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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628949/photosynthate-partitioning-to-starch-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-insensitive-to-light-intensity-but-sensitive-to-photoperiod-due-to-a-restriction-on-growth-in-the-light-in-short-photoperiods
#1
Virginie Mengin, Eva-Theresa Pyl, Thiago Alexandre Moraes, Ronan Sulpice, Nicole Krohn, Beatrice Encke, Mark Stitt
Photoperiod duration can be predicted from previous days but irradiance fluctuates in an unpredictable manner. To investigate how allocation to starch responds to changes in these two environmental variables, Arabidopsis Col-0 was grown in a 6-h and a 12-h photoperiod at three different irradiances. The absolute rate of starch accumulation increased when photoperiod duration was shortened and when irradiance was increased. The proportion of photosynthate allocated to starch increased strongly when photoperiod duration was decreased but only slightly when irradiance was decreased...
June 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628676/a-human-scale-perspective-on-global-warming-zero-emission-year-and-personal-quotas
#2
Alberto de la Fuente, Maisa Rojas, Claudia Mac Lean
This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the "well below 2°C" warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611453/adaptive-carbon-allocation-by-plants-enhances-the-terrestrial-carbon-sink
#3
Jiangzhou Xia, Wenping Yuan, Ying-Ping Wang, Quanguo Zhang
Carbon allocation is one of the most important physiological processes to optimize the plant growth, which exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. However, it remains unclear how the carbon allocation pattern has changed at global scale and impacted terrestrial carbon uptake. Based on the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model, this study shows the increasing partitioning ratios to leaf and wood and reducing ratio to root globally from 1979 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596620/respiratory-oxygen-consumption-in-the-seagrass-zostera-marina-varies-on-a-diel-basis-and-is-partly-affected-by-light
#4
Lina M Rasmusson, Chiara Lauritano, Gabriele Procaccini, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Mats Björk
The seagrass Zostera marina is an important marine ecosystem engineer, greatly influencing oxygen and carbon fluctuations in temperate coastal areas. Although photosynthetically driven gas fluxes are well studied, the impact of the plant's mitochondrial respiration on overall CO2 and O2 fluxes in marine vegetated areas is not yet understood. Likewise, the gene expression in relation to the respiratory pathway has not been well analyzed in seagrasses. This study uses a combined approach, studying respiratory oxygen consumption rates in darkness simultaneously with changes in gene expression, with the aim of examining how respiratory oxygen consumption fluctuates on a diel basis...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585372/widespread-production-of-nonmicrobial-greenhouse-gases-in-soils
#5
Bin Wang, Manuel Lerdau, Yongli He
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) are the three most important greenhouse gases (GHGs), and all show large uncertainties in their atmospheric budgets. Soils of natural and managed ecosystems play an extremely important role in modulating their atmospheric abundance. Mechanisms underlying the exchange of these GHGs at the soil-atmosphere interface are often assumed to be exclusively microbe-mediated (M-GHGs). We argue that it is a widespread phenomenon for soil systems to produce GHGs through nonmicrobial pathways (NM-GHGs) based on a review of the available evidence accumulated over the past half century...
June 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582677/fast-and-safe-gas-detection-from-underground-coal-fire-by-drone-fly-over
#6
Lucila Dunnington, Masami Nakagawa
Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580624/coupled-effects-of-wind-storms-and-drought-on-tree-mortality-across-115-forest-stands-from-the-western-alps-and-the-jura-mountains
#7
Katalin Csilléry, Georges Kunstler, Benoît Courbaud, Denis Allard, Pierre Lassegues, Klaus Haslinger, Barry Gardiner
Damage due to wind storms and droughts are increasing in many temperate forest, yet little is known about the long-term roles of these key climatic factors in forest dynamics and in the carbon budget. The objective of this study was to estimate individual and coupled effects of droughts and wind-storms on adult tree mortality across a 31-year period in 115 managed, mixed-coniferous forest stands from the Western Alps and the Jura mountains. For each stand, yearly mortality was inferred from management records, yearly drought from interpolated fields of monthly temperature, precipitation and soil water holding capacity, and wind-storms from interpolated fields of daily maximum wind-speed...
