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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106070/key-sources-and-seasonal-dynamics-of-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-from-yak-grazing-systems-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#1
Yang Liu, Caiyu Yan, Cory Matthew, Brennon Wood, Fujiang Hou
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock grazing systems are contributing to global warming. To examine the influence of yak grazing systems on GHG fluxes and relationships between GHG fluxes and environmental factors, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes over three key seasons in 2012 and 2013 from a range of potential sources, including: alpine meadows, dung patches, manure heaps and yak night pens, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We also estimated the total annual global warming potential (GWP, CO2-equivalents) from family farm grazing yaks using our measured results and other published data...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089534/in-situ-measurements-of-light-absorbing-impurities-in-snow-of-glacier-on-mt-yulong-and-implications-for-radiative-forcing-estimates
#2
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Shi, Rukumesh Paudyal, Yuanqing He, Gang Li, Shijin Wang, Tao Pu, Xiaoyi Shi
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074021/the-assimilation-of-diazotroph-derived-nitrogen-by-scleractinian-corals-depends-on-their-metabolic-status
#3
Vanessa N Bednarz, Renaud Grover, Jean-François Maguer, Maoz Fine, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
: Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of (15)N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073055/co2-emissions-from-german-drinking-water-reservoirs
#4
Helmi Saidi, Matthias Koschorreck
Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065819/aquatic-bacterial-diversity-magnitude-dynamics-and-controlling-factors
#5
REVIEW
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Javid A Parray, Suhaib A Bandh
The primary aspiration in the microbial observatory is to advance the understanding of freshwater bacterioplankton, whose diversity and population dynamics are currently the least understood off all freshwater planktonic organisms. Through identification and characterization of bacterial populations in a suite of fresh water bodies, we are able to gain significant new insight into the ecological niches of bacteria in diverse freshwater ecosystems. Given the facts that lakes and other inland freshwaters play a more critical role in the global carbon budget and that lakes have been described as early indicators of both regional and global environmental change, the role of microbes in these processes is of renewed interest...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049821/ancient-human-disturbances-may-be-skewing-our-understanding-of-amazonian-forests
#6
Crystal N H McMichael, Frazer Matthews-Bird, William Farfan-Rios, Kenneth J Feeley
Although the Amazon rainforest houses much of Earth's biodiversity and plays a major role in the global carbon budget, estimates of tree biodiversity originate from fewer than 1,000 forest inventory plots, and estimates of carbon dynamics are derived from fewer than 200 recensus plots. It is well documented that the pre-European inhabitants of Amazonia actively transformed and modified the forest in many regions before their population collapse around 1491 AD; however, the impacts of these ancient disturbances remain entirely unaccounted for in the many highly influential studies using Amazonian forest plots...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018300/viral-lysis-of-photosynthesizing-microbes-as-a-mechanism-for-calcium-carbonate-nucleation-in-seawater
#7
John T Lisle, Lisa L Robbins
Removal of carbon through the precipitation and burial of calcium carbonate in marine sediments constitutes over 70% of the total carbon on Earth and is partitioned between coastal and pelagic zones. The precipitation of authigenic calcium carbonate in seawater, however, has been hotly debated because despite being in a supersaturated state, there is an absence of persistent precipitation. One of the explanations for this paradox is the geochemical conditions in seawater cannot overcome the activation energy barrier for the first step in any precipitation reaction; nucleation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013537/methylmercury-mass-budgets-and-distribution-characteristics-in-the-western-pacific-ocean
#8
Hyunji Kim, Anne L Soerensen, Jin Hur, Lars-Eric Heimburger, Doshik Hahm, Tae Siek Rhee, Seam Noh, Seunghee Han
Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in marine organisms poses serious ecosystem and human health risk, yet the sources of MeHg in the surface and subsurface ocean remain uncertain. Here, we report the first MeHg mass budget for the Western Pacific Ocean estimated based on cruise observations. We found the major net source of MeHg in surface water to be vertical diffusion from the subsurface layer (1.8 to 12 nmol m-2 yr-1). A higher upward diffusion in the North Pacific (12 nmol m-2 yr-1) than in the Equatorial Pacific (1...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012649/reservoirs-as-hotspots-of-fluvial-carbon-cycling-in-peatland-catchments
#9
A G Stimson, T E H Allott, S Boult, M G Evans
Inland water bodies are recognised as dynamic sites of carbon processing, and lakes and reservoirs draining peatland soils are particularly important, due to the potential for high carbon inputs combined with long water residence times. A carbon budget is presented here for a water supply reservoir (catchment area~9km(2)) draining an area of heavily eroded upland peat in the South Pennines, UK. It encompasses a two year dataset and quantifies reservoir dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2(aq)) inputs and outputs...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996017/do-invasive-quagga-mussels-alter-co2-dynamics-in-the-laurentian-great-lakes
#10
Peng Lin, Laodong Guo
The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992954/the-global-pyrogenic-carbon-cycle-and-its-impact-on-the-level-of-atmospheric-co2-over-past-and-future-centuries
#11
Jean-Sébastien Landry, H Damon Matthews
The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates...
