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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#1
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433694/bacteroidales-markers-for-microbial-source-tracking-in-southeast-asia
#2
Jean Pierre Nshimyimana, Mercedes C Cruz, R Janelle Thompson, Stefan Wuertz
The island city country of Singapore served as a model to validate the use of host-associated Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene marker assays for identifying sources of fecal pollution in the urban tropical environment of Southeast Asia. A total of 295 samples were collected from sewage, humans, domesticated animals (cats, dogs, rabbits and chicken), and wild animals (birds, monkeys and wild boars). Samples were analyzed by real time PCR using five human-associated assays (HF183-SYBR Green, HF183, BacHum, BacH and B...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432859/the-impact-of-global-climate-change-on-the-spread-of-parasitic-nematodes
#3
Anna Okulewicz
Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the larvae living mainly in invertebrate intermediate hosts. In biologically diverse nematodes climate warming contributes to the increase in the range of distribution, colonization of new hosts and modification of their development cycles. This is particularly acute in the Arctic and pertains, for instance, to nematodes Ostertagia gruehneri and Setaria tundra parasitizing reindeer Rangifer tarandus and Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus)...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432628/design-of-water-quality-monitoring-networks-with-two-information-scenarios-in-tropical-andean-basins
#4
Juan Carlos Bastidas, Jorge Julián Vélez, Jeannette Zambrano, Adela Londoño
Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River)...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432358/differential-sensitivity-to-infections-and-antimicrobial-peptide-mediated-immune-response-in-four-silkworm-strains-with-different-geographical-origin
#5
Ottavia Romoli, Alessio Saviane, Andrea Bozzato, Paola D'Antona, Gianluca Tettamanti, Andrea Squartini, Silvia Cappellozza, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori has an innate immune system, whose main effectors are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Silkworm strains are commonly grouped into four geographical types (Japanese, Chinese, European and Tropical) and are generally characterised by a variable susceptibility to infections. To clarify the genetic and molecular mechanisms on which the different responses to infections are based, we exposed one silkworm strain for each geographical area to oral infections with the silkworm pathogens Enterococcus mundtii or Serratia marcescens...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431626/sleep-patterns-in-villagers-and-urban-african-volunteers-in-a-humid-tropical-climate-influence-of-accessibility-to-electric-light
#6
Alain Buguet, Pascal Bogui, Stéphane Picot, Raymond Cespuglio
Recent publications focusing on sleep-wake alternation, using actigraphic recordings in hunter-gatherers, stressed the existence of a potential effect of electricity availability on sleep habits. These reports prompted us to achieve a new analysis of the polysomnographic data already obtained in healthy African volunteers in equatorial Africa during two different investigations. Comparison of the 24-h polysomnographic sleep patterns were done between 9 volunteers sleeping in a laboratory in Abidjan (Abidjan cohort) and 11 villagers living in electricity-free bush villages (Sinfra cohort)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#7
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430794/experimental-demonstration-of-a-trophic-cascade-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-rocky-subtidal-effects-of-consumer-identity-and-behavior
#8
Jon D Witman, Franz Smith, Mark Novak
In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430018/characterization-of-canna-yellow-mottle-virus-in-a-new-host-alpinia-purpurata-in-hawaii
#9
Jingxin Zhang, Kishore K Dey, Birun Lin, Wayne B Borth, Michael J Melzer, Diane Sether, Yanan Wang, I-Chin Wang, Huifang Shen, Xiaoming Pu, Dayuan Sun, John S Hu
Canna yellow mottle virus (CaYMV) is an important badnavirus infecting Canna spp. worldwide. This is the first report of CaYMV in flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) in Hawaii, where it is associated with yellow mottling and necrosis of leaves, vein streaking, and stunted plants. We have sequenced CaYMV in A. purpurata (CaYMV-Ap) using a combination of next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing techniques. The complete genome of CaYMV-Ap was 7,120 bp with an organization typical of other Badnavirus species...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429905/maintenance-vitamin-d3-dosage-requirements-in-chinese-women-with-post-menopausal-osteoporosis-living-in-the-tropics
#10
Yogeswari Venugopal, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad Hatta, Nurbazlin Musa, Siti Abdul Rahman, Jeyakantha Ratnasingam, Sharmila Sunita Paramasivam, Lee Ling Lim, Luqman Ibrahim, Karen Choong, Alexander Tb Tan, Karuthan Chinna, Siew Pheng Chan, Shireene R Vethakkan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429776/global-distribution-of-particle-phase-state-in-atmospheric-secondary-organic-aerosols
#11
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429621/the-distribution-and-movement-of-american-cockroaches-in-urban-niches-of-new-orleans
#12
John C Carlson, Felicia A Rabito, Derek Werthmann, Mark Fox
American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429251/air-water-co2-and-ch4-fluxes-along-a-river-reservoir-continuum-case-study-in-the-pengxi-river-a-tributary-of-the-yangtze-river-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#13
Yang Huang, Lindsey M W Yasarer, Zhe Li, Belinda S M Sturm, Zengyu Zhang, Jinsong Guo, Yu Shen
Water surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in freshwater reservoirs are closely related to limnological processes in the water column. Affected by both reservoir operation and seasonal changes, variations in the hydro-morphological conditions in the river-reservoir continuum will create distinctive patterns in water surface GHG emissions. A one-year field survey was carried out in the Pengxi River-reservoir continuum, a part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) immediately after the TGR reached its maximum water level...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428344/vascular-adhesion-protein-1-is-elevated-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-predictive-of-clinical-outcome-and-facilitates-recruitment-of-gut-tropic-lymphocytes-to-liver-in-a-substrate-dependent-manner
#14
Palak J Trivedi, Joseph Tickle, Mette Nåmdal Vesterhus, Peter J Eddowes, Tony Bruns, Jani Vainio, Richard Parker, David Smith, Evaggelia Liaskou, Liv Wenche Thorbjørnsen, Gideon M Hirschfield, Kaisa Auvinen, Stefan G Hubscher, Marko Salmi, David H Adams, Chris J Weston
OBJECTIVE: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the classical hepatobiliary manifestation of IBD. This clinical association is linked pathologically to the recruitment of mucosal T cells to the liver, via vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1-dependent enzyme activity. Our aim was to examine the expression, function and enzymatic activation of the ectoenzyme VAP-1 in patients with PSC. DESIGN: We examined VAP-1 expression in patients with PSC, correlated levels with clinical characteristics and determined the functional consequences of enzyme activation by specific enzyme substrates on hepatic endothelium...
