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Ellen Jessica Kayendeke, Frank Kansiime, Helen K French, Yazidhi Bamutaze
Papyrus wetlands are predominant in permanently inundated areas of tropical Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and offer both provisioning and regulatory services. Although a wealth of literature exists on wetland functions, the seasonal behaviour of the papyrus mat and function in water storage has received less attention. The objective of this study was to assess the response of the papyrus root mat to changing water levels in a tropical wetland system in Eastern Uganda. We delineated seven transects through a section of a wetland system and mapped wetland bathymetry along these transects...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jiansheng Lu, Rong Wang, Binghui Xia, Yunzhou Yu, Xiaowei Zhou, Zhixin Yang, Peitang Huang
The incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infections has been escalating in tropical and subtropical countries, but there are still no effective therapeutic options. In the present study, a DENV-1-specific human monoclonal antibody (HMAb), 1G5, isolated from single plasma cells obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dengue patients was found to have potent neutralization activity against serotype 1 DENV (DENV-1). Its neutralization activity against DENV-2 was not as strong, and it was almost absent for DENV-3 and DENV-4...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jamil Shah, Abul Shahidullah
Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health issue across the world and particularly in rural and urban areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Those at increased risk include inhabitants of poor and disadvantaged regions, which are more likely to have inadequate environmental sanitation, insufficient water supply, greater contact rates with reservoirs of infection, limited health literacy, and socioeconomic disparities. Of the intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that parasitize the human gastrointestinal tract, Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest in terms of size...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Mduduzi Ndlovu
Field research techniques are constantly evolving to meet the needs of the scientific community. There is a growing need for field biology studies to shift towards increasing efficiency and quality of results while simultaneously decreasing cost in both the researcher's time and resources. I tested the efficacy of using multiple recorded birdcall lures (n = 172 species) to improve mist-net captures at a subtropical African savanna setting. Capture success was compared between passive and birdcall enhanced mist-nets during winter and summer seasons...
2018: PloS One
Jamille Gregório Dombrowski, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Natércia Regina Mendes Silva, André Barateiro, Sabrina Epiphanio, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Claudio Romero Farias Marinho
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in tropical regions, causing maternal anemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight (LBW). The integration of the information systems on pregnancy and malaria could prove to be a useful method of improved decision making for better maternal-child health. METHODS: A population-based observational study acquired information retrospectively from all live births that occurred between 2006 and 2014 in Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)...
2018: PloS One
Zhendong Wu, Niklas Boke-Olén, Rasmus Fensholt, Jonas Ardö, Lars Eklundh, Veiko Lehsten
Biogeochemical models use meteorological forcing data derived with different approaches (e.g. based on interpolation or reanalysis of observation data or a hybrid hereof) to simulate ecosystem processes such as gross primary productivity (GPP). This study assesses the impact of different widely used climate datasets on simulated gross primary productivity and evaluates the suitability of them for reproducing the global and regional carbon cycle as mapped from independent GPP data. We simulate GPP with the biogeochemical model LPJ-GUESS using six historical climate datasets (CRU, CRUNCEP, ECMWF, NCEP, PRINCETON, and WFDEI)...
2018: PloS One
Emilio Vilanova, Hirma Ramírez-Angulo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Gerardo Aymard, Luis Gámez, Cristabel Durán, Lionel Hernández, Rafael Herrera, Geertje van der Heijden, Oliver L Phillips, Gregory J Ettl
Using data from 50 long-term permanent plots from across Venezuelan forests in northern South America, we explored large-scale patterns of stem turnover, aboveground biomass (AGB) and woody productivity (AGWP), and the relationships between them and with potential climatic drivers. We used principal component analysis coupled with generalized least squares models to analyze the relationship between climate, forest structure and stem dynamics. Two major axes associated with orthogonal temperature and moisture gradients effectively described more than 90% of the environmental variability in the dataset...
2018: PloS One
Maxime Beretta, Alain Moreau, Mélanie Bouvin-Pley, Asma Essat, Cécile Goujard, Marie-Laure Chaix, Stéphane Hue, Laurence Meyer, Francis Barin, Martine Braibant
OBJECTIVE: Transmission of HIV-1 involves a bottleneck in which generally a single HIV-1 variant from a diverse viral population in the transmitting partner establishes infection in the new host. It is still unclear to what extent this event is driven by specific properties of the transmitted viruses or the result of a stochastic process. Our study aimed to better characterize this phenomenon and define properties shared by transmitted viruses. DESIGN: We compared antigenic and functional properties of envelope glycoproteins of viral variants found during primary infection in 27 patients belonging to eight transmission chains...
June 20, 2018: AIDS
Daniel R Garźon-Chavez, Emmanuelle Quentin, Simone L Harrison, Alfio V Parisi, Harry J Butler, Nathan J Downs
Tropical Ecuador presents a unique climate in which we study the relationship between the ambient levels of solar ultraviolet radiation and eye disease in the absence of a latitudinal gradient. The national distribution of surface ultraviolet, taking into account MODIS and OMI satellite observation of aerosol, ozone, surface albedo, local elevation and cloud fractions measured during 2011, was compared with the national pterygium (WHO ICD H11) and senile cataract (WHO ICD H25) incidence projected from the 2010 National Institute of Statistics and Census (Ecuador)...
