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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460508/predatory-strategies-and-behaviours-in-cephalopods-are-altered-by-elevated-co-2
#1
Blake L Spady, Philip L Munday, Sue-Ann Watson
There is increasing evidence that projected near-future carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels can alter predator avoidance behaviour in marine invertebrates, yet little is known about the possible effects on predatory behaviours. Here we tested the effects of elevated CO2 on the predatory behaviours of two ecologically distinct cephalopod species, the pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus, and the bigfin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Both species exhibited an increased latency to attack and altered body-pattern choice during the attack sequence at elevated CO2 ...
February 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426168/carbon-budget-and-greenhouse-gas-balance-during-the-initial-years-after-rice-paddy-conversion-to-vegetable-cultivation
#2
Lei Wu, Xian Wu, Shan Lin, Yupeng Wu, Shuirong Tang, Minghua Zhou, Muhammad Shaaban, Jinsong Zhao, Ronggui Hu, Yakov Kuzyakov, Jinshui Wu
Rice paddy conversion to vegetable production is a common agricultural practice driven by economic benefits and shifting diets. However, little is known on the initial effects of this land-use conversion on net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Annual NECB and emissions of CH4 and N2O were measured from a native double rice cropping system (Rice) and a vegetable field recently converted from rice paddy (Veg) under no nitrogen (N) fertilization (Rice-N0 and Veg-N0) and conventional N fertilization (Rice-N+ and Veg-N+) during the initial four years upon conversion in subtropical China...
January 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409121/novel-aspects-of-live-intestinal-epithelial-cell-function-revealed-using-a-custom-time-lapse-video-microscopy-apparatus
#3
Michael Papetti, Piotr Kozlowski
Many aspects of cell physiology, including migration, membrane function, and cell division, are best understood by observing live cell dynamics over time using video microscopy. To probe these phenomena in colon epithelial cells using simple components with a limited budget, we have constructed an inexpensive (<$410) self-contained apparatus, consisting of a closed-loop, feedback-controlled system regulated by a PID (proportional-integrative-derivative) controller contained within a 0.077 m3 insulated acrylic box...
February 6, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405521/greenhouse-gas-fluxes-over-managed-grasslands-in-central-europe
#4
L Hörtnagl, M Barthel, N Buchmann, W Eugster, K Butterbach-Bahl, E Díaz-Pinés, M Zeeman, K Klumpp, R Kiese, M Bahn, A Hammerle, H Lu, T Ladreiter-Knauss, S Burri, L Merbold
Central European grasslands are characterized by a wide range of different management practices in close geographical proximity. Site-specific management strategies strongly affect the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the three greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ). The evaluation of environmental impacts at site level is challenging, because most in-situ measurements focus on the quantification of CO2 exchange, while long-term N2 O and CH4 flux measurements at ecosystem scale remain scarce...
February 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396351/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-carbon-budgets-of-shallow-south-african-subtropical-estuaries
#5
M Tagliarolo, U M Scharler
Estuarine carbon fluxes constitute a significant component of coastal CO2 emissions and nutrients recycling, but high uncertainty is still present due to the heterogeneity of these areas. Although South Africa has nearly 300 estuaries, very little is known about their contribution to carbon emissions or sequestration. This study aims to provide a first estimation of the carbon emissions and nutrient fluxes of South African sub-tropical estuaries through a direct quantification of respiration, primary production and nutrient regeneration of benthic and planktonic communities...
