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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898193/modeling-long-term-changes-in-tundra-carbon-balance-following-wildfire-climate-change-and-potential-nutrient-addition
#1
Yueyang Jiang, Edward B Rastetter, Gaius R Shaver, Adrian V Rocha, Qianlai Zhuang, Bonnie L Kwiatkowski
To investigate the underlying mechanisms that control long-term recovery of tundra carbon (C) and nutrients after fire, we employed the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to simulate 200-yr post-fire changes in the biogeochemistry of three sites along a burn severity gradient in response to increases in air temperature, CO2 concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, and phosphorus (P) weathering rates. The simulations were conducted for severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned arctic tundra. Our simulations indicated that recovery of C balance after fire was mainly determined by the internal redistribution of nutrients among ecosystem components (controlled by air temperature), rather than the supply of nutrients from external sources (e...
August 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888548/effects-of-seasonality-transport-pathway-and-spatial-structure-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-in-a-restored-wetland
#2
Gavin McNicol, Cove S Sturtevant, Sara H Knox, Iryna Dronova, Dennis D Baldocchi, Whendee L Silver
Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO2 and CH4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types...
November 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878073/does-the-different-photosynthetic-pathway-of-plants-affect-soil-respiration-in-a-subtropical-wetland
#3
Jingrui Chen, Qiulin Wang, Ming Li, Fan Liu, Wei Li
Plants with different photosynthetic pathways could produce different amounts and types of root exudates and debris which may affect soil respiration rates. Therefore, wetland vegetation succession between plants with different photosynthetic pathways may ultimately influence the wetland carbon budget. The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has the largest floodplain wetland group in China. Tian'e Zhou wetland reserve (29°48'N, 112°33'E) is located in Shishou city, Hubei province and covers about 77...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874852/a-global-gas-flaring-black-carbon-emission-rate-dataset-from-1994-to-2012
#4
Kan Huang, Joshua S Fu
Global flaring of associated petroleum gas is a potential emission source of particulate matters (PM) and could be notable in some specific regions that are in urgent need of mitigation. PM emitted from gas flaring is mainly in the form of black carbon (BC), which is a strong short-lived climate forcer. However, BC from gas flaring has been neglected in most global/regional emission inventories and is rarely considered in climate modeling. Here we present a global gas flaring BC emission rate dataset for the period 1994-2012 in a machine-readable format...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862698/warming-of-subarctic-tundra-increases-emissions-of-all-three-important-greenhouse-gases-carbon-dioxide-methane-and-nitrous-oxide
#5
Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Maija E Marushchak, Saara E Lind, Alexander Novakovskiy, Mika Aurela, Pertti J Martikainen, Christina Biasi
Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas...
November 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859967/slow-carbon-and-nutrient-accumulation-in-trees-established-following-fire-exclusion-in-the-southwestern-united-states
#6
Jason P Kaye, Margot W Kaye, Stephen C Hart, W Wallace Covington, Peter Z Fulé
Increasing tree density that followed fire exclusion after the 1880s in the southwestern United States may have also altered nutrient cycles and led to a carbon (C) sink that constitutes a significant component of the U.S. C budget. Yet, empirical data quantifying century-scale changes in C or nutrients due to fire exclusion are rare. We used tree-ring reconstructions of stand structure from five ponderosa pine-dominated sites from across northern Arizona to compare live tree C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) storage between the 1880s and 1990s...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857779/substantial-energy-input-to-the-mesopelagic-ecosystem-from-the-seasonal-mixed-layer-pump
#7
Giorgio Dall'Olmo, James Dingle, Luca Polimene, Robert J W Brewin, Hervé Claustre
The "mesopelagic" is the region of the ocean between about 100 and 1000 m that harbours one of the largest ecosystems and fish stocks on the planet1,2. This vastly unexplored ecosystem is believed to be mostly sustained by chemical energy, in the form of fast-sinking particulate organic carbon, supplied by the biological carbon pump3. Yet, this supply appears insufficient to match mesopelagic metabolic demands4-6. The mixed-layer pump is a physically-driven biogeochemical process7-11 that could further contribute to meet these energetic requirements...