June 21, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Amanda B Macedo, Rachel S Resop, Laura Jean Martins, Matthew A Szaniawski, Eric S Sorensen, Adam M Spivak, Douglas F Nixon, R Brad Jones, Vicente Planelles, Alberto Bosque
Primary cell models of HIV latency have become tools to both understand the mechanisms involved in the establishment of latency as well as to test pre-clinical strategies towards an HIV-1 cure. These models rely on the infection of CD4 T cells from healthy donors. As such, these models provide an opportunity to explore the role of biological sex, age and HIV status on the establishment and reactivation of latent HIV in vitro. We have used an established primary cell model of latency based on the generation of latently infected central memory CD4 T cells with the CXCR4-strain HIV-1NL4-3 to address whether these variables influence: i) HIV-1NL4-3 replication, ii) establishment of latency, and iii) latency reversal in CD4 T cells...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Li-Juan Mao, Jia-Jie Chen, Chen-Yang Xia, Xiao-Xiao Feng, De-Dong Kong, Zhen-Yu Qi, Feng Liu, Dian Chen, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang
The endophytic fungi Muscodor spp. produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can inhibit and even kill pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Nine endophytic fungal strains, isolated from the shoots of gramineous plants including Arthraxon hispidus, Eleusine indica, Oplismenus undulatifolius, and Oryza granulata, were identified as Muscodor through phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Through an SPSS K-means cluster analysis, the nine Muscodor strains were divided into four groups based on the antifungal activities of the VOCs produced by these fungi determined by a two-section confrontation test...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
André M de Almeida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Eric Lim Teik Chung, Michael Predith, Frisco Nobilly, Anjas Asmara Samsudin, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Teck Chwen Loh
Brachiaria decumbens is an extremely productive tropical grass due to its aggressive growth habit and its adaptation to a varied range of soil types and environments. As a result of the vast availability, treated B. decumbens demonstrates as a promising local material that could be utilised as an improved diet for sheep and goats. Despite the fact that the grass significantly increases weight gains in grazing farm animals, there were many reports of general ill-thrift and sporadic outbreaks of photosensitivity in livestock due to the toxic compound of steroidal saponin found in B...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Janis A Müller, Anna Glöckle, Ali Gawanbacht, Matthias Geyer, Jan Münch, Frank Kirchhoff
VIRIP has been identified as natural HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion peptide. An optimized analogue (VIR-576) was effective in a phase I/II clinical trial and initial studies showed that HIV-1 resistance to VIRIP-based inhibitors has a high genetic barrier. Partially resistant CXCR4(X4)-tropic HIV-1 NL4-3 variants could be obtained, however, after more than 15 months of passaging in MT-4 cells in the presence of another derivative (VIR-353). Sequence analysis identified the accumulation of seven mutations across the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein but outside of the gp41 fusion peptide...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tim Newbold
Land-use and climate change are among the greatest threats facing biodiversity, but understanding their combined effects has been hampered by modelling and data limitations, resulting in part from the very different scales at which land-use and climate processes operate. I combine two different modelling paradigms to predict the separate and combined (additive) effects of climate and land-use change on terrestrial vertebrate communities under four different scenarios. I predict that climate-change effects are likely to become a major pressure on biodiversity in the coming decades, probably matching or exceeding the effects of land-use change by 2070...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nelly El-Sakkary, Steven Chen, Michelle R Arkin, Conor R Caffrey, Paula Ribeiro
Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by a flatworm trematode parasite that infects over 240 million people worldwide. Treatment and control of the disease rely on just one drug, praziquantel. The possibility of drug resistance coupled with praziquantel's variable efficacy encourages the identification of new drugs and drug targets. Disruption of neuromuscular homeostasis in parasitic worms is a validated strategy for drug development. However, in schistosomes, much remains to be understood about the organization of the nervous system, its component neurotransmitters and potential for drug discovery...
June 20, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Jaynee R Kim, Tamara M Wong, Patrick A Curry, Norine W Yeung, Kenneth A Hayes, Robert H Cowie
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a parasitic nematode, is expanding its distribution. Human infection, known as angiostrongyliasis, may manifest as eosinophilic meningitis, an emerging infectious disease. The range and incidence of this disease are expanding throughout the tropics and subtropics. Recently, the Hawaiian Islands have experienced an increase in reported cases. This study addresses factors affecting the parasite's distribution and projects its potential future distribution, using Hawaii as a model for its global expansion...
June 21, 2018: Parasitology
Luke Browne, Kym Ottewell, Victoria L Sork, Jordan Karubian
Seed and pollen dispersal shape patterns of gene flow and genetic diversity in plants. Pollen is generally thought to travel longer distances than seeds, but seeds determine the ultimate location of gametes. Resolving how interactions between these two dispersal processes shape micro-evolutionary processes is a long-standing research priority. We unambiguously isolated the separate and combined contributions of these two dispersal processes in seedlings of the animal-dispersed palm Oenocarpus bataua to address two questions...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
D Ransom Hardison, William C Holland, H Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain, Patricia A Tester, Damian Shea, Alex K Bogdanoff, James A Morris, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Dayne Buddo, R Wayne Litaker
Lionfish, native to reef ecosystems of the tropical and sub-tropical Indo-Pacific, were introduced to Florida waters in the 1980s, and have spread rapidly throughout the northwestern Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These invasive, carnivorous fish significantly reduce other fish and benthic invertebrate biomass, fish recruitment, and species richness in reef ecosystems. Fisheries resource managers have proposed the establishment of a commercial fishery to reduce lionfish populations and mitigate adverse effects on reef communities...
2018: PloS One
C A R Matias, I A Pereira, D P Rodrigues, S Siciliano
This work aimed to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus in wild birds seized in illegal trade and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Cloacal samples were obtained from 109 wild birds apprehended in the street markets in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were pheno and genotypically identified and resistance profile were evaluated by CLSI guidelines and by Polymerase Chain Reaction of mecA and blaZ genes. Staphylococcus was detected in 45,9% (50/109) of the cloacal swab samples and thirty-nine (78,0%) isolates were resistant to one or more of the nine antimicrobials tested, and were also positive to mecA (12/39) or blaZ genes (14/39)...
June 20, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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