January 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358665/anaerobic-methanotrophic-communities-thrive-in-deep-submarine-permafrost
#6
Matthias Winkel, Julia Mitzscherling, Pier P Overduin, Fabian Horn, Maria Winterfeld, Ruud Rijkers, Mikhail N Grigoriev, Christian Knoblauch, Kai Mangelsdorf, Dirk Wagner, Susanne Liebner
Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351291/allometric-biomass-equations-for-12-tree-species-in-coniferous-and-broadleaved-mixed-forests-northeastern-china
#7
Huaijiang He, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Folega Fousseni, Jinsong Wang, Haijun Dai, Song Yang, Qiang Zuo
Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341449/digging-deeper-a-holistic-perspective-of-factors-affecting-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-agroecosystems
#8
Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306157/assessment-of-anaerobic-biodegradation-of-bis-2-chloroethyl-ether-in-groundwater-using-carbon-and-chlorine-compound-specific-isotope-analysis
#9
Daniel C Segal, Tomasz Kuder, Ravi Kolhatkar
Carbon and chlorine compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) was performed to distinguish the primary processes contributing to observed concentration reductions in an anaerobic groundwater plume. Laboratory microcosms were constructed to demonstrate and obtain isotopic enrichment factors and dual-element CSIA trends from two potential transformation processes (1) anaerobic biodegradation using saturated sediment samples from the field site (εC=-14.8 and εCl=-5.0) and (2) abiotic reactions with sulfide nucleophiles in water (εC=-12...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298138/the-ecology-biogeochemistry-and-optical-properties-of-coccolithophores
#10
William M Balch
Coccolithophores are major contributors to phytoplankton communities and ocean biogeochemistry and are strong modulators of the optical field in the sea. New discoveries are changing paradigms about these calcifiers. A new role for silicon in coccolithophore calcification is coupling carbonate and silicon cycles. Phosphorus and iron play key roles in regulating coccolithophore growth. Comparing molecular phylogenies with coccolith morphometrics is forcing the reconciliation of biological and geological observations...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281709/beyond-greenness-detecting-temporal-changes-in-photosynthetic-capacity-with-hyperspectral-reflectance-data
#11
Mallory L Barnes, David D Breshears, Darin J Law, Willem J D van Leeuwen, Russell K Monson, Alec C Fojtik, Greg A Barron-Gafford, David J P Moore
Earth's future carbon balance and regional carbon exchange dynamics are inextricably linked to plant photosynthesis. Spectral vegetation indices are widely used as proxies for vegetation greenness and to estimate state variables such as vegetation cover and leaf area index. However, the capacity of green leaves to take up carbon can change throughout the season. We quantify photosynthetic capacity as the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax) and regeneration (Jmax). Vcmax and Jmax vary within-season due to interactions between ontogenetic processes and meteorological variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225378/intensive-ground-vegetation-growth-mitigates-the-carbon-loss-after-forest-disturbance
#12
Bernhard Zehetgruber, Johannes Kobler, Thomas Dirnböck, Robert Jandl, Rupert Seidl, Andreas Schindlbacher
Aims: Slow or failed tree regeneration after forest disturbance is increasingly observed in the central European Alps, potentially amplifying the carbon (C) loss from disturbance. We aimed at quantifying C dynamics of a poorly regenerating disturbance site with a special focus on the role of non-woody ground vegetation. Methods: Soil CO2 efflux, fine root biomass, ground vegetation biomass, tree increment and litter input were assessed in (i) an undisturbed section of a ~ 110 years old Norway spruce stand, (ii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut six years ago (no tree regeneration), and (iii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut three years ago (no tree regeneration)...
2017: Plant and Soil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211724/large-emissions-from-floodplain-trees-close-the-amazon-methane-budget
#13
Sunitha R Pangala, Alex Enrich-Prast, Luana S Basso, Roberta Bittencourt Peixoto, David Bastviken, Edward R C Hornibrook, Luciana V Gatti, Humberto Ribeiro, Luana Silva Braucks Calazans, Cassia Mônica Sakuragui, Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos, Olaf Malm, Emanuel Gloor, John Bharat Miller, Vincent Gauci
Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin...
