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Ching-Wen Pan, Meng-Hsien Chen, Lien-Siang Chou, Hsing-Juh Lin
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer R Honda, Nabeeh A Hasan, Rebecca M Davidson, Myra D Williams, L Elaine Epperson, Paul R Reynolds, Terry Smith, Elena Iakhiaeva, Matthew J Bankowski, Richard J Wallace, Edward D Chan, Joseph O Falkinham, Michael Strong
Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
D Brent McRoberts, Steven M Quiring, Seth D Guikema
Tropical cyclones can significantly damage the electrical power system, so an accurate spatiotemporal forecast of outages prior to landfall can help utilities to optimize the power restoration process. The purpose of this article is to enhance the predictive accuracy of the Spatially Generalized Hurricane Outage Prediction Model (SGHOPM) developed by Guikema et al. (2014). In this version of the SGHOPM, we introduce a new two-step prediction procedure and increase the number of predictor variables. The first model step predicts whether or not outages will occur in each location and the second step predicts the number of outages...
October 25, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Yoonja Kang, Ying-Zhong Tang, Gordon T Taylor, Christopher J Gobler
To date, the life stages of pelagophytes have been poorly described. This study describes the ability of Aureoumbra lagunensis to enter a resting stage in response to environmental stressors including high temperature, nutrient depletion, and darkness as well as their ability to revert from resting cells back to vegetative cells after exposure to optimal light, temperature, and nutrient conditions. Resting cells became round in shape and larger in size, filled with red accumulation bodies, had smaller and fewer plastids, more vacuolar space, contained lower concentrations of chlorophyll a and RNA, displayed reduced photosynthetic efficiency, and lower respiration rates relative to vegetative cells...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Yancheng Zhang, Xu Zhang, Cristiano M Chiessi, Stefan Mulitza, Xiao Zhang, Gerrit Lohmann, Matthias Prange, Hermann Behling, Matthias Zabel, Aline Govin, André O Sawakuchi, Francisco W Cruz, Gerold Wefer
Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18-15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. However, the physical viability of this mechanism has never been rigorously tested. We address this issue by combining a thorough compilation of tropical South American paleorecords and a set of atmosphere model sensitivity experiments...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
D R Bhardwaj, Muneesa Banday, Nazir A Pala, Bhalendra Singh Rajput
In the present study, forests at three altitudes, viz., A1 (600-900 m), A2 (900-1200 m) and A3 (1200-1500 m) above mean sea level having normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI) values of N1 (0.0-0.1), N2 (0.1-0.2), N3 (0.2-0.3), N4 (0.3-0.4) and N5 (0.4-0.5) were selected for studying their relationship with the biomass and carbon pool in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study reported maximum stem density of (928 trees ha(-1)) at the A2 altitude and minimum in the A3 and A1 with 600 trees ha(-1) each...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Alexander Schmidt-Durán, Carlos Alvarado-Ulloa, Randall Chacón-Cerdas, Luis Fernando Alvarado-Marchena, Dora Flores-Mora
Blackberries are fruits produced worldwide, with 25 % of their production centered in Mexico, Central and South America. Tropical highland blackberry is a fruit that can potentially enhance human health, due to their high content in phenolic compounds, which include anthocyanins, phenolic acids, tannins (gallotannins and elagitannins) and flavonoids. Therefore, the overall aim of this study is the development of a callus induction protocol, the establishment of blackberry cell suspensions (Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yasutaka Tajima, Mariko Matsumura, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I-) positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Alesandro S Santos, Eliana Cazetta, Pavel Dodonov, Deborah Faria, Fernanda A Gaiotto
Habitat loss represents one of the main threats to tropical forests, which have reached extremely high rates of species extinction. Forest loss negatively impacts biodiversity, affecting ecological (e.g., seed dispersal) and genetic (e.g., genetic diversity and structure) processes. Therefore, understanding how deforestation influences genetic resources is strategic for conservation. Our aim was to empirically evaluate the effects of landscape-scale forest reduction on the spatial genetic structure and gene flow of Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae), a palm tree considered a keystone resource for many vertebrate species...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
John E Pool, Dylan T Braun, Justin B Lack
Drosophila melanogaster originated in tropical Africa before expanding into strikingly different temperate climates in Eurasia and beyond. Here, we find elevated cold tolerance in three distinct geographic regions: beyond the well-studied non-African case, we show that populations from the highlands of Ethiopia and South Africa have significantly increased cold tolerance as well. We observe greater cold tolerance in outbred versus inbred flies, but only in populations with higher inversion frequencies. Each cold-adapted population shows lower inversion frequencies than a closely-related warm-adapted population, suggesting that inversion frequencies may decrease with altitude in addition to latitude...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Peter U Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Cédric B Chesnais, Innocent Takougang, Marius Paguélé, Sébastien D Pion, Michel Boussinesq
