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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225378/intensive-ground-vegetation-growth-mitigates-the-carbon-loss-after-forest-disturbance
#1
Bernhard Zehetgruber, Johannes Kobler, Thomas Dirnböck, Robert Jandl, Rupert Seidl, Andreas Schindlbacher
Aims: Slow or failed tree regeneration after forest disturbance is increasingly observed in the central European Alps, potentially amplifying the carbon (C) loss from disturbance. We aimed at quantifying C dynamics of a poorly regenerating disturbance site with a special focus on the role of non-woody ground vegetation. Methods: Soil CO2 efflux, fine root biomass, ground vegetation biomass, tree increment and litter input were assessed in (i) an undisturbed section of a ~ 110 years old Norway spruce stand, (ii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut six years ago (no tree regeneration), and (iii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut three years ago (no tree regeneration)...
2017: Plant and Soil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211724/large-emissions-from-floodplain-trees-close-the-amazon-methane-budget
#2
Sunitha R Pangala, Alex Enrich-Prast, Luana S Basso, Roberta Bittencourt Peixoto, David Bastviken, Edward R C Hornibrook, Luciana V Gatti, Humberto Ribeiro, Luana Silva Braucks Calazans, Cassia Mônica Sakuragui, Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos, Olaf Malm, Emanuel Gloor, John Bharat Miller, Vincent Gauci
Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin...
December 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199215/-isotopic-fractionation-of-sulfur-in-carbonyl-sulfide-by-carbonyl-sulfide-hydrolase-of-thiobacillus-thioparus-thi115
#3
Takahiro Ogawa, Shohei Hattori, Kazuki Kamezaki, Hiromi Kato, Naohiro Yoshida, Yoko Katayama
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is one of the major sources of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, which affect the global radiation balance and ozone depletion. COS-degrading microorganisms are ubiquitous in soil and important for the global flux of COS. We examined the sulfur isotopic fractionation during the enzymatic degradation of COS by carbonyl sulfide hydrolase (COSase) from Thiobacillus thioparus THI115. The isotopic fractionation constant (34ε value) was -2.2±0.2‰. Under experimental conditions performed at parts per million by volume level of COS, the 34ε value for intact cells of T...
December 2, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195202/exportation-of-dissolved-inorganic-and-organic-and-particulate-carbon-from-mangroves-and-its-implication-to-the-carbon-budget-in-the-indian-sundarbans
#4
R Ray, A Baum, T Rixen, G Gleixner, T K Jana
Mangroves are known for exchanging organic and inorganic carbon with estuaries and oceans but studies that have estimated their contribution to the global budget are limited to a few mangrove ecosystems which exclude world's largest the Sundarbans. Here, we worked in the Indian Sundarbans and in the Hooghly river/estuary in May (pre-monsoon) and December (post-monsoon), 2014. Aims were, i) to quantify the riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC)) of the Hooghly into the Bay of Bengal (BoB), ii) to estimate the C export (DOC, DIC, POC) from the Sundarbans into the BoB by using a simple mixing model, as well as iii) to revise the existing C budget constructed for the mangroves...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185451/greenhouse-gases-emissions-in-rivers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#5
Bin Qu, Kelly Sue Aho, Chaoliu Li, Shichang Kang, Mika Sillanpää, Fangping Yan, Peter A Raymond
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO2, CH4 and N2O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2), pCH4 and pN2O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170659/geochemical-influence-on-microbial-communities-at-co2-leakage-analog-sites
#6
Baknoon Ham, Byoung-Young Choi, Gi-Tak Chae, Matthew F Kirk, Man Jae Kwon
Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO2 levels (sample groups I and II) and one control site with low CO2 content (group III)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156281/dry-hot-stress-significantly-reduced-the-nitrogenase-activity-of-epiphytic-cyanolichen
#7
Shuai Liu, Wenyao Liu, Xianmeng Shi, Su Li, Tao Hu, Liang Song, Chuansheng Wu