December 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199215/-isotopic-fractionation-of-sulfur-in-carbonyl-sulfide-by-carbonyl-sulfide-hydrolase-of-thiobacillus-thioparus-thi115
#14
Takahiro Ogawa, Shohei Hattori, Kazuki Kamezaki, Hiromi Kato, Naohiro Yoshida, Yoko Katayama
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is one of the major sources of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, which affect the global radiation balance and ozone depletion. COS-degrading microorganisms are ubiquitous in soil and important for the global flux of COS. We examined the sulfur isotopic fractionation during the enzymatic degradation of COS by carbonyl sulfide hydrolase (COSase) from Thiobacillus thioparus THI115. The isotopic fractionation constant (34ε value) was -2.2±0.2‰. Under experimental conditions performed at parts per million by volume level of COS, the 34ε value for intact cells of T...
December 2, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195202/exportation-of-dissolved-inorganic-and-organic-and-particulate-carbon-from-mangroves-and-its-implication-to-the-carbon-budget-in-the-indian-sundarbans
#15
R Ray, A Baum, T Rixen, G Gleixner, T K Jana
Mangroves are known for exchanging organic and inorganic carbon with estuaries and oceans but studies that have estimated their contribution to the global budget are limited to a few mangrove ecosystems which exclude world's largest the Sundarbans. Here, we worked in the Indian Sundarbans and in the Hooghly river/estuary in May (pre-monsoon) and December (post-monsoon), 2014. Aims were, i) to quantify the riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC)) of the Hooghly into the Bay of Bengal (BoB), ii) to estimate the C export (DOC, DIC, POC) from the Sundarbans into the BoB by using a simple mixing model, as well as iii) to revise the existing C budget constructed for the mangroves...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185451/greenhouse-gases-emissions-in-rivers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#16
Bin Qu, Kelly Sue Aho, Chaoliu Li, Shichang Kang, Mika Sillanpää, Fangping Yan, Peter A Raymond
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO2, CH4 and N2O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2), pCH4 and pN2O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170659/geochemical-influence-on-microbial-communities-at-co2-leakage-analog-sites
#17
Baknoon Ham, Byoung-Young Choi, Gi-Tak Chae, Matthew F Kirk, Man Jae Kwon
Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO2 levels (sample groups I and II) and one control site with low CO2 content (group III)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156281/dry-hot-stress-significantly-reduced-the-nitrogenase-activity-of-epiphytic-cyanolichen
#18
Shuai Liu, Wenyao Liu, Xianmeng Shi, Su Li, Tao Hu, Liang Song, Chuansheng Wu
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132211/aggregation-behavior-of-dissolved-black-carbon-implications-for-vertical-mass-flux-and-fractionation-in-aquatic-systems
#19
Fanchao Xu, Chenhui Wei, Qingqing Zeng, Xuening Li, Pedro J J Alvarez, Qilin Li, Xiaolei Qu, Dongqiang Zhu
The fluvial export of dissolved black carbon (DBC) is a major land-ocean flux in the global black carbon cycle, affecting the size of refractory carbon pool in the oceans. The aggregation behavior of DBC is a significant determinant of its transport and vertical mass flux. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and interaction energy of DBC leached from biochar were investigated. DBC was mainly stabilized by hydration force and underwent structural compacting in divalent cation solutions. Na+ and Mg2+ had limited impact on the colloidal stability of DBC due to the strong hydration of these cations...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128121/occurrence-of-greenhouse-gases-in-the-aquifers-of-the-walloon-region-belgium
#20
Anna Jurado, Alberto V Borges, Estanislao Pujades, Vivien Hakoun, Joël Otten, Kay Knöller, Serge Brouyère
This work aims to (1) identify the most conductive conditions for the generation of greenhouses gases (GHGs) in groundwater (e.g., hydrogeological contexts and geochemical processes) and (2) evaluate the indirect emissions of GHGs from groundwater at a regional scale in Wallonia (Belgium). To this end, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3(-)) and sulphate were monitored in 12 aquifers of the Walloon Region (Belgium). The concentrations of GHGs range from 0...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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