM, based on fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots was developed...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149557/enantiospecific-and-iterative-suzuki-miyaura-cross-couplings
#10
Jason P G Rygus, Cathleen M Crudden
The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has emerged as one of the most powerful methods for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds. Though most widely utilized for the synthesis of sp2-sp2 linkages, the use of this reaction to form stereochemistry-bearing sp2-sp3 bonds has received widespread attention over the past decade. This Perspective highlights approaches to the synthesis of enantioenriched molecules via the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Particular focus is placed on the use of enantiomerically enriched organoboron compounds as coupling partners in stereospecific processes, as well as the development of enantioconvergent and group-selective reactions...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149553/cobalt-sulfide-quantum-dots-embedded-n-s-doped-carbon-nanosheets-with-superior-reversibility-and-rate-capability-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#11
Qiubo Guo, Yifan Ma, Tingting Chen, Qiuying Xia, Mei Yang, Hui Xia, Yan Yu
Metal sulfides are promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries due to their large specific capacities. The practical application of metal sulfides in sodium-ion batteries, however, are still limited due to their large volume expansion, poor cycling stability, and sluggish electrode kinetics. In this work, a unique two-dimensional heterostructure of CoSx (CoS and Co9S8) quantum dots embedded N/S-doped carbon nanosheets (CoSx@NSC) is prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The CoSx quantum dots are in-situ formed within ultrafine carbon nanosheets without further sulfidation, thus resulting in ultrafine CoSx particle size and embedded heterostructure...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149534/novel-n-propylphthalimide-and-4-vinylbenzyl-substituted-benzimidazole-salts-synthesis-characterization-and-determination-of-their-metal-chelating-effects-and-inhibition-profiles-against-acetylcholinesterase-and-carbonic-anhydrase-enzymes
#12
Yakup Sarı, Aydın Aktaş, Parham Taslimi, Yetkin Gök, İlhami Gulçin
The novel N-propylphthalimide-substituted and 4-vinylbenzyl-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors were synthesized by N-substituted benzimidazolium with aryl halides. The novel N-propylphthalimide-substituted and 4-vinylbenzyl-substituted NHC precursors have been characterized by using (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis techniques. They were tested for the inhibition of AChE and hCA enzymes and demonstrated efficient inhibition profiles with Ki values in the range of 351...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149529/scalable-fabrication-of-highly-active-and-durable-membrane-electrodes-toward-water-oxidation
#13
Yu Li, Shuangming Chen, Dawei Xi, Yanan Bo, Ran Long, Chengming Wang, Li Song, Yujie Xiong
The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a highly important reaction that requires a relatively high overpotential and determines the rate of water splitting-a process for producing hydrogen. The overall OER performance is often largely limited by uncontrollable interface when active catalysts are loaded on conductive supports, for which polymer binders are widely used, but inevitably block species transportation channels. Here, a scalable fabrication approach to freestanding graphitized carbon nanofiber networks is reported, which provides abundant sites for in situ growing Fe/Ni catalysts with the improved interface...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149482/melatonin-alleviates-low-ps-i-limited-carbon-assimilation-under-elevated-co2-and-enhances-the-cold-tolerance-of-offspring-in-chlorophyll-b-deficient-mutant-wheat
#14
Xiangnan Li, Marian Brestic, Dun-Xian Tan, Marek Zivcak, Xiancan Zhu, Shengqun Liu, Fengbin Song, Russel J Reiter, Fulai Liu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and induction of cold tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of melatonin in modulation of carbon assimilation of wild type wheat and the Chl b-deficient mutant ANK32B in response to elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and the transgenerational effects of application of exogenous melatonin (hereafter identified as melatonin priming) on the cold tolerance in offspring. The results showed that the melatonin priming enhanced the carbon assimilation in ANK32B under elevated [CO2 ], via boosting the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149471/polyaniline-derived-n-doped-carbon-coated-cobalt-phosphide-nanoparticles-deposited-on-n-doped-graphene-as-an-efficient-electrocatalyst-for-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#15