April 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428200/the-evolution-of-aluminum-accumulation-in-ferns-and-lycophytes
#15
Marco Schmitt, Klaus Mehltreter, Michael Sundue, Weston Testo, Toshihiro Watanabe, Steven Jansen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of aluminum (Al) accumulation within ferns and lycophytes, which is characterized by Al concentrations above 1000 mg·kg(-1) in aboveground plant tissues. We hypothesize that this feature is more common in ferns than in angiosperms, and potentially correlated with growth form and other chemical elements. METHODS: Aluminum concentrations were obtained from novel analyses and literature for a total of 354 specimens and 307 species...
April 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427491/identification-of-a-newly-isolated-getah-virus-in-the-china-laos-border-china
#16
Yuan Yuan Li, Shi Hong Fu, Xiao Fang Guo, Wen Wen Lei, Xiao Long Li, Jing Dong Song, Lei Cao, Xiao Yan Gao, Zhi Lyu, Ying He, Huan Yu Wang, Xiao Jie Ren, Hong Ning Zhou, Gui Qin Wang, Guo Dong Liang
In this study, we isolated a virus strain (YN12031) from specimens of Armigeres subalbatus collected in the China-Laos border. BHK-21 cells infected with YN12031 exhibited an evident cytopathic effect (CPE) 32 h post-infection. The virus particles were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and enveloped; they also featured surface fibers. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that YN12031 was closely related to alpha viruses such as Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus, and located in the same clade as MM2021, the prototype of Getahvirus (GETV) isolated in Malaysia in 1955...
March 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427478/morphological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-malayfilaria-sofiani-uni-mat-udin-takaoka-n-g-n-sp-nematoda-filarioidea-from-the-common-treeshrew-tupaia-glis-diard-duvaucel-mammalia-scandentia-in-peninsular-malaysia
#17
Shigehiko Uni, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Takeshi Agatsuma, Weerachai Saijuntha, Kerstin Junker, Rosli Ramli, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Sinnadurai Sivanandam, Emilie Lefoulon, Coralie Martin, Daicus Martin Belabut, Saharul Kasim, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim, Nur Afiqah Zainuri, Subha Bhassu, Masako Fukuda, Makoto Matsubayashi, Masashi Harada, Van Lun Low, Chee Dhang Chen, Narifumi Suganuma, Rosli Hashim, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Mohd Sofian Azirun
BACKGROUND: The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427354/unique-case-report-of-a-chromomycosis-and-listeria-in-soft-tissue-and-cerebellar-abscesses-after-kidney-transplantation
#18
J Tourret, N Benabdellah, S Drouin, F Charlotte, J Rottembourg, N Arzouk, A Fekkar, B Barrou
BACKGROUND: Chromomycosis is a rare mycotic infection encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease presents as a slowly-evolving nodule that can become infected with bacteria. Here, we describe a unique association of abscesses caused by a chromomycosis and Listeria monocytogenes in a kidney transplant recipient, and didactically expose how the appropriate diagnosis was reached. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year old male originating from the Caribbean presented a scalp lesion which was surgically removed in his hometown where it was misdiagnosed as a sporotrichosis on histology, 3 years after he received a kidney transplant...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427323/detection-of-qtl-for-traits-related-to-adaptation-to-sub-optimal-climatic-conditions-in-chickens
#19
Ching-Yi Lien, Michèle Tixier-Boichard, Shih-Wen Wu, Woei-Fuh Wang, Chen Siang Ng, Chih-Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Growth traits can be used as indicators of adaptation to sub-optimal conditions. The current study aimed at identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control performance under variable temperature conditions in chickens. METHODS: An F2 population was produced by crossing the Taiwan Country chicken L2 line (selected for body weight, comb area, and egg production) with an experimental line of Rhode Island Red layer R- (selected for low residual feed consumption)...
April 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427109/traveler-s-diarrhea-vision-abnormalities-and-unsteady-gait-in-a-young-woman
#20
Tobias Mühling, Felix Gundling, Thomas Helmberger, Wolfgang Schepp
We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic or subsequent antibiotic therapy. When neurologic deterioration was observed, imaging studies revealed a dramatic series of thromboembolic events, including intracranial hemorrhage caused by extensive sinus vein thrombosis as well as thrombi of the right cardiac ventricle. Colonic mucosal biopsy samples finally led to the histologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
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