June 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575781/estimation-of-global-soil-respiration-by-accounting-for-land-use-changes-derived-from-remote-sensing-data
#8
Minaco Adachi, Akihiko Ito, Seiichiro Yonemura, Wataru Takeuchi
Soil respiration is one of the largest carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems. Estimating global soil respiration is difficult because of its high spatiotemporal variability and sensitivity to land-use change. Satellite monitoring provides useful data for estimating the global carbon budget, but few studies have estimated global soil respiration using satellite data. We provide preliminary insights into the estimation of global soil respiration in 2001 and 2009 using empirically derived soil temperature equations for 17 ecosystems obtained by field studies, as well as MODIS climate data and land-use maps at a 4-km resolution...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574203/microbial-network-phylogenetic-diversity-and-community-membership-in-the-active-layer-across-a-permafrost-thaw-gradient
#9
Rhiannon Mondav, Carmody K McCalley, Suzanne B Hodgkins, Steve Frolking, Scott R Saleska, Virginia I Rich, Jeff P Chanton, Patrick M Crill
Biogenic production and release of methane (CH4 ) from thawing permafrost has the potential to be a strong source of radiative forcing. We investigated changes in the active layer microbial community of three sites representative of distinct permafrost thaw stages at a palsa mire in northern Sweden. The palsa sites with intact permafrost, and low radiative forcing signature had a phylogenetically clustered community dominated by Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The bog with thawing permafrost and low radiative forcing signature was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens and Acidobacteria, had lower alpha diversity, and midrange phylogenetic clustering, characteristic of ecosystem disturbance affecting habitat filtering, shifting from palsa-like to fen-like at the waterline...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559346/increased-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-arctic-peatlands-after-permafrost-thaw
#10
Carolina Voigt, Maija E Marushchak, Richard E Lamprecht, Marcin Jackowicz-Korczyński, Amelie Lindgren, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lars Granlund, Torben R Christensen, Teemu Tahvanainen, Pertti J Martikainen, Christina Biasi
Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing, exposing large carbon and nitrogen stocks for decomposition. Gaseous carbon release from Arctic soils due to permafrost thawing is known to be substantial, but growing evidence suggests that Arctic soils may also be relevant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we show that N2O emissions from subarctic peatlands increase as the permafrost thaws. In our study, the highest postthaw emissions occurred from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in permafrost peatlands, where permafrost thaw caused a fivefold increase in emissions (0...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536983/temporal-dynamics-and-vertical-variations-in-stem-co2-efflux-of-styphnolobium-japonicum
#11
Fengsen Han, Xiaolin Wang, Hongxuan Zhou, Yuanzheng Li, Dan Hu
CO2 efflux (ECO2) from stems and branches is highly variable within trees. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the temporal dynamics and vertical variations in ECO2, we measured the stem ECO2 by infrared gas analysis (IRGA) and meteorological conditions at 10 different heights from 0.1 to 3.7 m aboveground on two consecutive days every month for 1 year in six Styphnolobium japonicum trees with a similar size. The results indicated that the seasonal change in ECO2 roughly followed the seasonal variations in woody tissue temperature (TW) and stem radial diameter increment (Di)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#12
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515575/controls-of-primary-production-in-two-phytoplankton-blooms-in-the-antarctic-circumpolar-current
#13
C J M Hoppe, C Klaas, S Ossebaar, M A Soppa, W Cheah, L M Laglera, J Santos-Echeandia, B Rost, D A Wolf-Gladrow, A Bracher, M Hoppema, V Strass, S Trimborn
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has a high potential for primary production and carbon sequestration through the biological pump. In the current study, two large-scale blooms observed in 2012 during a cruise with R.V. Polarstern were investigated with respect to phytoplankton standing stocks, primary productivity and nutrient budgets. While net primary productivity was similar in both blooms, chlorophyll a -specific photosynthesis was more efficient in the bloom closer to the island of South Georgia (39 °W, 50 °S) compared to the open ocean bloom further east (12 °W, 51 °S)...
