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Kai Jiang, Hui Gao, Xiao Yong Chen
Seagrasses are monocotyledons that grow in intertidal and subtidal zones. Seagrass beds are among ecosystems with the highest ecosystem service value. However, seagrass beds are rapidly decline due to anthropogenic disturbances and global climate change. Enhalus acoroides, a monoecious perennial species, is the largest seagrass in stature. It distributes in tropical regions, with Hainan Island as its northern limits. Clonal diversity and genetic structure of E. acoroides populations in Hainan Island were studied to facilitate its conservation and restoration...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Anne H Toomey, María Eugenia Copa Alvaro, Matthew Aiello-Lammens, Oscar Loayza Cossio, Jos Barlow
Current debates in the conservation sciences argue for better integration between research and practice, often citing the importance of the diffusion, dissemination and implementation of scientific knowledge for environmental management and policy. This paper focuses on a relatively well-researched protected area (Madidi National Park) in Bolivia in order to present different interpretations and understandings of the implications and availability of research findings. We draw on findings from quantitative and qualitative methods to determine the extent to which research carried out in the region was disseminated and/or implemented for management actions, and to understand subsequent implications for how local actors perceive the value of research and its role in management and conservation...
April 24, 2018: Ambio
Jonas S Gunnarsson, Luisa E Castillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sylvanus Mensah, Ben du Toit, Thomas Seifert
Forest stratification plays a crucial role in light interception and plant photosynthetic activities. However, despite the increased number of studies on biodiversity-ecosystem function, we still lack information on how stratification in tropical forests modulates biodiversity effects. Moreover, there is less investigation and argument on the role of species and functional traits in forest layers. Here, we analysed from a perspective of forest layer (sub-canopy, canopy and emergent species layers), the relationship between diversity and aboveground biomass (AGB), focusing on functional diversity and dominance, and underlying mechanisms such as niche complementarity and selection...
April 24, 2018: Oecologia
Steffen E Eikenberry, Abba B Gumel
Malaria, one of the greatest historical killers of mankind, continues to claim around half a million lives annually, with almost all deaths occurring in children under the age of five living in tropical Africa. The range of this disease is limited by climate to the warmer regions of the globe, and so anthropogenic global warming (and climate change more broadly) now threatens to alter the geographic area for potential malaria transmission, as both the Plasmodium malaria parasite and Anopheles mosquito vector have highly temperature-dependent lifecycles, while the aquatic immature Anopheles habitats are also strongly dependent upon rainfall and local hydrodynamics...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues
Leishmaniasis, a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoans, primarily affects people in tropical and subtropical areas. Chemotherapy based on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B is currently the only effective treatment. However, adverse effects, long-term treatment and the emergence of parasite resistance have led to the search for alternative treatments. Natural products used in traditional medicine provide an unlimited source of molecules for the identification of new drugs, and the Amazon region has abundant biodiversity that includes several species of plants and animals, providing a rich source of new products and compounds...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Simone Maria De Albuquerque Lira, Claudeilton Severino De Santana, Ralf Schwamborn
The first zoeal-stage larva of a possibly new species of mud shrimp Naushonia (Decapoda: Gebiidea: Laomediidae) was described from plankton samples taken off the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, being the first occurrence at the oceanic islands of the Equatorial Atlantic. Five zoea I larvae were obtained and dissected for observation of mouthparts. This zoea I of Naushonia sp. is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. portoricensis (Rathbun 1901) from the Caribbean and N. cangronoides (Kingsley 1897) from the Northwest Atlantic in terms of development and setation of appendages, and possibly belongs to a new, undescribed species...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Aparna Lajmi, Aniruddha Datta-Roy, Raju Vyas, Ishan Agarwal, Praveen Karanth
Hemidactylus Oken, 1817 is one of the most speciose genera of the family Gekkonidae with more than 140 described species (Uetz et al. 2016). While this genus naturally occurs across the tropics and subtropics, a substantial part of its distribution also results from human-mediated dispersal. Carranza Arnold (2006) retrieved five broad clades in a global phylogeny of Hemidactylus, one of which has species distributed in tropical Asia. Subsequent work by Bauer et al. (2010) and Bansal Karanth (2010) revealed that the species from tropical Asia fell into two deeply divergent and potentially non-sister sub-clades-one comprising a large radiation confined to peninsular India and Sri Lanka (the Indian radiation, IR), and the other comprising species largely distributed in Southeast (SE) Asia...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Paul Alain Nana, ZÉphyrin Fokam, Bernard ViguÈs, GeneviÈve Bricheux, GidÉon Ajeagah Aghaindum, Pierre Ngassam, MoÏse Nola, TÉlesphore Sime-Ngando
Morphological and infraciliature studies carried out using pyridinated ammoniacal silver carbonate and the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining techniques, led to the identification of two new species of ciliates pertaining to the subclass Astomatia. The first species, Hoplitophrya polymorphus sp. nov., displays two main cellular forms: the elongated form (150-247 μm long and 40-87 μm width) and the stocky form (140-170 μm long and 70-98 μm width). The macronucleus is generally skinny in the elongated forms and ribbon-shaped in the stocky forms...
