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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236312/hazard-assessment-of-the-pesticides-kraft%C3%A2-36-ec-and-score%C3%A2-in-a-tropical-natural-soil-using-an-ecotoxicological-test-battery
#1
Vanessa Bezerra De Menezes Oliveira, Miriam De Oliveira Bianchi, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espíndola
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural fields to control plant diseases, weeds and pests, however, the unforeseeable consequences of releasing these compounds into the soil and their effects on terrestrial invertebrates are a matter of grave concern. The aim of this study was to determine the direct impact of two pesticides, KRAFT® 36 EC (an insecticide; a.i abamectin) and SCORE® (a fungicide; a.i. difenoconazole), on non-target terrestrial invertebrates. Ecotoxicological tests were performed to evaluate the chronic and acute toxicity of these compounds to a potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus), a collembolan (Folsomia candida) and a mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer)...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236157/isoprene-emissions-and-ozone-formation-in-urban-conditions-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro
#2
Cleyton Martins da Silva, Sergio Machado Corrêa, Graciela Arbilla
The potential role of isoprene oxidative processes, as well as the possible impact of air pollution on isoprene emissions, are more important in tropical cities, surrounded by rainforests. In this study, the contribution of isoprene to ozone formation was determined considering different scenarios, mainly volatile organic compounds/NO x (VOC/NO x ) ratios, and typical atmospheric conditions for the city of Rio de Janeiro, where more than 36% of the urbanized area is covered by vegetation. Ozone isopleths and incremental reactivity coefficients (IR) were evaluated to understand the direct contribution of isoprene to ground-level ozone formation and the negative impact of anthropogenic NO x emissions on the natural atmospheric balance...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234603/a-retrospective-study-of-clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-snakebite-related-deaths-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-midnapore-west-bengal-india
#3
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234602/neutralization-of-naja-naja-venom-induced-lethality-edema-and-myonecrosis-by-ethanolic-root-extract-of-coix-lacryma-jobi
#4
K S Rajesh, B R Bharath, C V Rao, K I Bhat, K S Chandrashekhar Bhat, Pritesh Bhat
Coix lacryma-jobi, commonly known as job's tear, is a tall grain-bearing tropical plant of the family Poaceae. The ethanolic root extract (ERE) of the plant was investigated for the first time for anti-venom activity against Indian cobra Naja naja venom. In-vitro studies were conducted to determine neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of the Naja naja venom by the ERE. ERE showed significant inhibition of PLA2 activity, which was further confirmed from effective neutralization of human red blood cells (HRBC) lysis induced by the venom...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234365/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-croton-macrostachyus-hochst-ex-delile-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton macrostachyus is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. macrostachyus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 81 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, typhoid, and wounds and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234354/differential-microbial-diversity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-are-fruit-flies-potential-vectors-of-opportunistic-pathogens
#6
Luis A Ramírez-Camejo, Génesis Maldonado-Morales, Paul Bayman
Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234353/enteric-fever-caused-by-salmonella-enterica-serovars-with-reduced-susceptibility-of-fluoroquinolones-at-a-community-based-teaching-hospital-of-nepal
#7
Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Puspa Raj Khanal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever continues to be an important public health problem especially in developing countries of the tropical region including Nepal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica and determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities to therapeutic antimicrobials in a community based teaching hospital of Nepal. A total of 2,304 blood samples from suspected enteric fever patients attending Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital were processed with standard microbiological methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234312/parallelized-aerobic-single-carbon-source-enrichments-from-different-natural-environments-contain-divergent-microbial-communities
#8
Theodore M Flynn, Jason C Koval, Stephanie M Greenwald, Sarah M Owens, Kenneth M Kemner, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Microbial communities that inhabit environments such as soil can contain thousands of distinct taxa, yet little is known about how this diversity is maintained in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in the availability of carbon. By utilizing aerobic substrate arrays to examine the effect of carbon amendment on microbial communities taken from six distinct environments (soil from a temperate prairie and forest, tropical forest soil, subalpine forest soil, and surface water and soil from a palustrine emergent wetland), we examined how carbon amendment and inoculum source shape the composition of the community in each enrichment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234183/lymph-node-enlargement-in-neck-filariasis-as-a-rare-cause-a-case-report
#9
Rindu Raveendran
Lymphatic filariasis is endemic to tropical countries and is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema in the world. Wuchereria bancrofti is the main etiological agent responsible. While the presentation of filariasis in limbs is common, isolated presentation as a single enlarged lymph node in the neck is very rare. We describe a 48-year-old Indian woman, who presented with a hard lymph node in the neck. There was no other significant lymph node enlargement. The overlying skin was erythematous, and no other findings were present on examination...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233995/adeno-associated-virus-serotype-rh10-is-a-useful-gene-transfer-vector-for-sensory-nerves-that-innervate-bone-in-immunodeficient-mice
#10
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Mary E Booker, Aaron G Sunil, D Brooke Widner, Renee A Parker, Christopher M Peters, Yusuke Shiozawa
