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Joseph Shott, Camilla Ducker, Thomas R Unnasch, Charles D Mackenzie
An essential component in achieving accepted successful elimination of a disease or a pathogen involves the acquisition of quality-assured (QA) data that ultimately define the absence of infection or transmission in previously endemic areas. The acquisition of these essential data, in the case of onchocerciasis elimination, requires strong laboratory support for both testing and continuing evaluation/validation of the tools used for the required diagnostic and epidemiology procedures. There is also a need for standardization of the laboratory-based and field-based assays used across the onchocerciasis-endemic countries as well as continuing technical, fiscal and logistical support for laboratory activities...
March 1, 2018: International Health
S V Rama Rao, B Prakash, U Rajkumar, M V L N Raju, T Srilatha, E P K Reddy
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing sprouts of pulses on performance, carcass variables, immune responses, and anti-oxidant variables in broiler chicken (day 1 to 6 weeks of age) reared during summer season in tropical region. Sprouts of black gram (BG, Vigna mungo), green gram (GG, Vigna radiata), and wild gram (WG, Vigna trilobata) were produced by soaking the pulses in water for 16 h and incubating at 37 °C for 24 h. Total phenolic content in sprouts of WG, BG, and GG was 102, 96...
February 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Warllem Junio Oliveira, Fernanda do Carmo Magalhães, Andressa Mariana Saldanha Elias, Vanessa Normandio de Castro, Vivian Favero, Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Áureo Almeida Oliveira, Fernando Sergio Barbosa, Frederico Gil, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Martin Johannes Enk, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Mariângela Carneiro, Deborah Aparecida Negrão-Corrêa, Stefan Michael Geiger
BACKGROUND: In some tropical countries, such as Brazil, schistosomiasis control programs have led to a significant reduction in the prevalence and parasite burden of endemic populations. In this setting, the Kato-Katz technique, as the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections, which involves the analysis of two slides from one fecal sample, loses its sensitivity. As a result, a significant number of infected individuals are not detected. The objective of this study was to perform extensive parasitological testing of up to three fecal samples and include a rapid urine test (POC-CCA) in a moderate prevalence area in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluate the performance of each test separately and in combination...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shubham Shrivastava, Divya Tiraki, Arundhati Diwan, Sanjay K Lalwani, Meera Modak, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya A Arankalle
Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In recent years, India has reported increased incidences of concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV). In the present study, we have characterized DENV circulating during a single season of 2016 in Pune, India. A total of 64 serum samples from NS1 ELISA positive dengue patients were used for PCR amplification of CprM region of the viral genome and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis documented circulation of all the four DENV serotypes with predominance of DENV-2 (40...
2018: PloS One
Ben Parkinson, Drew Armit, Peter McEwen, Michelle Lorimer, Ian A Harris
BACKGROUND: Climate factors have been shown to be associated with spontaneous musculoskeletal and some surgical site infections with increased rates of infection during warmer periods. To date, little research has been performed to determine if this phenomenon is associated with differences in the risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in primary TKA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the rate of revision for early PJI within the first year after primary TKA differ between tropical and nontropical regions? (2) Is there a seasonal variation in the rate of revision for PJI? (3) Is the geographic and seasonal variation (if present) associated with the sex, age, and/or American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade of the patient? METHODS: All 219,983 primary TKAs performed for osteoarthritis over a 5-year period (2011-2015) in the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry were examined based on the month of the primary procedure to determine the rate of revision for PJI within 12 months...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Shyan Yea Chay, Annas Salleh, Nor Fazila Sulaiman, Najib Zainal Abidin, Mohamad Ariff Hanafi, Mohammad Zarei, Nazamid Saari
Winged bean seed (WBS) is an underutilized tropical crop. The current study evaluates its potential to reduce blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats and finds that it reduces BP significantly, in a dose-dependent manner. Five peptides with the sequences, RGVFPCLK, TQLDLPTQ, EPALVP, MRSVVT and DMKP, have been characterized in terms of their stability against ACE via in vitro and in silico modelling. All peptides exhibited IC50 values between 0.019 and 6.885 mM and various inhibitory modes, including substrate, prodrug and true inhibitor modes...
February 22, 2018: Food & Function
Li Zhen, Zheng Bin
OBJECTIVE: To describe the academic impact of publications from National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, so as to give the quantity evidence for scientific research decision making. METHODS: The SCIE papers of NIPD published from 2011-2015 were searched and statistically analyzed. The number of published papers, citation frequencies, h-index, and funding resources were analyzed. The academic impact of the institute was assessed according to these data...
March 2, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Mikhail Urbazaev, Christian Thiel, Felix Cremer, Ralph Dubayah, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Christiane Schmullius
BACKGROUND: Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed for understanding and managing processes involved in the carbon cycle and supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Furthermore, these products provide important baseline data for the development of sustainable management strategies to local stakeholders. The use of remote sensing data can provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales...
February 21, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Alexys G F Boim, Sónia M Rodrigues, Sabrina N Dos Santos-Araújo, Eduarda Pereira, Luís R F Alleoni
The anthropogenic input of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from industry, agrochemicals, etc., into the environment are of great concern. Models derived from pedotransfer functions can provide estimates of the levels of PTEs based on soil attributes. Based on the importance of these models in studies in contaminated areas, we assessed the concentrations of the reactive contents of Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils cultivated with vegetable crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of chemical and physical soil attributes on their reactivity and availability...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kok Wei Kan, Patrick Sylves, Nik-Lah Nik-Ahmad-Zuky, Ismail Shatriah
Dengue fever is common in the tropics and its clinical manifestations and complications are well-known. However, dengue-related ocular complications are rare. Here we present a postpartum female who complained of bilateral central scotoma, at five days after the clinical diagnosis of dengue fever. The ocular examination was suggestive of dengue maculopathy and foveolitis. She was treated with a combination of intravenous methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin. The final visual recovery was good.
