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Carbon budget

Akira Ijiri, Fumio Inagaki, Yusuke Kubo, Rishi R Adhikari, Shohei Hattori, Tatsuhiko Hoshino, Hiroyuki Imachi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Yuki Morono, Yoko Ohtomo, Shuhei Ono, Sanae Sakai, Ken Takai, Tomohiro Toki, David T Wang, Marcos Y Yoshinaga, Gail L Arnold, Juichiro Ashi, David H Case, Tomas Feseker, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Yojiro Ikegawa, Minoru Ikehara, Jens Kallmeyer, Hidenori Kumagai, Mark A Lever, Sumito Morita, Ko-Ichi Nakamura, Yuki Nakamura, Manabu Nishizawa, Victoria J Orphan, Hans Røy, Frauke Schmidt, Atsushi Tani, Wataru Tanikawa, Takeshi Terada, Hitoshi Tomaru, Takeshi Tsuji, Urumu Tsunogai, Yasuhiko T Yamaguchi, Naohiro Yoshida
Microbial life inhabiting subseafloor sediments plays an important role in Earth's carbon cycle. However, the impact of geodynamic processes on the distributions and carbon-cycling activities of subseafloor life remains poorly constrained. We explore a submarine mud volcano of the Nankai accretionary complex by drilling down to 200 m below the summit. Stable isotopic compositions of water and carbon compounds, including clumped methane isotopologues, suggest that ~90% of methane is microbially produced at 16° to 30°C and 300 to 900 m below seafloor, corresponding to the basin bottom, where fluids in the accretionary prism are supplied via megasplay faults...
June 2018: Science Advances
Rebecca L Maher, Michelle A Johnston, Marilyn E Brandt, Tyler B Smith, Adrienne M S Correa
Bioerosion, the removal of calcium carbonate from coral frameworks by living organisms, influences a variety of reef features, from their topographic complexity to the net balance of carbonate budgets. Little is known, however, about how macroborers, which bore into reef substrates leaving traces greater than 0.1 mm diameter, are distributed across coral reefs, particularly reef systems with high (>50%) stony coral cover or at mesophotic depths (≥30 m). Here, we present an accurate and efficient method for quantifying macroborer densities from stony coral hosts via image analysis, using the bioeroding barnacle, Lithotrya dorsalis, and its host coral, Orbicella franksi, as a case study...
2018: PloS One
Ling Zhang, Shuli Wang, Shuwei Liu, Xiaojun Liu, Jianwen Zou, Evan Siemann
Grassland ecosystems are sensitive to invasions by plants from other functional groups which can alter soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, the effects of plant invasion on net GHG exchanges between soils and the atmosphere, plant production, and global warming potential (GWP) of annual grasslands is poorly understood. To evaluate the impacts of perennial forb invasions on GHG budgets of an annual grassland in China, we measured soil carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes over two years in replicated invaded (dominated by Alternanthera philoxeroides or Solidago canadensis) and non-invaded (dominated by the annual grass Eragrostis pilosa or the annual forb Sesbania cannabina) field sites...
