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Carbon budget

Kirsten Cowley, Arun Looman, Damien T Maher, Kirstie Fryirs
Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of upland wetland, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Adrian Gütlein, Friederike Gerschlauer, Imani Kikoti, Ralf Kiese
In this study, we quantify the impacts of climate and land use on soil N2 O and CH4 fluxes from tropical forest, agroforest, arable and savanna ecosystems in Africa. To do so, we measured GHG fluxes from twelve different ecosystems along climate and land-use gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, combining long-term in situ chamber and laboratory soil-core incubation techniques. Both methods showed similar patterns of GHG exchange. Although there were distinct differences from ecosystem to ecosystem, soils generally functioned as net sources and sinks for N2 O and CH4 , respectively...
October 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
Derek Vance, Susan H Little, Corey Archer, Vyllinniskii Cameron, Morten B Andersen, Micha J A Rijkenberg, Timothy W Lyons
Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Lei Ma, Chunyu Shen, Duo Lou, Shenglei Fu, Dongsheng Guan
Forest fragmentation threatens the ecosystem carbon (C) storage. The distribution patterns of ecosystem C density are poorly documented for fragmented forests of differing patch size. The objectives of this study were to examine C density in these forest ecosystems and the influence of edge effects on C density. Allometric equations were used to quantify aboveground biomass. Carbon density was estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. We found that ecosystem carbon density ranged from 173...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xian-Jin Zhu, Han-Qi Zhang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Jian-Dong Li, Hong Yin
Spatial and temporal variations are important points of focus in ecological research. Analysing their differences improves our understanding on the variations of ecological phenomena. Using data from the Liaoning Statistical Yearbook, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of cropland carbon transfer (CCT), an important ecological phenomenon in quantifying the regional carbon budget, in particular, the influencing factors and difference. The results showed that, from 1992 to 2014, the average CCT in Liaoning province was 18...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriel Munoz, Helene Budzinski, Pierre Labadie
This study aimed at bridging knowledge gaps regarding the land-sea transport of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) through riverine discharge into coastal waters. The present survey was conducted in the Gironde estuary (southwestern France) where PFASs were ubiquitously detected albeit at low levels. Emerging PFASs such as fluorotelomer sulfonates or polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters accounted for a relatively minor proportion of ∑PFASs, while perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and perfluorohexanoate were the predominant congeners...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Chethana Rao, Syamantak Khan, Navneet Chandra Verma, Chayan Kanti Nandi
We present efficient labelling of several proteins with orange emissive carbon dots. N-Hydroxysuccinimide was used to activate the carboxyl groups of carbon dots which subsequently reacted with lysine groups present on the protein. The labelling was confirmed by UV-absorption spectroscopy, poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Protein-conjugated carbon dots show enhancement of fluorescence lifetime and intensity due to reduced intramolecular dynamic fluctuations. Single molecule fluorescence measurements show reduced fluorescence fluctuations and higher photon budget after protein tagging...
October 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Gregory J MacNeill, Sahar Mehrpouyan, Mark A A Minow, Jenelle A Patterson, Ian J Tetlow, Michael J Emes, Christine Raines
Starch commands a central role in the carbon budget of the majority of plants on earth, and its biological role changes during development and in response to the environment. Throughout the life of a plant, starch plays a dual role in carbon allocation, acting as both a source, releasing carbon reserves in leaves for growth and development, and as a sink, either as a dedicated starch store in its own right (in seeds and tubers), or as a temporary reserve of carbon contributing to sink strength, in organs such as flowers, fruits, and developing non-starchy seeds...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Collin P Ward, Sarah G Nalven, Byron C Crump, George W Kling, Rose M Cory
In sunlit waters, photochemical alteration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) impacts the microbial respiration of DOC to CO2. This coupled photochemical and biological degradation of DOC is especially critical for carbon budgets in the Arctic, where thawing permafrost soils increase opportunities for DOC oxidation to CO2 in surface waters, thereby reinforcing global warming. Here we show how and why sunlight exposure impacts microbial respiration of DOC draining permafrost soils. Sunlight significantly increases or decreases microbial respiration of DOC depending on whether photo-alteration produces or removes molecules that native microbial communities used prior to light exposure...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Julie Wolf, Ghassem R Asrar, Tristram O West
BACKGROUND: Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure...
September 29, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
Sue-Ann Watson, Simon A Morley, Lloyd S Peck
The proportion of body mass devoted to skeleton in marine invertebrates decreases along latitudinal gradients from large proportions in the tropics to small proportions in polar regions. A historical hypothesis-that latitudinal differences in shell production costs explain these trends-remains untested. Using field-collected specimens spanning a 79°N to 68°S latitudinal gradient (16,300 km), we conducted a taxonomically controlled evaluation of energetic costs of shell production as a proportion of the total energy budget in mollusks...
