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Patti M Johnstone, Kelly R Yeager, Marnie L Pomeroy, Nicole Hawk
BACKGROUND: Open-fit domes (OFDs) coupled with behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids were designed for adult listeners with moderate-to-severe bilateral high-frequency hearing loss (BHFL) with little to no concurrent loss in the lower frequencies. Adult research shows that BHFL degrades sound localization accuracy (SLA) and that BTE hearing aids with conventional earmolds (CEs) make matters worse. In contrast, research has shown that OFDs enhance spatial hearing percepts in adults with BHFL...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Janne Kaergaard Mortensen, Kristian Lundsgaard Kraglund, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Ole Mors, Grethe Andersen, Henriette N Buttenschøn
INTRODUCTION: Serotonin is known as a neurotransmitter; however, it also plays an important role in platelet aggregation as it is released upon platelet activation. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the uptake of serotonin into platelets. Functional polymorphisms in the SERT gene may influence platelet activity, as they result in different levels of transporters and thereby different levels of serotonin in platelets. SERT gene polymorphisms have thus been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction...
April 3, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Tara Emami, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Ali Khamesipour, Rasool Madani, Gholamreza Habibi, Mansure Hojatizade, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Adjuvants play an essential role in the induction of immunity against leishmaniasis. In this study, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod (IMQ) were used as TLR ligands adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Nanoliposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) and adjuvants were consisted of DSPC, DSPG and Chol prepared by using lipid film method followed by bath sonication. The size of nanoliposomes was around 95 nm and their zeta potential was negative...
April 1, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Mingdeng Rong, Haibin Lu, Lei Wan, Xueyang Zhang, Xi Lin, Shaobing Li, Lei Zhou, Yingtao Lv, Yuan Su
This study was designed to compare the early osseointegration of titanium surfaces prepared via laser-treated/acid-etched (LA) and sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) in dogs. Titanium implants were divided into two groups: Surfaces of the experimental group were treated via LA, while in the control group, surfaces were treated via SLA. The physical and chemical properties of LA and SLA surfaces were tested and compared. Sixteen implants with LA or SLA surfaces were placed into the tibias of four beagle dogs, each treatment group received two implants per single tibia...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
K Ludewig, J M Hanke, B Wuthe, A Otte, E Mosner, R L Eckstein, T W Donath
The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands...
March 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Henry H Nguyen, Abdel Aziz Shaheen, Natalia Baeza, Ellina Lytvyak, Stefan J Urbanski, Andrew L Mason, Gary L Norman, Marvin J Fritzler, Mark G Swain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Up to 20% of Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) patients are estimated to have features that overlap with Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH). Patients with PBC-AIH overlap syndrome (PBC-AIH OS) have been reported to exhibit suboptimal responses to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, and are more likely to progress to cirrhosis. Anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and anti-p53 have been previously suggested to be potential autoantibodies for identifying patients with PBC-AIH OS...
2018: PloS One
Yada Li, Weiqiang Wang, Huiying Liu, Jingwu Lei, Jingying Zhang, Hongzhi Zhou, Min Qi
A novel "cortex-like" micro/nano dual-scale structured TiO2 coating was prepared on a titanium surface by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with tetraborate electrolytes. This structure, which combines microslots with nanopores, exhibits super hydrophilicity. This coating modified the surface structure, chemistry, and hydrophilicity in a one-step treatment. Evolution of the coating together with its surface and structure properties was studied. We propose a forming mechanism of the dual-scale structure in which the oxides formed during the MAO discharge dissolve in the tetraborate electrolytes, leaving little or no deposition outside the discharge channels...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Joseph M Ladowski, Gregory R Martens, Luz M Reyes, Zheng-Yu Wang, Devin E Eckhoff, Vera Hauptfeld-Dolejsek, Matt Tector, A Joseph Tector
Genetically engineered pig organs could provide transplants to all patients with end-stage organ failure, but Ab-mediated rejection remains an issue. This study examines the class II swine leukocyte Ag (SLA) as a target of epitope-restricted Ab binding. Transfection of individual α- and β-chains into human embryonic kidney cells resulted in both traditional and hybrid class II SLA molecules. Sera from individuals on the solid organ transplant waiting list were tested for Ab binding and cytotoxicity to this panel of class II SLA single-Ag cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Bitopan Sarma, Pranab Ram Bhattacharyya, Mantu Bhuyan
Apart from other pollutants, flaring of natural gas adds carbon dioxide into the environment and changes the atmospheric composition, including temperature and humidity. As a major gaseous product, carbon dioxide changes plant structural components as well as herbivores, i.e., insect by dilution of nitrogen under such circumstances. Present analysis demonstrated the impact of gas flaring upon adjoining biota especially Eurema hecabe butterfly and its host plant, Cassia tora in some wells (group gathering stations) of Assam, India...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vesna Grivčeva-Panovska, Mitja Košnik, Peter Korošec, Slađana Andrejević, Ljerka Karadža-Lapić, Matija Rijavec
OBJECTIVE: Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease, characterized by swellings. We aimed to characterize on a clinical and molecular basis C1-INH-HAE patients in the Republic of Macedonia. RESULTS: All 15 patients from six unrelated families were diagnosed with C1-INH-HAE type I, with a mean age of symptom onset of 11 years and an average delay of diagnosis of 7 years. Patients reported on average 31 angioedema attacks/year, with a median clinical severity score (CSS) of 7...