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used to manipulate gene expression in the sensory nervous system for the study of pain mechanisms. Although some serotypes of AAV are known to have nerve tropism, whether AAV can distribute to sensory nerves that innervate the bone or skeletal tissue has not been shown. This information is crucial, since bone pain, including cancer-induced bone pain, is an area of high importance in pain biology. In this study, we found that AAVrh10 transduces neurons in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of immunodeficient mice with higher efficacy than AAV2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 when injected intrathecally...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232690/rna-interference-in-fasciola-gigantica-establishing-and-optimization-of-experimental-rnai-in-the-newly-excysted-juveniles-of-the-fluke
#11
Arun Anandanarayanan, Opinder Krishen Raina, Hniang Lalrinkima, Ajayta Rialch, Muthu Sankar, Anju Varghese
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica is a neglected tropical disease but a constraint on the growth and productivity of cattle, buffaloes and sheep in the tropical countries of Asia and Africa. Resistance to commonly used anthelmintics in Fasciola has increased the need to search for alternative therapeutic targets. RNA interference is the current tool of choice in the search for such targets in Fasciola. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds) RNA induced RNAi has been established but in F...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232370/spatio-temporal-variations-of-conservation-hotspots-based-on-ecosystem-services-in-xishuangbanna-southwest-china
#12
Shiliang Liu, Yijie Yin, Fangyan Cheng, Xiaoyun Hou, Shikui Dong, Xue Wu
Integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) has been viewed as an appropriate approach to identifying conservation priorities. Taking Xishuangbanna tropical region in Southwest China, different BESs (habitat quality [used as a proxy for biodiversity], carbon storage, and water yield) were quantified using the InVEST model and conservation hotspots from 1976, 1990, and 2010 were identified by overlapping and ranking the service layers. Results showed that BESs areas were unevenly distributed. High habitat quality and carbon storage areas located in the eastern part of the region were mainly occupied by broad-leaved forest, while high water yield areas were covered by grassland and tropical forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231846/the-discrepant-and-similar-responses-of-genome-wide-transcriptional-profiles-between-drought-and-cold-stresses-in-cassava
#13
Changying Zeng, Zehong Ding, Fang Zhou, Yufei Zhou, Ruiju Yang, Zi Yang, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng
Background: Cassava, an important tropical crop, has remarkable drought tolerance, but is very sensitive to cold. The growth, development, and root productivity of cassava are all adversely affected under cold and drought. Methods: To profile the transcriptional response to cold and drought stresses, cassava seedlings were respectively subjected to 0, 6, 24, and 48 h of cold stress and 0, 4, 6, and 10 days of drought stress. Their folded leaves, fully extended leaves, and roots were respectively investigated using RNA-seq...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230921/global-grass-poaceae-success-underpinned-by-traits-facilitating-colonization-persistence-and-habitat-transformation
#14
H P Linder, Caroline E R Lehmann, Sally Archibald, Colin P Osborne, David M Richardson
Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory...
December 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230347/induction-of-reactive-intermediates-and-autophagy-related-proteins-upon-infection-of-macrophages-with-rhodococcus-equi
#15
Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Mahesh Bhandari, Sarah A Wiechert, Jessica Gilbertie, Douglas E Jones, Brett A Sponseller
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular macrophage-tropic pathogen with potential for causing fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. In this study, we sought to determine whether infection of macrophages with R. equi could lead to the induction of autophagy. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were infected with R. equi for various time intervals and analyzed for upregulation of autophagy proteins and accumulation of autophagosomes relative to uninfected controls...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230332/mechanisms-involving-myocardial-injury-in-tropical-stings-and-bites
#16
Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Mahesan Guruparan, Ratnasamy Vithiya, Indika Gawarammana
It is known that a number of toxic substances produce myocardial injury by several mechanisms involving interruption of coronary blood flow due to stimulation of clotting mechanism and coronary vasospasm. Number of toxic substances may cause direct myocardial toxicity independent of coronary blood flow. Acute myocardial injury due to stings and bites is a rare entity and not well understood. Here we illustrate a case of myocardial injury due to Russell's viper envenomation.
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230024/forest-extent-and-deforestation-in-tropical-africa-since-1900
#17
Julie C Aleman, Marta A Jarzyna, A Carla Staver
Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent to estimate deforestation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229857/effect-of-oil-palm-sustainability-certification-on-deforestation-and-fire-in-indonesia
#18
Kimberly M Carlson, Robert Heilmayr, Holly K Gibbs, Praveen Noojipady, David N Burns, Douglas C Morton, Nathalie F Walker, Gary D Paoli, Claire Kremen
Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229760/functional-characterization-of-the-ca2-atpase-sma1-from-schistosoma-mansoni
#19
Xavier Maréchal, Ricardo De Mendonça, Roger Miras, Jean Revilloud, Patrice Catty
Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite that causes bilharzia, a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions of people each year worldwide. In 2012, S. mansoni had been identified as the only invertebrate possessing two SERCA-type Ca2+-ATPases, SMA1 and SMA2. However, our analysis of recent genomic data shows that the presence of two SERCA pumps is rather frequent in parasitic flatworms. To understand the reasons of this redundancy in S. mansoni , we compared SMA1 and SMA2 at different levels. In terms of sequence and organization, the genes SMA1 and SMA2 are similar, suggesting that they might be the result of a duplication event...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228974/central-nervous-system-transcriptome-of-biomphalaria-alexandrina-an-intermediate-host-for-schistosomiasis
#20
Tamer A Mansour, Mohamed R Habib, Laura C Vicente Rodríguez, Anthony Hernández Vázquez, Julián Maldonado Alers, Alfredo Ghezzi, Roger P Croll, C Titus Brown, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Globally, more than 200 million people live at risk of the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis (or snail fever). Larval schistosomes require the presence of specific snail species that act as intermediate hosts, supporting their multiplication and transformation into forms that can infect humans. This project was designed to generate a transcriptome from the central nervous system (CNS) of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt...
December 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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