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132211/aggregation-behavior-of-dissolved-black-carbon-implications-for-vertical-mass-flux-and-fractionation-in-aquatic-systems
#8
Fanchao Xu, Chenhui Wei, Qingqing Zeng, Xuening Li, Pedro J J Alvarez, Qilin Li, Xiaolei Qu, Dongqiang Zhu
The fluvial export of dissolved black carbon (DBC) is a major land-ocean flux in the global black carbon cycle, affecting the size of refractory carbon pool in the oceans. The aggregation behavior of DBC is a significant determinant of its transport and vertical mass flux. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and interaction energy of DBC leached from biochar were investigated. DBC was mainly stabilized by hydration force and underwent structural compacting in divalent cation solutions. Na+ and Mg2+ had limited impact on the colloidal stability of DBC due to the strong hydration of these cations...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128121/occurrence-of-greenhouse-gases-in-the-aquifers-of-the-walloon-region-belgium
#9
Anna Jurado, Alberto V Borges, Estanislao Pujades, Vivien Hakoun, Joël Otten, Kay Knöller, Serge Brouyère
This work aims to (1) identify the most conductive conditions for the generation of greenhouses gases (GHGs) in groundwater (e.g., hydrogeological contexts and geochemical processes) and (2) evaluate the indirect emissions of GHGs from groundwater at a regional scale in Wallonia (Belgium). To this end, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3(-)) and sulphate were monitored in 12 aquifers of the Walloon Region (Belgium). The concentrations of GHGs range from 0...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121580/gas-fired-power-in-the-uk-bridging-supply-gaps-and-implications-of-domestic-shale-gas-exploitation-for-uk-climate-change-targets
#10
Jeremy K Turk, David S Reay, R Stuart Haszeldine
There is a projected shortcoming in the fourth carbon budget of 7.5%. This shortfall may be increased if the UK pursues a domestic shale gas industry to offset projected decreases in traditional gas supply. Here we estimate that, if the project domestic gas supply gap for power generation were to be met by UK shale gas with low fugitive emissions (0.08%), an additional 20.4MtCO2e(1) would need to be accommodated during carbon budget periods 3-6. We find that a modest fugitive emissions rate (1%) for UK shale gas would increase global emissions compared to importing an equal quantity of Qatari liquefied natural gas...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116247/grassland-carbon-budget-and-its-driving-factors-of-the-subtropical-and-tropical-monsoon-region-in-china-during-1961-to-2013
#11
Li Zhang, GuangSheng Zhou, YuHe Ji, YongFei Bai
The southern grasslands are an integral part of the grassland ecosystems of China and play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon cycle of the country. We reproduced the spatiotemporal dynamics of the carbon budget of southern grasslands from 1961 to 2013 using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model and our results showed that the annual carbon budget varied from -8.12 to 6.16 Tg C y(-1) with an annual average of 0.45 Tg C y(-1) during the study period. Overall, southern grasslands acted as a weak carbon sink and sequestrated 23...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109712/anaerobic-oxidation-of-ethane-propane-and-butane-by-marine-microbes-a-mini-review
#12
REVIEW
Rajesh Singh, Michael S Guzman, Arpita Bose
The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant (13)C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105912/how-much-do-direct-livestock-emissions-actually-contribute-to-global-warming
#13
Andy Reisinger, Harry Clark
Agriculture directly contributes about 10-12% of current global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mostly from livestock. However, such percentage estimates are based on Global Warming Potentials (GWPs), which do not measure the actual warming caused by emissions and ignore the fact that methane does not accumulate in the atmosphere in the same way as CO2 . Here we employ a simple carbon cycle-climate model, historical estimates and future projections of livestock emissions to infer the fraction of actual warming that is attributable to direct livestock non-CO2 emissions now and in future, and to CO2 from pasture conversions, without relying on GWPs...