April 2017: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493995/influence-of-site-index-on-the-relationship-between-forest-net-primary-productivity-and-stand-age
#14
Ying Yu, Jing M Chen, Xiguang Yang, Wenyi Fan, Mingze Li, Liming He
Previous studies show that forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies pronouncedly with stand age, and these variations play a crucial role in determining forest carbon sinks or sources at regional scales. Some forest carbon cycling models, eg. InTEC (The integrated terrestrial ecosystem C-budget model), calculates annual forest NPP in the long term according to normalized NPP-age relationships and the reference forest NPP at a given age. Therefore, the accurate NPP-age relationship is important for forest NPP estimation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482116/pollution-tolerant-invertebrates-enhance-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-urban-wetlands
#15
Andrew S Mehring, Perran L M Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B Grant, Lisa A Levin
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) flux in sediment cores (n = 103) collected from ten urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia during summer and winter in order to test for invertebrate enhancement of GHG flux...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477048/growth-and-reproduction-respond-differently-to-climate-in-three-neotropical-tree-species
#16
Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, J Julio Camarero
The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442768/synergistic-effect-of-nitrate-doped-tio2-aerosols-on-the-fast-photochemical-oxidation-of-formaldehyde
#17
Jing Shang, Wei Wei Xu, Chun Xiang Ye, Christian George, Tong Zhu
The uptake of formaldehyde (HCHO) on mineral dust affects its budget as well as particle properties, yet the process has not yet been fully investigate. Here, TiO2 and nitrate-doped TiO2 aerosols were used as proxies for mineral dust, and the uptake of HCHO was explored in a chamber under both dark and illuminated conditions. The uptake loss of HCHO on UV-illuminated aerosols is 2-9 times faster than its gaseous photolysis in our experimental system. The uptake coefficient in the range of 0.43-1.68 × 10(-7) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than previous reports on model mineral dust particles...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429251/air-water-co2-and-ch4-fluxes-along-a-river-reservoir-continuum-case-study-in-the-pengxi-river-a-tributary-of-the-yangtze-river-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#18
Yang Huang, Lindsey M W Yasarer, Zhe Li, Belinda S M Sturm, Zengyu Zhang, Jinsong Guo, Yu Shen
Water surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in freshwater reservoirs are closely related to limnological processes in the water column. Affected by both reservoir operation and seasonal changes, variations in the hydro-morphological conditions in the river-reservoir continuum will create distinctive patterns in water surface GHG emissions. A one-year field survey was carried out in the Pengxi River-reservoir continuum, a part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) immediately after the TGR reached its maximum water level...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426780/response-of-spatial-vegetation-distribution-in-china-to-climate-changes-since-the-last-glacial-maximum-lgm
#19
Siyang Wang, Xiaoting Xu, Nawal Shrestha, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Zhiyao Tang, Zhiheng Wang
Analyzing how climate change affects vegetation distribution is one of the central issues of global change ecology as this has important implications for the carbon budget of terrestrial vegetation. Mapping vegetation distribution under historical climate scenarios is essential for understanding the response of vegetation distribution to future climatic changes. The reconstructions of palaeovegetation based on pollen data provide a useful method to understand the relationship between climate and vegetation distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327661/near-surface-heating-of-young-rift-sediment-causes-mass-production-and-discharge-of-reactive-dissolved-organic-matter
#20
Yu-Shih Lin, Boris P Koch, Tomas Feseker, Kai Ziervogel, Tobias Goldhammer, Frauke Schmidt, Matthias Witt, Matthias Y Kellermann, Matthias Zabel, Andreas Teske, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment heated up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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