March 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Krzysztof Zawierucha, Piotr GĄsiorek, Jakub Buda, Jun Uetake, Karel Janko, Diego Fontaneto
Glaciers and ice sheets are a peculiar biome with characteristic abiotic and biotic components. Mountain glaciers are predicted to decrease their volume and even to melt away within a few decades. Despite the threat of a disappearing biome, the diversity and the role of microscopic animals as consumers at higher trophic levels in the glacial biome still remain largely unknown. In this study, we report data on tardigrades and rotifers found in glacial mosses on Mount Stanley, Uganda, and describe a new tardigrade species...
March 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Peter C Dworschak, Gary C B Poore
Re-examination of the holotype of Neoaxius nicoyaensis Sakai, 2017 showed that it is conspecific with the axiid Guyanacaris caespitosa Squires, 1979 and thus Neoaxius Sakai, 2017 and Neoaxiidae Sakai, 2017 are respectively subjective junior synonyms of Guyanacaris Sakai, 2011 and Axiidae Huxley, 1879. The types and numerous specimens of the callianassid Trypaea vilavelebita Sakai Türkay, 2012 are juveniles of the common northeastern Atlantic-Mediterranean species, Callianassa subterranea (Montagu, 1808); the name is therefore a subjective junior synonym...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Frano KrŠiniĆ
An investigation of large tintinnids was carried out during the Arctic-Antarctic cruise aboard the S/V "Croatian Tern" in the period from 1994 to 1997. Samples were collected at 33 stations by vertical tows with a Nansen net with a 53 µm mesh size in the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic, Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay, the Beaufort, Chukchi and Bering Seas, East North Pacific, South Pacific, South East Pacific, Scotia Sea, and South West Atlantic. A total of 47 species of tintinnids were found, with the greatest diversity in the Tropical areas of the Pacific, Arctic and Subarctic...
March 21, 2018: Zootaxa
AndrÉ Marsola Giroti, Antonio Domingos Brescovit
The spider genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 currently comprises 102 of 127 described species of Segestriidae. Its distribution comprises all continents (except Antarctica), but it is mostly found on the tropical and subtropical regions. We present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Ariadna in the American continent, including 2,519 specimens (i.e., type and non-type) from 30 arachnological collections. We present 31 nominal species, among which eight species are new to the science: Ariadna reginae n. sp. from Central America; Ariadna aurea n...
March 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Roger A Burks, John M Heraty, Chrysalyn Dominguez, Jason L Mottern
Twenty-nine species are recognized in the Orasema stramineipes species group, including 22 new species in what is now the most diverse species group of the New World ant-parasitoid genus Orasema Cameron. Orasema aenea Gahan syn. n. is synonymized with O. freychei (Gemignani), the holotype of which has been rediscovered. Orasema smithi Howard syn. n. is synonymized with Orasema minutissima Howard. Orasema violacea Gemignani syn. n. and its replacement name Orasema gemignanii De Santis syn. n. are synonymized with O...
