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Carbon budget

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#1
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515575/controls-of-primary-production-in-two-phytoplankton-blooms-in-the-antarctic-circumpolar-current
#2
C J M Hoppe, C Klaas, S Ossebaar, M A Soppa, W Cheah, L M Laglera, J Santos-Echeandia, B Rost, D A Wolf-Gladrow, A Bracher, M Hoppema, V Strass, S Trimborn
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has a high potential for primary production and carbon sequestration through the biological pump. In the current study, two large-scale blooms observed in 2012 during a cruise with R.V. Polarstern were investigated with respect to phytoplankton standing stocks, primary productivity and nutrient budgets. While net primary productivity was similar in both blooms, chlorophyll a -specific photosynthesis was more efficient in the bloom closer to the island of South Georgia (39 °W, 50 °S) compared to the open ocean bloom further east (12 °W, 51 °S)...
April 2017: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493995/influence-of-site-index-on-the-relationship-between-forest-net-primary-productivity-and-stand-age
#3
Ying Yu, Jing M Chen, Xiguang Yang, Wenyi Fan, Mingze Li, Liming He
Previous studies show that forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies pronouncedly with stand age, and these variations play a crucial role in determining forest carbon sinks or sources at regional scales. Some forest carbon cycling models, eg. InTEC (The integrated terrestrial ecosystem C-budget model), calculates annual forest NPP in the long term according to normalized NPP-age relationships and the reference forest NPP at a given age. Therefore, the accurate NPP-age relationship is important for forest NPP estimation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482116/pollution-tolerant-invertebrates-enhance-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-urban-wetlands
#4
Andrew S Mehring, Perran L M Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B Grant, Lisa A Levin
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) flux in sediment cores (n = 103) collected from ten urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia during summer and winter in order to test for invertebrate enhancement of GHG flux...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477048/growth-and-reproduction-respond-differently-to-climate-in-three-neotropical-tree-species
#5
Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, J Julio Camarero
The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated...
May 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442768/synergistic-effect-of-nitrate-doped-tio2-aerosols-on-the-fast-photochemical-oxidation-of-formaldehyde
#6
Jing Shang, Wei Wei Xu, Chun Xiang Ye, Christian George, Tong Zhu
The uptake of formaldehyde (HCHO) on mineral dust affects its budget as well as particle properties, yet the process has not yet been fully investigate. Here, TiO2 and nitrate-doped TiO2 aerosols were used as proxies for mineral dust, and the uptake of HCHO was explored in a chamber under both dark and illuminated conditions. The uptake loss of HCHO on UV-illuminated aerosols is 2-9 times faster than its gaseous photolysis in our experimental system. The uptake coefficient in the range of 0.43-1.68 × 10(-7) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than previous reports on model mineral dust particles...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429251/air-water-co2-and-ch4-fluxes-along-a-river-reservoir-continuum-case-study-in-the-pengxi-river-a-tributary-of-the-yangtze-river-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#7
Yang Huang, Lindsey M W Yasarer, Zhe Li, Belinda S M Sturm, Zengyu Zhang, Jinsong Guo, Yu Shen
Water surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in freshwater reservoirs are closely related to limnological processes in the water column. Affected by both reservoir operation and seasonal changes, variations in the hydro-morphological conditions in the river-reservoir continuum will create distinctive patterns in water surface GHG emissions. A one-year field survey was carried out in the Pengxi River-reservoir continuum, a part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) immediately after the TGR reached its maximum water level...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426780/response-of-spatial-vegetation-distribution-in-china-to-climate-changes-since-the-last-glacial-maximum-lgm
#8
Siyang Wang, Xiaoting Xu, Nawal Shrestha, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Zhiyao Tang, Zhiheng Wang
Analyzing how climate change affects vegetation distribution is one of the central issues of global change ecology as this has important implications for the carbon budget of terrestrial vegetation. Mapping vegetation distribution under historical climate scenarios is essential for understanding the response of vegetation distribution to future climatic changes. The reconstructions of palaeovegetation based on pollen data provide a useful method to understand the relationship between climate and vegetation distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327661/near-surface-heating-of-young-rift-sediment-causes-mass-production-and-discharge-of-reactive-dissolved-organic-matter
#9
Yu-Shih Lin, Boris P Koch, Tomas Feseker, Kai Ziervogel, Tobias Goldhammer, Frauke Schmidt, Matthias Witt, Matthias Y Kellermann, Matthias Zabel, Andreas Teske, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment heated up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324854/accounting-for-urban-biogenic-fluxes-in-regional-carbon-budgets
#10
Brady S Hardiman, Jonathan A Wang, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Jackie M Getson, Mark A Friedl
Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287153/a-significant-net-sink-for-co2-in-tokyo-bay
#11
Atsushi Kubo, Yosaku Maeda, Jota Kanda
Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286541/an-evaluation-of-inexpensive-methods-for-root-image-acquisition-when-using-rhizotrons
#12
