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Joel A Boyd, Ben J Woodcroft, Gene W Tyson
Large-scale metagenomic datasets enable the recovery of hundreds of population genomes from environmental samples. However, these genomes do not typically represent the full diversity of complex microbial communities. Gene-centric approaches can be used to gain a comprehensive view of diversity by examining each read independently, but traditional pairwise comparison approaches typically over-classify taxonomy and scale poorly with increasing metagenome and database sizes. Here we introduce GraftM, a tool that uses gene specific packages to rapidly identify gene families in metagenomic data using hidden Markov models (HMMs) or DIAMOND databases, and classifies these sequences using placement into pre-constructed gene trees...
March 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiao Huang, Megan A Rippy, Andrew S Mehring, Brandon K Winfrey, Sunny C Jiang, Stanley B Grant
Constructed stormwater wetlands provide a host of ecosystem services, including potentially pathogen removal. We present results from a multi-wetland study that integrates across weather, chemical, microbiological and engineering design variables in order to identify patterns of microbial contaminant removal from inlet to outlet within wetlands and key drivers of those patterns. One or more microbial contaminants were detected at the inlet of each stormwater wetland (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus > Bacteroides HF183 > adenovirus)...
March 12, 2018: Water Research
Jaan Pärn, Jos T A Verhoeven, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Nancy B Dise, Sami Ullah, Anto Aasa, Sergey Egorov, Mikk Espenberg, Järvi Järveoja, Jyrki Jauhiainen, Kuno Kasak, Leif Klemedtsson, Ain Kull, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Elena D Lapshina, Annalea Lohila, Krista Lõhmus, Martin Maddison, William J Mitsch, Christoph Müller, Ülo Niinemets, Bruce Osborne, Taavi Pae, Jüri-Ott Salm, Fotis Sgouridis, Kristina Sohar, Kaido Soosaar, Kathryn Storey, Alar Teemusk, Moses M Tenywa, Julien Tournebize, Jaak Truu, Gert Veber, Jorge A Villa, Seint Sann Zaw, Ülo Mander
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and the main driver of stratospheric ozone depletion. Since soils are the largest source of N2 O, predicting soil response to changes in climate or land use is central to understanding and managing N2 O. Here we find that N2 O flux can be predicted by models incorporating soil nitrate concentration (NO3 - ), water content and temperature using a global field survey of N2 O emissions and potential driving factors across a wide range of organic soils. N2 O emissions increase with NO3 - and follow a bell-shaped distribution with water content...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Ivan Valiela, Jesús Pascual, Anne Giblin, Coralie Barth-Jensen, Paulina Martinetto, Marshall Otter, Thomas Stone, Jane Tucker, Megan Bartholomew, Inés G Viana
Foliar stable isotopic signatures of nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur in mangrove vegetation from the Pacific coast of Panama were insensitive to inputs from watersheds with different area of forest land cover, and to seasonal, inter-annual, and global-scale-driven contrasts in rainfall and upwelling. N, C, and S content of mangrove vegetation were not affected by inputs from watersheds with different degrees of deforestation, but showed some influence of down-estuary transformations. While there was substantial variation that remained un-explained, isotopic signatures and nutrient contents were largely determined by species-specific features, and showed substantial small-scale variation reflecting local differences, within-estuary plant-sediment links...
March 10, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
A C Ruiz-Fernández, V Carnero-Bravo, J A Sanchez-Cabeza, L H Pérez-Bernal, O A Amaya-Monterrosa, S Bojórquez-Sánchez, P G López-Mendoza, J G Cardoso-Mohedano, R B Dunbar, D A Mucciarone, A J Marmolejo-Rodríguez
Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (Corg ) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO2 and storing sedimentary Corg for long periods, although their Corg burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published210 Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100years) of Corg concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree...