December 13, 2017: Curēus
Bruce A Kimball, Aura M Alonso-Rodríguez, Molly A Cavaleri, Sasha C Reed, Grizelle González, Tana E Wood
The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4-m-diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Marcela Brasil de Castro Godinho, Fernando Rodrigues da Silva
We evaluated five non-mutually exclusive hypotheses driving the biogeographic regions of anuran species in the Amazonia. We overlaid extent-of-occurrence maps for anurans 50 × 50 km cells to generate a presence-absence matrix. This matrix was subjected to a cluster analysis to identify the pattern and number of biogeographic regions for the dataset. Then, we used multinomial logistic regression models and deviance partitioning to explore the relative importance of contemporary and historical climate variables, topographic complexity, riverine barriers and vegetation structure in explaining the biogeographic regions identified...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Blake Miller, Nathalie Selevsek, Jonas Grossman, Tanya Kilminster, Tim Scanlon, Matthew Daniels, Paolo Nanni, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johan Greef, Aspinas Chapwanya, Don Bergfelt, André M de Almeida
The effect of feed restriction on the liver protein profiles of two different breeds of sheep was studied. We compared Merino with the Damara, breeds with respectively low and high tolerance to nutritional stress. Each breed was grouped into two nutritional treatments: restricted (12-14% loss of live weight) and control (maintenance). The trial lasted 42 days. Animals were sacrificed and liver samples subjected to label free shotgun proteomics. The resultant proteins had both their fold change and statistical significance in an unpaired t-test calculated to identify differential protein abundance...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Hamleth Valois-Cuesta, Carolina Martínez-Ruiz, Yorley Urrutia-Rivas
Mining is one of the main economic activities in many tropical regions and is the cause of devastation of large areas of natural tropical forests. The knowledge of the regenerative potential of mining disturbed areas provides valuable information for their ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age of abandonment of mines and their distance from the adjacent forest, on the formation of soil seed bank in abandoned mines in the San Juan, Chocó, Colombia. To do this, we determined the abundance and species composition of the soil seed bank, and the dynamics of seed rain in mines of different cessation period of mining activity (6 and 15 years), and at different distances from the adjacent forest matrix (50 and 100 m)...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Damián Ruiz-Ramoni, Paolo Ramoni-Perazzi, Mariana Muñoz-Romo
Bimodal polyestry is the most common reproductive pattern in tropical bats, and it consists in producing one offspring per female twice a year. Reproductive patterns are closely related to rainfall regimes, frequently occurring twice a year in tropical regions. The goal of our study was to determine the reproductive pattern of the large fruit-eating bat, Artibeus amplus Handley, 1987 in a cave in the Venezuelan Andes inhabited by a large, stable colony. Thus, in this study we describe for the first time this important biological aspect of this unknown Neotropical bat species through the examination of external reproductive characteristics of males (inguinal or scrotal testes) and females (pregnant, lactating, post-lactating), based on 211 individuals (120 males and 91 females) captured between September 2008 and August 2009, in Cueva del Parque Las Escaleras, Estado Táchira, Venezuela...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
José Rincón, Diana Merchán, Agustin Sparer, Damodara Rojas, Edwin Zarate
The ecological condition of tropical Andean rivers are threatened by many human activities including changes in land use and cover in watersheds. Current protocols diagnose the structural condition of streams but not their function. In this study we proposed an assessment tool using the leaf-litter breakdown as a measure of the functional condition and health of high Andean streams in Southern Ecuador, including methodology and threshold values adapted to local conditions. We selected 15 streams in three micro-basins (Mazán, Llaviuco and Matadero) within or in the vicinity of Cajas National Park where we deployed litterbags for 15, 28 and 64 days...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Jhonatan Andrés Muñoz Gutiérrez, Guillaume Xavier Roussea, Joudellys Andrade-Silva, Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie
Deforestation in Amazon forests is one of the main causes for biodiversity loss worldwide. Ants are key into the ecosystem because act like engineers; hence, the loss of ants’ biodiversity may be a guide to measure the loss of essential functions into the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil ant’s richness and to estimate whether higher taxa levels (Subfamily and Genus) can be used as surrogates of species richness in different vegetation types (fallows, old-growth forests and agroforestry systems) in Eastern Amazon...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Juan Gassman, Héctor López Rojas, Dana Padrón
Snooks C. undecimalis and C. ensiferus are important fishery resources in their distribution area. In Venezuela they are caught by artisanal fisheries along the entire coast. However, studies on their biology that would help establish fishing regulations are scarce. To study reproduction aspects of these species, we analyzed 1 325 individuals of C. undecimalis and 2 025 of C. ensiferus caught by artisanal fishing in the Laguna de Tacarigua in Northern Venezuela, from July 2009 to September 2010. Total length, total weight, sex and stage of gonadal development were recorded...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Iris Aparecida Soares, Víctor Salinas, Omar Del Ponti, Miguel Alberto Mancini, José Luis Luque
Parasitic copepods of the family Lernaeidae are often found infesting freshwater fishes worldwide. They cause lernaeosis, a disease that can lead to serious pathogenic effects on their fish hosts. The most common lernaeid is the Lernaea cyprinacea, which has been widely introduced through importation of tropical fishes, e.g. cyprinids. In South America, it is one of the most common parasites both in wild and in farmed fish in the central region of Argentina. The silverside Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important fish of the sport fisheries of Argentina and one of the fish most affected by lernaeosis...
February 19, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Nathan B Gonçalves, Felipe C Nettesheim, Marilena M S Conde
Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4'37.09"S; 43°59'2.15"W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history...
February 19, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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