June 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qixiang Cai, Xiaodong Yan, Yafei Li, Leibin Wang
Carbon emissions from human and animals has been neglected by previous studies in estimating the carbon cycle of ecosystem. This study first estimates the spatial-temporal patterns of carbon emissions density from human and livestock respiration among countries around the world from 1960-2014. Then we simulate the soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) to analyze the contribution of human and livestock respiration to total heterotrophic respiration of global ecosystem. Our results show that the respiration of human and livestock respectively contribute more than 1% of the total carbon output from heterotrophic respiration in most countries and affect more than 5% in almost half of the countries...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gui Feng Gao, Peng Fei Li, Zhi Jun Shen, Ying Ying Qin, Xi Min Zhang, Kabir Ghoto, Xue Yi Zhu, Hai Lei Zheng
Mangroves are critical in global carbon budget while vulnerable to exotic plant invasion. Spartina alterniflora, one of typical salt marsh plant grows forcefully along the coast of China, has invaded the native mangrove habitats in Zhangjiang Estuary. However, the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on soil carbon gases (CH4 and CO2 ) emission from mangroves are not fully understood. Accordingly, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the soil CH4 and CO2 emission during growing seasons in 2016 and 2017 at four adjacent wetlands, namely bare mudflat (Mud), Kandelia obovata (KO), Avicennia marina (AM) and S...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicholas J Nidzieko
There are still significant uncertainties in the magnitude and direction of carbon fluxes through coastal ecosystems. An important component of these biogeochemical budgets is ecosystem metabolism, the net result of organismal metabolic processes within an ecosystem. In this paper, I present a synthesis of published ecosystem metabolism studies from coastal ecosystems and describe an empirical observation that size-dependent patterns in aquatic gross primary production and community respiration exist across a wide range of coastal geomorphologies...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryan Guillemette, Ryo Kaneko, Jessica Blanton, Jasmine Tan, Matthias Witt, Samantha Hamilton, Eric E Allen, Mónica Medina, Koji Hamasaki, Boris P Koch, Farooq Azam
Coral reef ecosystems are highly sensitive to microbial activities that result from dissolved organic matter (DOM) enrichment of their surrounding seawater. However, the response to particulate organic matter (POM) enrichment is less studied. In a microcosm experiment, we tested the response of bacterioplankton to a pulse of POM from the mass-spawning of Orbicella franksi coral off the Caribbean coast of Panama. Particulate organic carbon (POC), a proxy measurement for POM, increased by 40-fold in seawater samples collected during spawning; 68% degraded within 66 h...
June 8, 2018: ISME Journal
Didier M de Bakker, Alice E Webb, Lisanne A van den Bogaart, Steven M A C van Heuven, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Excavating sponges are among the most important macro-eroders of carbonate substrates in marine systems. Their capacity to remove substantial amounts of limestone makes these animals significant players that can unbalance the reef carbonate budget of tropical coral reefs. Nevertheless, excavating sponges are currently rarely incorporated in standardized surveys and experimental work is often restricted to a few species. Here were provide chemical and mechanical bioerosion rates for the six excavating sponge species most commonly found on the shallow reef of Curaçao (southern Caribbean): Cliona caribbaea, C...
2018: PloS One
Jun-Wei Yue, Jin-Hong Guan, Lei Deng, Jian-Guo Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du
Background: The spruce forests are dominant communities in northwest China, and play a key role in national carbon budgets. However, the patterns of carbon stock distribution and accumulation potential across stand ages are poorly documented. Methods: We investigated the carbon stocks in biomass and soil in the natural spruce forests in the region by surveys on 39 plots. Biomass of tree components were estimated using allometric equations previously established based on tree height and diameter at breast height, while biomass in understory (shrub and herb) and forest floor were determined by total harvesting method...
2018: PeerJ
Wei Li, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Shushi Peng, Jinfeng Chang, Vincent Chaplot, Sergey Khudyaev, Anna Peregon, Shilong Piao, Yilong Wang, Chao Yue
The net flux of CO2 exchanged with the atmosphere following grassland-related land-use change (LUC) depends on the subsequent temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC). Yet, the magnitude and timing of these dynamics are still unclear. We compiled a global data set of 836 paired-sites to quantify temporal SOC changes after grassland-related LUC. In order to discriminate between SOC losses from the initial ecosystem and gains from the secondary one, the post-LUC time series of SOC data were combined with satellite-based net primary production observations as a proxy of carbon input to the soil...
May 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
Junyi Liang, Jiangyang Xia, Zheng Shi, Lifen Jiang, Shuang Ma, Xingjie Lu, Marguerite Mauritz, Susan M Natali, Elaine Pegoraro, C Ryan Penton, César Plaza, Verity G Salmon, Gerardo Celis, James R Cole, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou, Edward A G Schuur, Yiqi Luo
Climate warming can result in both abiotic (e.g., permafrost thaw) and biotic (e.g., microbial functional genes) changes in Arctic tundra. Recent research has incorporated dynamic permafrost thaw in Earth system models (ESMs) and indicates that Arctic tundra could be a significant future carbon (C) source due to the enhanced decomposition of thawed deep soil C. However, warming-induced biotic changes may influence biologically related parameters and the consequent projections in ESMs. How model parameters associated with biotic responses will change under warming and to what extent these changes affect projected C budgets have not been carefully examined...