December 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982443/the-use-of-nh4-rather-than-no3-affects-cell-stoichiometry-c-allocation-photosynthesis-and-growth-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-sp-utex-lb-2380-only-when-energy-is-limiting
#12
Zuoxi Ruan, Mario Giordano
The assimilation of N-NO3(-) requires more energy than that of N-NH4(+) . This becomes relevant when energy is limiting and may impinge differently on cell energy budget depending on depth, time of the day and season. We hypothesize that N-limited and energy-limited cells of the oceanic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. differ in their response to the N source with respect to growth, elemental stoichiometry and carbon allocation. Under N limitation, cells retained almost absolute homeostasis of elemental and organic composition, and the use of NH4(+) did not stimulate growth...
November 5, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966643/simulated-effects-of-nitrogen-saturation-on-the-global-carbon-budget-using-the-ibis-model
#13
Xuehe Lu, Hong Jiang, Jinxun Liu, Xiuying Zhang, Jiaxin Jin, Qiuan Zhu, Zhen Zhang, Changhui Peng
Over the past 100 years, human activity has greatly changed the rate of atmospheric N (nitrogen) deposition in terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in N saturation in some regions of the world. The contribution of N saturation to the global carbon budget remains uncertain due to the complicated nature of C-N (carbon-nitrogen) interactions and diverse geography. Although N deposition is included in most terrestrial ecosystem models, the effect of N saturation is frequently overlooked. In this study, the IBIS (Integrated BIosphere Simulator) was used to simulate the global-scale effects of N saturation during the period 1961-2009...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966534/evaluating-the-convergence-between-eddy-covariance-and-biometric-methods-for-assessing-carbon-budgets-of-forests
#14
M Campioli, Y Malhi, S Vicca, S Luyssaert, D Papale, J Peñuelas, M Reichstein, M Migliavacca, M A Arain, I A Janssens
The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different estimates of NEP, but comparable ecosystem respiration and gross primary production for forest ecosystems globally. Discrepancies between methods are not related to environmental or stand variables, but are consistently more pronounced for boreal forests where carbon fluxes are smaller...
December 14, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935187/holocene-carbon-dynamics-at-the-forest-steppe-ecotone-of-southern-siberia
#15
Anson William Mackay, Alistair W R Seddon, Melanie J Leng, Georg Heumann, David W Morley, Natalia Piotrowska, Patrick Rioual, Sarah Roberts, George E A Swann
The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ(13) CTOC )...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932219/the-effects-of-long-term-management-on-patterns-of-carbon-storage-in-a-northern-highbush-blueberry-production-system
#16
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924399/current-and-future-carbon-budget-at-takayama-site-japan-evaluated-by-a-regional-climate-model-and-a-process-based-terrestrial-ecosystem-model
#17
Masatoshi Kuribayashi, Nam-Jin Noh, Taku M Saitoh, Akihiko Ito, Yasutaka Wakazuki, Hiroyuki Muraoka
Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913023/in-stream-metabolism-and-atmospheric-carbon-sequestration-in-a-groundwater-fed-karst-stream
#18
Junbing Pu, Jianhong Li, Mitra B Khadka, Jonathan B Martin, Tao Zhang, Shi Yu, Daoxian Yuan
Atmospheric carbon sequestered in karst systems through dissolution of carbonate minerals is considered to have no net effect on long-term regional and global carbon budgets because precipitation of dissolved carbonate minerals emits CO2 back to the atmosphere. Even though recent studies have implied that rapid kinetics of carbonate dissolution coupled with the aquatic photosynthetic uptake of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) could facilitate a stable atmospheric C sink in karst rivers and streams, little is known about the magnitudes and long-term stability of this C sink...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898193/modeling-long-term-changes-in-tundra-carbon-balance-following-wildfire-climate-change-and-potential-nutrient-addition
#19
Yueyang Jiang, Edward B Rastetter, Gaius R Shaver, Adrian V Rocha, Qianlai Zhuang, Bonnie L Kwiatkowski
To investigate the underlying mechanisms that control long-term recovery of tundra carbon (C) and nutrients after fire, we employed the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to simulate 200-yr post-fire changes in the biogeochemistry of three sites along a burn severity gradient in response to increases in air temperature, CO2 concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, and phosphorus (P) weathering rates. The simulations were conducted for severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned arctic tundra. Our simulations indicated that recovery of C balance after fire was mainly determined by the internal redistribution of nutrients among ecosystem components (controlled by air temperature), rather than the supply of nutrients from external sources (e...
August 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888548/effects-of-seasonality-transport-pathway-and-spatial-structure-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-in-a-restored-wetland
#20
Gavin McNicol, Cove S Sturtevant, Sara H Knox, Iryna Dronova, Dennis D Baldocchi, Whendee L Silver
Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO2 and CH4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types...
November 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
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