BACKGROUND: The burden of loiasis has received limited attention and loiasis is still considered a benign condition. To assess whether loiasis bears any excess mortality, we did a retrospective cohort study in Cameroon. METHODS: In 2001, 3627 individuals living in 28 villages were examined for Loa loa infection. In 2016, these villages were revisited and the vital status was determined for 3301 individuals (91%). The data were analysed at community level to assess the relation between the level of L loa infection in 2001 and standardised mortality rates (SMRs), and at individual level to assess the excess mortality relative to the 2001 microfilaraemia and to calculate the population-attributable fraction of mortality associated with L loa microfilaraemia...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Julio Vargas, Vincenzo Landi, Amparo Martínez, Mayra Gómez, María Esperanza Camacho, Luz Ángela Álvarez, Lenin Aguirre, Juan Vicente Delgado
Macabea cattle are the only Bos taurus breed that have adapted to the wet tropical conditions of the Amazon. This breed has integrated into the culture of the indigenous Shuar-Asuar nations probably since its origins, being one of the few European zoogenetic resources assimilated by the deep-jungle Amazon communities. Despite its potential for local endogenous sustainable development, this breed is currently endangered. The present study used molecular genetics tools to investigate the within- and between-breeds diversity, in order to characterize the breed population, define its associations with other breeds, and infer its origin and evolution...
2016: PloS One
Arianna Rubin Means, Julie Jacobson, Aryc W Mosher, Judd L Walson
BACKGROUND: While some evidence supports the beneficial effects of integrating neglected tropical disease (NTD) programs to optimize coverage and reduce costs, there is minimal information regarding when or how to effectively operationalize program integration. The lack of systematic analyses of integration experiences and of integration processes may act as an impediment to achieving more effective NTD programming. We aimed to learn about the experiences of NTD stakeholders and their perceptions of integration...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Florent L Besson, Paul Blanc-Durand, Céline Meyer, Gilles Grimon, Emmanuel Durand
Eumycetoma is a chronic tropical fungal disease that infiltrates subcutaneous tissues, mainly in the feet and legs. Standard antifungal drugs are ineffective, and mutilating surgery is common. Morphological imaging is useful for assessing the local extent of the disease before surgery. FDG PET/CT may be of potential interest for the general extent, but PET descriptions remain scarce and mostly relate to the feet. Here, the authors present FDG PET/CT and MRI study of a very rare case of an extensive, biopsy-proven eumycetoma of the right thigh that was performed to guide potential surgery...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Matthew Jacobs, Martin Lopez-Garcia, O-Phart Phrathep, Tracy Lawson, Ruth Oulton, Heather M Whitney
Enhanced light harvesting is an area of interest for optimizing both natural photosynthesis and artificial solar energy capture(1,2). Iridescence has been shown to exist widely and in diverse forms in plants and other photosynthetic organisms and symbioses(3,4), but there has yet to be any direct link demonstrated between iridescence and photosynthesis. Here we show that epidermal chloroplasts, also known as iridoplasts, in shade-dwelling species of Begonia(5), notable for their brilliant blue iridescence, have a photonic crystal structure formed from a periodic arrangement of the light-absorbing thylakoid tissue itself...
October 24, 2016: Nature Plants
Javier Castro Jimenez, Belén González-Gaya, Mariana Pizarro, Paulo Casal, Cristina Pizarro-Alvarez, Jordi Dachs
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers and have been detected ubiquitously in the remote atmosphere. Fourteen OPEs were analysed in one hundred fifteen aerosol phase samples collected from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans during the MALASPINA circumnavigation campaign. OPEs were detected in all samples with concentrations ranging from 360 to 4400 pg m-3 for the sum of compounds. No clear concentration trends were found between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Jianhong Wu
Zika virus co-circulates with dengue in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cases of co-infection by dengue and Zika have been reported, the implication of this co-infection for an integrated intervention program for controlling both dengue and Zika must be addressed urgently. Here, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission dynamics of co-infection of dengue and Zika with particular focus on the effects of Zika outbreak by vaccination against dengue among human hosts. Our analysis determines specific conditions under which vaccination against dengue can significantly increase the Zika outbreak peak, and speed up the Zika outbreak peak timing...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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