November 2016: Nature Geoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853482/improving-carbon-monitoring-and-reporting-in-forests-using-spatially-explicit-information
#8
Céline Boisvenue, Byron P Smiley, Joanne C White, Werner A Kurz, Michael A Wulder
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying carbon (C) exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere-specifically the process of C removal from the atmosphere, and how this process is changing-is the basis for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change. Monitoring forest systems and reporting on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals are now required components of international efforts aimed at mitigating rising atmospheric GHG. Spatially-explicit information about forests can improve the estimates of GHG emissions and removals...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847183/management-effects-on-greenhouse-gas-dynamics-in-fen-ditches
#9
Mike Peacock, Luke M Ridley, Chris D Evans, Vincent Gauci
Globally, large areas of peatland have been drained through the digging of ditches, generally to increase agricultural production. By lowering the water table it is often assumed that drainage reduces landscape-scale emissions of methane (CH4) into the atmosphere to negligible levels. However, drainage ditches themselves are known to be sources of CH4 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), but emissions data are scarce, particularly for carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and show high spatial and temporal variability...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827457/evidence-of-anomalously-low-%C3%AE-13-c-of-marine-organic-matter-in-an-arctic-fjord
#10
Vikash Kumar, Manish Tiwari, Siddhesh Nagoji, Shubham Tripathi
Accurate estimation of relative carbon deposition (marine vs. terrestrial) is required for understanding the global carbon budget, particularly in the Arctic region, which holds disproportionate importance with respect to global carbon cycling. Although the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) concentration and its isotopic composition are important tools for such calculations, uncertainties loom over estimates provided by organic-geochemical bulk parameters. We report carbon and nitrogen concentrations and isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of SOM at an Arctic fjord namely Kongsfjorden...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824333/recent-pause-in-the-growth-rate-of-atmospheric-co2-due-to-enhanced-terrestrial-carbon-uptake
#11
Trevor F Keenan, I Colin Prentice, Josep G Canadell, Christopher A Williams, Han Wang, Michael Raupach, G James Collatz
Terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and offset a large fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The terrestrial carbon sink is increasing, yet the mechanisms responsible for its enhancement, and implications for the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, remain unclear. Here using global carbon budget estimates, ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple global vegetation models, we report a recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, and a decline in the fraction of anthropogenic emissions that remain in the atmosphere, despite increasing anthropogenic emissions...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803333/a-remotely-sensed-pigment-index-reveals-photosynthetic-phenology-in-evergreen-conifers
#12
John A Gamon, K Fred Huemmrich, Christopher Y S Wong, Ingo Ensminger, Steven Garrity, David Y Hollinger, Asko Noormets, Josep Peñuelas
In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying "photosynthetic phenology" from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a "chlorophyll/carotenoid index" (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799533/reducing-uncertainties-in-decadal-variability-of-the-global-carbon-budget-with-multiple-datasets
#13
Wei Li, Philippe Ciais, Yilong Wang, Shushi Peng, Grégoire Broquet, Ashley P Ballantyne, Josep G Canadell, Leila Cooper, Pierre Friedlingstein, Corinne Le Quéré, Ranga B Myneni, Glen P Peters, Shilong Piao, Julia Pongratz
Conventional calculations of the global carbon budget infer the land sink as a residual between emissions, atmospheric accumulation, and the ocean sink. Thus, the land sink accumulates the errors from the other flux terms and bears the largest uncertainty. Here, we present a Bayesian fusion approach that combines multiple observations in different carbon reservoirs to optimize the land (B) and ocean (O) carbon sinks, land use change emissions (L), and indirectly fossil fuel emissions (F) from 1980 to 2014. Compared with the conventional approach, Bayesian optimization decreases the uncertainties in B by 41% and in O by 46%...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792744/root-parameters-show-how-management-alters-resource-distribution-and-soil-quality-in-conventional-and-low-input-cropping-systems-in-central-iowa
#14
Patricia A Lazicki, Matt Liebman, Michelle M Wander
Plant-soil relations may explain why low-external input (LEI) diversified cropping systems are more efficient than their conventional counterparts. This work sought to identify links between management practices, soil quality changes, and root responses in a long-term cropping systems experiment in Iowa where grain yields of 3-year and 4-year LEI rotations have matched or exceeded yield achieved by a 2-year maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The 2-year system was conventionally managed and chisel-ploughed, whereas the 3-year and 4-year systems received plant residues and animal manures and were periodically moldboard ploughed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782350/carbon-emissions-from-agricultural-expansion-and-intensification-in-the-chaco
#15
Matthias Baumann, Ignacio Gasparri, María Piquer-Rodríguez, Gregorio Gavier Pizarro, Patrick Griffiths, Patrick Hostert, Tobias Kuemmerle
Carbon emissions from land-use changes in tropical dry forest systems are poorly understood, although they are likely globally significant. The South American Chaco has recently emerged as a hot spot of agricultural expansion and intensification, as cattle ranching and soybean cultivation expand into forests, and as soybean cultivation replaces grazing lands. Still, our knowledge of the rates and spatial patterns of these land-use changes and how they affected carbon emissions remains partial. We used the Landsat satellite image archive to reconstruct land-use change over the past 30 years and applied a carbon bookkeeping model to quantify how these changes affected carbon budgets...
October 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775100/saharan-dust-inputs-and-high-uvr-levels-jointly-alter-the-metabolic-balance-of-marine-oligotrophic-ecosystems
#16
Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Manuel Villar-Argaiz, Presentación Carrillo
The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774367/short-term-favorable-weather-conditions-are-an-important-control-of-interannual-variability-in-carbon-and-water-fluxes
#17
Jakob Zscheischler, Simone Fatichi, Sebastian Wolf, Peter D Blanken, Gil Bohrer, Kenneth Clark, Ankur R Desai, David Hollinger, Trevor Keenan, Kimberly A Novick, Sonia I Seneviratne
Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768823/the-sensitivity-of-photosynthesis-to-o2-and-co2-concentration-identifies-strong-rubisco-control-above-the-thermal-optimum
#18
Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage
The biochemical model of C3 photosynthesis by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) assumes that photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is limited by one of three biochemical processes that are not always easily discerned. This leads to improper assessments of biochemical limitations that limit the accuracy of the model predictions. We use the sensitivity of rates of CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport to changes in O2 and CO2 concentration in the chloroplast to evaluate photosynthetic limitations...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768811/the-variation-of-productivity-and-its-allocation-along-a-tropical-elevation-gradient-a-whole-carbon-budget-perspective
#19
Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A J Girardin, Gregory R Goldsmith, Christopher E Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur H A Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman
Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation. We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru. Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755581/the-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-exported-from-three-chinese-rivers-to-the-china-sea
#20
Guohua Shi, Changhui Peng, Meng Wang, Shengwei Shi, Yanzheng Yang, Junyao Chu, Junjun Zhang, Guanghui Lin, Yan Shen, Qiuan Zhu
The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics...
2016: PloS One
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