Jingwen Ma, Min Wang, Guangyu Lei, Guoliang Zhang, Fengbao Zhang, Wenchao Peng, Xiaobin Fan, Yang Li
The development of highly efficient and durable non-noble metal electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is significant for clean and renewable energy research. This work reports the synthesis of N-doped graphene nanosheets supported N-doped carbon coated cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanoparticles via a pyrolysis and a subsequent phosphating process by using polyaniline. The obtained electrocatalyst exhibits excellent electrochemical activity for HER with a small overpotential of -135 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 59...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149445/the-influences-of-separators-on-capacitive-deionization-systems-in-the-cycle-of-adsorption-and-desorption
#16
Qihan Yao, Zhou Shi, Qingqing Liu, Zhengyang Gu, Ruihuan Ning
This research focused on the influence of different separator compartments on the performance of capacitive deionization (CDI) cells in terms of brackish water treatment. For comparison, different separators including filter paper(FP), carbon nanotube (CNT), and stainless steel fiber (SSF) on deionization and desorption rate of salt were examined. The best performance was obtained when the CNT separator was packed, followed by SSF and FP. Reducing the cell voltage from 1.2 to 0.4 V decreased the salt removal and electrode regeneration rate of SSF-CDI...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149444/morphology-molecular-structure-and-stable-carbon-isotopic-composition-of-black-carbon-bc-in-urban-topsoils
#17
Yutong Zong, Qing Xiao, Shenggao Lu
Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149397/heavily-graphitic-nitrogen-self-doped-high-porosity-carbon-for-the-electrocatalysis-of-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#18
Tong Feng, Wenli Liao, Zhongbin Li, Lingtao Sun, Dongping Shi, Chaozhong Guo, Yu Huang, Yi Wang, Jing Cheng, Yanrong Li, Qizhi Diao
Large-scale production of active and stable porous carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) from protein-rich biomass became a hot topic in fuel cell technology. Here, we report a facile strategy for synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous nanocarbons by means of a simple two-step pyrolysis process combined with the activation of zinc chloride and acid-treatment process, in which kidney bean via low-temperature carbonization was preferentially adopted as the only carbon-nitrogen sources. The results show that this carbon material exhibits excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity, and higher durability and methanol-tolerant property compared to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst for the ORR, which can be mainly attributed to high graphitic-nitrogen content, high specific surface area, and porous characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149218/carbonaceous-particulate-matter-on-the-lung-surface-from-adults-living-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#19
Michele Galhardoni Padovan, Abigail Whitehouse, Nelson Gouveia, Mateus Habermann, Jonathan Grigg
OBJECTIVES: We therefore sought to identify the exposures associated with lung surface in long-term residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Lung surface carbon were analyzed in 72 autopsy specimens by image analysis. Smoking history, measured PM10 nearest to the home, distance to main road, and distance-weighted traffic density were used as exposure variables. Data are summarized as median (IQR), and compared by Mann Whitney Test, with correlations done by Spearman's correlation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149172/spectroscopic-characterization-of-dom-and-the-nitrogen-removal-mechanism-during-wastewater-reclamation-plant
#20
Lei Wang, Ying-Jun Li, Ying Xiong, Wen-Bing Tan, Lie-Yu Zhang, Xiang Li, Xiao-Shu Wang, Jian-Feng Xu, Tong-Tong Li, Jin-Sheng Wang, Ming-Xuan Cai, Bei-Dou Xi, Di-Hua Wang
The performance of the Sha-he wastewater reclamation plant was evaluated in this study. To remove residual nitrogen after Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2O) treatment, three multistage Anoxic-Oxic (A/O) were added to investigate the nitrogen removal efficiency and its mechanism. In addition, the constituents and evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during wastewater reclamation was also investigated using a method combining fluorescence spectroscopy with fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results suggested that multistage A/O treatment can effectively improve the nitrogen removal ability under low concentrations of carbon sources...
2017: PloS One
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