Awaz Mohamed, Yogan Monnier, Zhun Mao, Guillaume Lobet, Jean-Luc Maeght, Merlin Ramel, Alexia Stokes
BACKGROUND: Belowground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget cycle. Quantifying fine root growth is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. A better understanding of root system growth is necessary, but choosing the best method of observation is complex, especially in the natural soil environment. Here, we compare five methods of root image acquisition using inexpensive technology that is currently available on the market: flatbed scanner, handheld scanner, manual tracing, a smartphone application scanner and a time-lapse camera...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281070/taking-climate-land-use-and-social-economy-into-estimation-of-carbon-budget-in-the-guanzhong-tianshui-economic-region-of-china
#13
Ting Li, Jing Li, Zixiang Zhou, Yanze Wang, Xiaonan Yang, Keyu Qin, Jingya Liu
Carbon sequestration is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by soil and vegetation, so mapping and valuing the carbon budget by considering both ecological and social factors is an important trend in evaluating ecosystem services. In this work, we established multiple scenarios to evaluate the impacts of land use change, population growth, carbon emission per capita, and carbon markets on carbon budget. We quantified carbon sinks (aboveground and belowground) under different scenarios, using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model and an improved carbon cycle process model, and studied carbon sources caused by human activities by analyzing the spatial distribution of human population and carbon emission per capita...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262366/quantification-of-the-urban-water-energy-nexus-in-m%C3%A3-xico-city-m%C3%A3-xico-with-an-assessment-of-water-system-related-carbon-emissions
#14
Adrián Moredia Valek, Janez Sušnik, Stelios Grafakos
Global urbanisation will put considerable stress on both water and energy resources. While there is much research at the national and regional levels on the energy implications of water supply (the urban water-energy 'nexus'), there is relatively little at the city scale. This literature is further diminished when attempting to account for the climate impact of urban water systems. A study of the urban water-energy-climate nexus is presented for México City. It is shown that 50% of México City water comes from a local aquifer with a further 30% deriving from energy-intensive surface sources which are pumped over considerable topography...
March 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259437/potential-of-land-use-activities-to-offset-road-traffic-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-central-spain
#15
Álvaro Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Rosa M Martín-Aranda, Rubén Díaz-Sierra
The transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases, adding in Spain near a quarter of the total national emissions, the majority in road transport. Therefore, road contribution to climate change should be mitigated to achieve the proposed goals in the fight against climate change. Policies and strategies suggest several preventive mitigation options, but have paid little attention to compensatory mitigation. We have conducted a theoretical case study in a Spanish province, Segovia, estimating the carbon dioxide emissions in the road network between 2015 and 2050, and analysing different compensation possibilities through conservation agriculture, agroforestry, afforestation and hedgerow plantation...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238376/carbon-budget-of-a-rainfed-spring-maize-cropland-with-straw-returning-on-the-loess-plateau-china
#16
Xiang Gao, Fengxue Gu, Weiping Hao, Xurong Mei, Haoru Li, Daozhi Gong, Lili Mao, Zuguang Zhang
Assessing the carbon budget of rainfed agricultural ecosystems is a vital component in the process of estimating the global carbon balance. We used eddy covariance techniques combined with soil respiration measurements to estimate the carbon budget of a rainfed spring maize field where straw returning was practiced, on the Loess Plateau, China, during 2012-2014. Carbon fluxes and their components (except heterotrophic respiration, Rh) exhibited single-peak seasonal patterns, and linear relationships were found between daily gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and between daily GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re), with goodness of fit value of 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235731/carbon-dynamics-on-agricultural-land-reverting-to-woody-land-in-ontario-canada
#17
Mihai F Voicu, Cindy Shaw, Werner A Kurz, Ted Huffman, Jiangui Liu, Max Fellows
The 2015 Paris Agreement reinforces the importance of the land sector and its contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. Thus, there is growing interest in improving estimates of the GHG balance in response to land-use changes (LUCs) involving agriculture and forestry, for national-scale reporting, and for carbon (C) offsets. Large agricultural areas in Europe, Russia and North America are reverting to forest, either naturally or through planting, after abandonment of agricultural land, and this trend may have a substantial impact on carbon budgets...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220128/effect-of-leaf-water-potential-on-internal-humidity-and-co2-dissolution-reverse-transpiration-and-improved-water-use-efficiency-under-negative-pressure
#18
Timo Vesala, Sanna Sevanto, Tiia Grönholm, Yann Salmon, Eero Nikinmaa, Pertti Hari, Teemu Hölttä
The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but with much lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#19
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208227/integrating-remotely-sensed-fires-for-predicting-deforestation-for-redd
#20
Dolors Armenteras, Cerian Gibbes, Jesús A Anaya, Liliana M Dávalos
Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as to conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems...
February 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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