September 2017: Science Advances
Sarang D Supekar, Steven J Skerlos
Using a least-cost optimization framework, it is shown that unless emissions reductions beyond those already in place begin at the latest by 2025 (±2 years) for the U.S. automotive sector, and by 2026 (-3 years) for the U.S. electric sector, 2050 targets to achieve necessary within-sector preventative CO2 emissions reductions of 70% or more relative to 2010 will be infeasible. The analysis finds no evidence to justify delaying climate action in the name of reducing technological costs. Even without considering social and environmental damage costs, delaying aggressive climate action does not reduce CO2 abatement costs even under the most optimistic trajectories for improvements in fuel efficiencies, demand, and technology costs in the U...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Adam Hastie, Ronny Lauerwald, Gesa Weyhenmeyer, Sebastian Sobek, Charles Verpoorter, Pierre Regnier
Lakes (including reservoirs) are an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, as acknowledged by the 5(th) assessment report of the IPCC. In the context of lakes, the boreal region is disproportionately important contributing to 27% of the worldwide lake area, despite representing just 14% of global land surface area. In this study, we used a statistical approach to derive a prediction equation for the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in lakes as a function of lake area, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) and precipitation (r(2) = 0...
September 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
Stephanie Cohen, Thomas Krueger, Maoz Fine
As the oceans become less alkaline due to rising CO2 levels, deleterious consequences are expected for calcifying corals. Predicting how coral calcification will be affected by on-going ocean acidification (OA) requires an accurate assessment of CaCO3 deposition and an understanding of the relative importance that decreasing calcification and/or increasing dissolution play for the overall calcification budget of individual corals. Here, we assessed the compatibility of the (45)Ca-uptake and total alkalinity (TA) anomaly techniques as measures of gross and net calcification (GC, NC), respectively, to determine coral calcification at pHT 8...
2017: PeerJ
Andrew H MacDougall
Virtually all Earth system models (ESM) show a near proportional relationship between cumulative emissions of CO2 and change in global mean temperature, a relationship which is independent of the emissions pathway taken to reach a cumulative emissions total. The relationship, which has been named the Transient Climate Response to Cumulative CO2 Emissions (TCRE), gives rise to the concept of a 'carbon budget'. That is, a finite amount of carbon that can be burnt whilst remaining below some chosen global temperature change threshold, such as the 2...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weiwei Liu, Fei Lu, Yunjian Luo, Wenjing Bo, Lingqiao Kong, Lu Zhang, Bojie Liu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Xiaoke Wang
Global carbon cycles are impacted by human activity primarily via fossil fuel combustion and forest carbon budget alterations. In this study, the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of forest biomass carbon (FBC) stock and density in China were analyzed to assess the large-scale effects of humans on FBC. The results indicated that from 1977 to 2013, the FBC stock increased by 62.9%, from 4,335 to 7,064 Tg C, owing to human-driven forestation and ecological restoration programs. Because of intensive human impacts, 44...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yeray Santana-Falcón, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, María Dolores Pérez-Hernández, Alonso Hernández-Guerra, Evan Mason, Javier Arístegui
Transports of suspended particulate (POCsusp) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon are inferred from a box-model covering the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Corresponding net respiration rates (R) are obtained from a net organic carbon budget that is based on the transport estimates, and includes both vertical and lateral fluxes. The overall R in the mesopelagic layer (100-1500 m) is 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). DOC accounts for up to 53% of R as a result of drawdown of organic carbon within Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) that is entrained into sinking Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) that leads to formation of Mediterranean water (MW) at intermediate depths (~900 m)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mingjie Xu, Huimin Wang, Xuefa Wen, Tao Zhang, Yuebao Di, Yidong Wang, Jianlei Wang, Chuanpeng Cheng, Wenjiang Zhang
Deep understanding of the effects of precipitation on carbon budgets is essential to assess the carbon balance accurately and can help predict potential variation within the global change context. Therefore, we addressed this issue by analyzing twelve years (2003-2014) of observations of carbon fluxes and their corresponding temperature and precipitation data in a subtropical coniferous plantation at the Qianyanzhou (QYZ) site, southern China. During the observation years, this coniferous ecosystem experienced four cold springs whose effects on the carbon budgets were relatively clear based on previous studies...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Changliang Shao, Jiquan Chen, Housen Chu, Raffaele Lafortezza, Gang Dong, Michael Abraha, Ochirbat Batkhishig, Ranjeet John, Zutao Ouyang, Yaoqi Zhang, Jiaguo Qi
BACKGROUND: Quantifying carbon (C) dioxide exchanges between ecosystems and the atmosphere and the underlying mechanism of biophysical regulations under similar environmental conditions is critical for an accurate understanding of C budgets and ecosystem functions. METHODS: For the first time, a cluster of four eddy covariance towers were set up to answer how C fluxes shift among four dominant ecosystems in Mongolia - meadow steppe (MDW), typical steppe (TPL), dry typical steppe (DRT) and shrubland (SHB) during two growing seasons (2014 and 2015)...
November 2017: Environmental Research
M Rial, A Martínez Cortizas, L Rodríguez-Lado
Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The understanding of its dynamics and the environmental factors that influence its behaviour as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 is crucial to quantify the carbon budget at the global scale. At the European scale, most of the existing studies to account for SOC stocks are centred in the fitting of predictive model to ascertain the distribution of SOC. However, the development of methodologies for monitoring and identifying the environmental factors that control SOC storage in Europe remains a key research challenge...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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