March 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
João Henrique F Amaral, Alberto V Borges, John M Melack, Hugo Sarmento, Pedro M Barbosa, Daniele Kasper, Michaela L de Melo, Daniela De Fex-Wolf, Jonismar S da Silva, Bruce R Forsberg
We investigated plankton metabolism and its influence on carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dynamics in a central Amazon floodplain lake (Janauacá, 3°23' S, 60°18' W) from September 2015 to May 2016, including a period with exceptional drought. We made diel measurements of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere with floating chambers and depth profiles of temperature and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 ) at two sites with differing wind exposure and proximity to vegetated habitats. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were monitored continuously during day and night in clear and dark chambers with autonomous optical sensors to evaluate plankton metabolism...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M X Lima, K Q Carvalho, F H Passig, A C Borges, T C Filippe, J C R Azevedo, A Nagalli
The present study aimed to assess removal potential of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total phosphorus (TP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in synthetic wastewater simulating low-strength sewage by sequencing-batch mode constructed wetlands (CWs). Six CWs with three substrates (gravel, light expanded clay and clay bricks) and one CW of each substrate was planted with E. crassipes to verify the feasibility of using a floating macrophyte in CWs and verify the best optimized substrate...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yujie He, Alette A M Langenhoff, Rob N J Comans, Nora B Sutton, Huub H M Rijnaarts
Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrification can play an important role in biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aerobic zones of constructed wetlands (CWs). This study used an enrichment culture originating from CW sediment to study the effect of DOM and nitrification on aerobic biodegradation of seven PhACs. The enriched culture degraded caffeine (CAF), metoprolol (MET), naproxen (NAP), and ibuprofen (IBP) with a consistent biodegradability order of CAF>MET>NAP>IBP...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guangshuai Zhang, Xiubo Yu, Jun Xu, Houlang Duan, Loretta Rafay, Quanjun Zhang, Ya Li, Yu Liu, Shaoxia Xia
Unique hydrological characteristics and complex topography can create wide-ranging dry season environmental heterogeneity in response to groundwater level across China's Jiangxi Province Poyang Lake wetland. Soil traits are one of several fluctuating environmental variables. To determine the effects of soil variables on stable isotope (δ13 C and δ15 N) abundances during decomposition, we performed a field experiment using Carex cinerascens along a groundwater level gradient (GT-L: -25 to -50cm, GT-LM: -15 to -25cm, GT-MH: -5 to -15cm, GT-H: 5 to -5cm) in a shallow lake...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Luca Tasca, Monica Puccini, Ashleigh Fletcher
The herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) has displaced atrazine in most of EU countries, becoming one of the most regularly used pesticides and, therefore, frequently detected in natural waters. The affinity of TBA for soil organic matter suggests prolonged contamination; degradation leads to the release of the metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET), which has higher water solubility and binds more weakly to organic matter compared to the parent compound, resulting in higher associated risk for contamination of groundwater resources...
March 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Theeta Sricoth, Weeradej Meeinkuirt, Patompong Saengwilai, John Pichtel, Puntaree Taeprayoon
Cadmium (Cd) may be toxic to aquatic plants even at modest concentrations, and excessive quantities of zinc (Zn) decrease plant performance. The Cd and Zn phytoremediation potential of several aquatic plant species (Thalia geniculate, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes) and one grass species (Vetiveria zizanioides) was evaluated in hydroponic experiments. Vetiveria zizanioides, E. crassipes, and P. stratiotes experienced reduced growth performance in the presence of Cd as determined from biomass production, survival rate, and crown root number (CN); however, they accumulated high quantities of metals in their tissues, particularly in roots...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pei Luo, Feng Liu, Shunan Zhang, Hongfang Li, Ran Yao, Qianwen Jiang, Runlin Xiao, Jinshui Wu
A series of three-stage pilot-scale surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Myriophyllum aquaticum were fed with three strengths of lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater to study nitrogen (N) removal and recovery under sustainable plant harvesting management. The CWs had mean removal efficiency of 87.7-97.9% for NH4 + -N and 85.4-96.1% for total N (TN). The recovered TN mass via multiple harvests of M. aquaticum was greatest (120-222 g N m-2  yr-1 ) when TN concentrations were 21.8-282 mg L-1 ...
March 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Addison Jobe, Ajay Kalra, Elise Ibendahl
Growing populations and industrialized agriculture practices have eradicated much of the United States wetlands along river floodplains. One program available for the restoration of floodplains is the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The current research explores the effects CRP land change has on flooding zones, utilizing Flood Modeller and HEC-RAS. Flood Modeller is proven a viable tool for flood modeling within the United States when compared to HEC-RAS. Application of the software is used in the Nodaway River system located in the western halves of Iowa and Missouri to model effects of introducing new forest areas within the region...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hélène Guénet, Edwige Demangeat, Mélanie Davranche, Delphine Vantelon, Anne-Catherine Pierson-Wickmann, Emilie Jardé, Martine Bouhnik-Le Coz, Elaheh Lotfi, Aline Dia, Jacques Jestin
The evolution of rare earth element (REE) speciation between reducing and oxidizing conditions in a riparian wetland soil was studied relative to the size fractionation of the solution. In all size fractions obtained from the reduced and oxidized soil solutions, the following analyses were carried out: organic matter (OM) characterization, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations as well as major and trace element analyses. Significant REE redistribution and speciation evolution between the various size fractions were observed...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lindsay G Carlson, Karen H Beard, Peter B Adler
Both the direct effects of warming on a species' vital rates and indirect effects of warming caused by interactions with neighboring species can influence plant populations. Furthermore, herbivory mediates the effects of warming on plant community composition in many systems. Thus, determining the importance of direct and indirect effects of warming, while considering the role of herbivory, can help predict long-term plant community dynamics. We conducted a field experiment in the coastal wetlands of western Alaska to investigate how warming and herbivory influence the interactions and abundances of two common plant species, a sedge, Carex ramenskii , and a dwarf shrub, Salix ovalifolia ...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maureen H Murray, Anjelika D Kidd, Shannon E Curry, Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman, Michael J Yabsley, Henry C Adams, Taylor Ellison, Catharine N Welch, Sonia M Hernandez
Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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