November 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101621/recent-decrease-in-carbon-sink-to-russian-forests
#14
D G Zamolodchikov, V I Grabovskii, P P Shulyak, O V Chestnykh
Regional Evaluation of Carbon Budget of Forests (RECBF), was used to study the dynamics of carbon balance in Russian forests in 1988-2015. The carbon sink (excess of absorption over losses) to forests was minimal in 1988. Since the first half of the 1990s, its increase has started. This increase was associated with the reduction of logging volume in connection with socioeconomic reforms. Since 2008, the carbon sink was gradually reduced due to increasing losses in logging operations, forest fires, and decreased carbon absorption...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081549/tundra-water-budget-and-implications-of-precipitation-underestimation
#15
Anna K Liljedahl, Larry D Hinzman, Douglas L Kane, Walter C Oechel, Craig E Tweedie, Donatella Zona
Difficulties in obtaining accurate precipitation measurements have limited meaningful hydrologic assessment for over a century due to performance challenges of conventional snowfall and rainfall gauges in windy environments. Here, we compare snowfall observations and bias adjusted snowfall to end-of-winter snow accumulation measurements on the ground for 16 years (1999-2014) and assess the implication of precipitation underestimation on the water balance for a low-gradient tundra wetland near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska (2007-2009)...
August 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074961/microbial-mineralization-of-cellulose-in-frozen-soils
#16
Javier H Segura, Mats B Nilsson, Mahsa Haei, Tobias Sparrman, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, John Gräsvik, Jürgen Schleucher, Mats G Öquist
High-latitude soils store ~40% of the global soil carbon and experience winters of up to 6 months or more. The winter soil CO2 efflux importantly contributes to the annual CO2 budget. Microorganisms can metabolize short chain carbon compounds in frozen soils. However, soil organic matter (SOM) is dominated by biopolymers, requiring exoenzymatic hydrolysis prior to mineralization. For winter SOM decomposition to have a substantial influence on soil carbon balances it is crucial whether or not biopolymers can be metabolized in frozen soils...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066754/fungal-community-structure-of-fallen-pine-and-oak-wood-at-different-stages-of-decomposition-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#17
Jie Yuan, Xiaofeng Zheng, Fei Cheng, Xian Zhu, Lin Hou, Jingxia Li, Shuoxin Zhang
Historically, intense forest hazards have resulted in an increase in the quantity of fallen wood in the Qinling Mountains. Fallen wood has a decisive influence on the nutrient cycling, carbon budget and ecosystem biodiversity of forests, and fungi are essential for the decomposition of fallen wood. Moreover, decaying dead wood alters fungal communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated the ongoing investigation of relevant molecular forest ecosystems with a focus on fungal communities...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046232/geomorphic-controls-on-fluvial-carbon-exports-and-emissions-from-upland-swamps-in-eastern-australia
#18
Kirsten Cowley, Arun Looman, Damien T Maher, Kirstie Fryirs
Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage...
October 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044840/impacts-of-climate-and-land-use-on-n2-o-and-ch4-fluxes-from-tropical-ecosystems-in-the-mt-kilimanjaro-region-tanzania
#19
Adrian Gütlein, Friederike Gerschlauer, Imani Kikoti, Ralf Kiese
In this study, we quantify the impacts of climate and land use on soil N2 O and CH4 fluxes from tropical forest, agroforest, arable and savanna ecosystems in Africa. To do so, we measured GHG fluxes from twelve different ecosystems along climate and land-use gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, combining long-term in situ chamber and laboratory soil-core incubation techniques. Both methods showed similar patterns of GHG exchange. Although there were distinct differences from ecosystem to ecosystem, soils generally functioned as net sources and sinks for N2 O and CH4 , respectively...
October 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035259/the-oceanic-budgets-of-nickel-and-zinc-isotopes-the-importance-of-sulfidic-environments-as-illustrated-by-the-black-sea
#20
Derek Vance, Susan H Little, Corey Archer, Vyllinniskii Cameron, Morten B Andersen, Micha J A Rijkenberg, Timothy W Lyons
Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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