May 26, 2018: Global Change Biology
Bastian Maus, Christian Bock, Hans-O Pörtner
Ocean acidification causes an accumulation of CO2 in marine organisms and leads to shifts in acid-base parameters. Acid-base regulation in gill breathers involves a net increase of internal bicarbonate levels through transmembrane ion exchange with the surrounding water. Successful maintenance of body fluid pH depends on the functional capacity of ion-exchange mechanisms and associated energy budget. For a detailed understanding of the dependence of acid-base regulation on water parameters, we investigated the physiological responses of the shore crab Carcinus maenas to 4 weeks of ocean acidification [OA, P(CO2 )w  = 1800 µatm], at variable water bicarbonate levels, paralleled by changes in water pH...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Shi-Bo Li, Po-Hung Chen, Jih-Sheng Huang, Mei-Li Hsueh, Li-Yung Hsieh, Chen-Lu Lee, Hsing-Juh Lin
Mangroves are recognized as one of the richest carbon storage systems. However, the factors regulating carbon sinks in mangrove ecosystems are still unclear, particularly in the subtropical mangroves. The biomass, production, litterfall, detrital export and decomposition of the dominant mangrove vegetation in subtropical (Kandelia obovata) and tropical (Avicennia marina) Taiwan were quantified from October 2011 to July 2014 to construct the carbon budgets. Despite the different tree species, a principal component analysis revealed the site or environmental conditions had a greater influence than the tree species on the carbon processes...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ying Ouyang, Johnny M Grace, Wayne C Zipperer, Jeff Hatten, Janet Dewey
Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rick Bartlett, Maya Elrick, James R Wheeley, Victor Polyak, André Desrochers, Yemane Asmerom
Widespread marine anoxia is hypothesized as the trigger for the second pulse of the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) mass extinction based on lithologic and geochemical proxies that record local bottom waters or porewaters. We test the anoxia hypothesis using δ238 U values of marine limestones as a global seawater redox proxy. The δ238 U trends at Anticosti Island, Canada, document an abrupt late Hirnantian ∼0.3‰ negative shift continuing through the early Silurian indicating more reducing seawater conditions...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Asena Goren, Daniel Ashlock, Ian J Tetlow
Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastid stroma within plant cells, serving a crucial role in the carbon budget of the whole plant by acting as a short-term and long-term store of energy. The highly complex, hierarchical structure of the starch granule arises from the actions of a large suite of enzyme activities, in addition to physicochemical self-assembly mechanisms. This review outlines current knowledge of the starch biosynthetic pathway operating in plant cells in relation to the micro- and macro-structures of the starch granule...
May 17, 2018: Protoplasma
R A Houghton, A Baccini, W S Walker
The apparent accumulation of carbon on land necessary to balance the global carbon budget (previously referred to as the missing carbon sink and more recently labeled the residual terrestrial sink) has perplexed scientists since the first carbon budgets were constructed (Keeling 1973). The magnitude of the sink over the decade 2006-2015 averaged 3.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1 , larger than either the net emissions of carbon from land-use change or the net uptake by the world's oceans (Le Quéré et al., 2016). This article is protected by copyright...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Xuyang Wang, Yuqiang Li, Yinping Chen, Jie Lian, Yongqing Luo, Yayi Niu, Xiangwen Gong
The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part...
2018: PloS One
Derek P Manzello, Ian C Enochs, Graham Kolodziej, Renée Carlton, Lauren Valentino
The persistence of coral reef frameworks requires that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) production by corals and other calcifiers outpaces CaCO3 loss via physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Coral bleaching causes declines in CaCO3 production, but this varies with bleaching severity and the species impacted. We conducted census-based CaCO3 budget surveys using the established ReefBudget approach at Cheeca Rocks, an inshore patch reef in the Florida Keys, annually from 2012 to 2016. This site experienced warm-water bleaching in 2011, 2014, and 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
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