March 7, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Raymund E Rebong, Kelton T Stewart, Achint Utreja, Ahmed A Ghoneima
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the dimensional accuracy of fused deposition modeling (FDM)-, Polyjet-, and stereolithography (SLA)-produced models by comparing them to traditional plaster casts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 maxillary and mandibular posttreatment orthodontic plaster casts were selected from the archives of the Orthodontic Department at the Indiana University School of Dentistry. Plaster models were scanned, saved as stereolithography files, and printed as physical models using three different three-dimensional (3D) printers: Makerbot Replicator (FDM), 3D Systems SLA 6000 (SLA), and Objet Eden500V (Polyjet)...
March 6, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Muhammad Farooq, Aman Ullah, Dong-Jin Lee, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Chickpea is mostly grown in rainfed environments and, consequently, its growth is affected by drought stress. This study comprised two independent experiments to investigate the physiological basis of drought tolerance in desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes. In Experiment 1, six genotypes each of desi and kabuli types were planted in soil-filled pots under natural conditions. Ten days after planting, soil moisture was maintained at 75% water holding capacity (well-watered) or 50% water holding capacity (drought stress)...
February 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marina L LaForgia, Marko J Spasojevic, Erica J Case, Andrew M Latimer, Susan P Harrison
Extreme droughts such as the one that affected California in 2012-2015 have been linked to severe ecological consequences in perennial-dominated communities such as forests. In annual communities, drought impacts are difficult to assess because many species persist through facultative multiyear seed dormancy, which leads to the development of seed banks. Impacts of extreme drought on the abundance and composition of the seed banks of whole communities are little known. In 80 heterogeneous grassland plots where cover is dominated by ~15 species of exotic annual grasses and diversity is dominated by ~70 species of native annual forbs, we grew out seeds from soil cores collected early in the California drought (2012) and later in the multiyear drought (2014), and analyzed drought-associated changes in the seed bank...
March 1, 2018: Ecology
James F Rusling
This short perspective assesses the present landscape for desktop 3D printing to design and fabricate sensors, in particular those associated with microfluidics and multiplexing. Lots of advanced devices have already been reported, and this article briefly surveys interesting achievements. Microfluidics can be designed and optimized faster and more easily on low cost desktop 3D printers that with competing methods. Rapid prototyping leads directly to a final (marketable) product fabricated on the same 3D printer...
March 1, 2018: ACS Sensors
Adam R Martin, Christine E Hale, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, William A Gough, Jens Kattge, Cairan K F Tirona
Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Vikki L Rodgers, Nicholas G Smith, Susanne S Hoeppner, Jeffrey S Dukes
Predicting the effects of climate change on tree species and communities is critical for understanding the future state of our forested ecosystems. We used a fully factorial precipitation (three levels; ambient, -50 % ambient, +50 % ambient) by warming (four levels; up to +4 °C) experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to study the climatic sensitivity of seedlings of six native tree species. We measured whole plant-level responses: survival, total leaf area (TLA), seedling insect herbivory damage, as well as leaf-level responses: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf-level water content (LWC), foliar nitrogen (N) concentration, foliar carbon (C) concentration and C:N ratio of each of these deciduous species in each treatment across a single growing season...
February 2018: AoB Plants
J Y Liu, F Chen, Y J Ge, L Wei, S X Pan, H L Feng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the rough surface of dental implants prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) on early bone healing around titanium implants. METHODS: A total of sixteen titanium implants were involved in our research, of which eight implants were prepared by SLM (TIXOS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3.3 mm×10 mm, internal hex) and the other eight were sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) implants (IMPLUS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3...
February 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Yihua Xiao, Shirong Liu, Fuchun Tong, Bufeng Chen, Yuanwen Kuang
It is important to understand how eco-physiological characteristics shift in forests when elucidating the mechanisms underlying species replacement and the process of succession and stabilization. In this study, the dominant species at three typical successional stages (early-, mid-, and late-succession) in the subtropical forests of China were selected. At each stage, we compared the leaf construction costs (CC), payback time (PBT), leaf area based N content ( N A ), maximum CO2 assimilation rate ( P max ), specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), and leaf N allocated to carboxylation ( N C ), and to bioenergetics ( N B )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elise A Lamont, Erin Poulin, Srinand Sreevatsan, Maxim C-J Cheeran
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is a prevalent respiratory pathogen in pigs that has deleterious consequences to animal and human health. Pigs represent an important reservoir for influenza and potential mixing vessel for novel gene reassortments. Despite the central role of pigs in recent influenza outbreaks, much remains unknown about the impact of swine immunity on IAV-S transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. An incomplete understanding of interactions between the porcine immune system and IAV-S has hindered development of new diagnostic tools and vaccines...
January 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
M D Jiménez, R de Torre, I Mola, M A Casado, L Balaguer
The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO2 and its interactions on different plant traits...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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