March 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Art Borkent, Brian V Brown, Peter H Adler, Dalton de Souza Amorim, Kevin Barber, Daniel Bickel, Stephanie Boucher, Scott E Brooks, John Burger, Z L Burington, Renato S Capellari, Daniel N R Costa, Jeffrey M Cumming, Greg Curler, Carl W Dick, J H Epler, Eric Fisher, Stephen D Gaimari, Jon Gelhaus, David A Grimaldi, John Hash, Martin Hauser, Heikki Hippa, Sergio IbÁÑez-Bernal, Mathias Jaschhof, Elena P Kameneva, Peter H Kerr, Valery Korneyev, Cheslavo A Korytkowski, Giar-Ann Kung, Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte, Owen Lonsdale, Stephen A Marshall, Wayne N Mathis, Verner Michelsen, Stefan Naglis, Allen L Norrbom, Steven Paiero, Thomas Pape, Alessandre Pereira-Colavite, Marc Pollet, Sabrina Rochefort, Alessandra Rung, Justin B Runyon, Jade Savage, Vera C Silva, Bradley J Sinclair, Jeffrey H Skevington, John O Iii Stireman, John Swann, Pekka Vilkamaa, Terry Wheeler, Terry Whitworth, Maria Wong, D Monty Wood, Norman Woodley, Tiffany Yau, Thomas J Zavortink, Manuel A Zumbado
Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America. Specimens were collected with two Malaise traps running continuously and with a wide array of supplementary collecting methods for three days of each month...
March 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Paul Doughty, Gayleen Bourke, Leonardo G Tedeschi, Renae C Pratt, Paul M Oliver, Russell A Palmer, Craig Moritz
Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques and increased fine scale sampling in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) have provided new impetus to reassess species boundaries in the Gehyra nana species complex, a clade of small-bodied, saxicolous geckos which are widely distributed across northern Australia. A recent phylogenomic analysis revealed eight deeply divergent lineages that occur as a series of overlapping distributions across the AMT and which, as a whole, are paraphyletic with four previously described species...
April 4, 2018: Zootaxa
Jian-Hong Xia, Han-Lin Wu, Chen-Hong Li, Yuan-Qi Wu, Su-Han Liu
The genus Rhinogobius Gill 1859 is widely distributed in fresh waters along the Western Pacific coast of tropical and temperate Asia. A new species, Rhinogobius maxillivirgatus, is described from Anhui Province in Eastern China. This species can be differentiated from all congeners by a combination of the following characters: up to 6 longitudinal brown to black stripes along the side of the body; pectoral-fin rays modally 14; predorsal scale series 5-9; lateral scale series 28-30; transverse scale series 6-7; branchiostegal membrane with about 20 red round spots in males; and 2 black oblique stripes parallel along the upper jaw on the anterior portion of the cheek...
April 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Eduardo Marabuto, Maria Teresa Rebelo
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is a tropical species originally from south-eastern Asia (Hawley, 1988). It has experienced a rampant human-mediated range expansion since the 1970s to now occupy almost the whole of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. As an eclectic haematophagous species, it attacks humans and is able to use a number of man-made and natural structures where stagnant water is present (Estrada-Franco Craig, 1995). Eggs are able to survive for extended periods of time in complete dryness and diapause over unsuitable cold season, making it an especially resilient species (Hawley, 1988)...
April 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Michael P Hammer, Gerald R Allen, Keith C Martin, Mark Adams, Brendan C Ebner, Tarmo A Raadik, Peter J Unmack
The freshwater melanotaeniid genus Cairnsichthys is endemic to a relatively small area of specialised habitat within the Wet Tropics bioregion of north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It was previously considered as monotypic, including only a single species, C. rhombosomoides (Nichols Raven, 1928). The recent discovery of an apparently-isolated population in the Daintree rainforest, approximately 120 km north of the known range extent, prompted a detailed investigation of its taxonomic status using a combined lines of evidence approach...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
JosÉ A GonzÁlez
The complete list of Canarian marine decapods (last update by González Quiles 2003, popular book) currently comprises 374 species/subspecies, grouped in 198 genera and 82 families; whereas the Cape Verdean marine decapods (now fully listed for the first time) are represented by 343 species/subspecies with 201 genera and 80 families. Due to changing environmental conditions, in the last decades many subtropical/tropical taxa have reached the coasts of the Canary Islands. Comparing the carcinofaunal composition and their biogeographic components between the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagos would aid in: validating the appropriateness in separating both archipelagos into different ecoregions (Spalding et al...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
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