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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088019/melatonin-and-resveratrol-reverse-the-toxic-effect-of-high-boron-b-and-modulate-biochemical-parameters-in-pepper-plants-capsicum-annuum-l
#1
Eleana Sarafi, Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Christos Chatzissavvidis, Anastasios Siomos, Ioannis Therios
The objectives of this research were to test a possible involvement of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in restoring growth and to control boron (B) toxicity in peppers. The plants were subjected to four different nutrient solution treatments as following: 1) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Control), 2) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B (100 μMB), 3) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM boron+100 μMresveratrol (100 μMRES), and 4) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B+1 μMmelatonin (1 μM MEL)...
December 23, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087656/conspecific-aggregations-mitigate-the-effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-calcification-of-the-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#2
Nicolas R Evensen, Peter J Edmunds
In densely populated communities, such as coral reefs, organisms can modify the physical and chemical environment for neighbouring individuals. We tested the hypothesis that colony density (12 colonies each placed∼0.5 cm apart versus∼8 cm apart) can modulate the physiological response (measured through rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration in the light and dark) of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa to pCO2 treatments (∼ 400 µatm and∼1200 µatm) by altering the seawater flow regimes experienced by colonies placed in aggregations within a flume at a single flow speed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#3
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081489/protective-effect-of-chitosan-on-photosynthesis-and-antioxidative-defense-system-in-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-in-the-presence-of-cadmium
#4
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081285/pre-harvest-foliar-application-of-ethephon-strengthens-gibberellins-induced-fruit-expansion-in-pyrus-pyrifolia
#5
C Ma, L Wang, U Y Lee, K Tanabe, S Kang, C X Zhang
To identify the roles of ethylene in fruit development in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia 'Niitaka', one of the non-climacteric genotypes, source-sink strength and fruit development during fruit expansion were investigated when ethephon was applied after a conventional gibberellic acid (GA) lanolin paste treatment on the pedicel. The results demonstrate that the conventional GA treatment during the early stage of fruit expansion resulted in larger fruit size and advanced fruit maturation, but pre-harvest foliar application of ethephon only advanced fruit maturation...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079178/significance-of-oxygen-transport-through-aquaporins
#6
Janusz J Zwiazek, Hao Xu, Xiangfeng Tan, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Asunción Morte
Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076430/effects-of-zn-deficiency-and-bicarbonate-on-the-growth-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-four-plant-species
#7
Kuan Zhao, Yanyou Wu
Calcareous soils are characterized by low nutrient contents, high bicarbonate (HCO3-) content, and high alkalinity. The effects of HCO3- addition under zinc-sufficient (+Zn) and zinc-deficient (-Zn) conditions on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of two Moraceae species (Broussonetia papyrifera and Morus alba) and two Brassicaceae species (Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) were investigated. These four species were hydroponically grown in nutrient solution with 0 mM Zn (-Zn) or 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075577/reversible-unfolding-and-folding-of-the-metalloprotein-ferredoxin-revealed-by-single-molecule-atomic-force-microscopy
#8
Hai Lei, Yabin Guo, Xiaodong Hu, Chunguang Hu, Xiaotang Hu, Hongbin Li
Plant type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins function primarily as electron transfer proteins in photosynthesis. Studying the unfolding-folding of ferredoxins in vitro is challenging, since the unfolding of ferredoxin is often irreversible due to the loss or disintegration of the iron-sulfur cluster. Additionally, the in vivo folding of holo-ferredoxin requires ferredoxin biogenesis proteins. Here we employed atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to directly study the mechanical unfolding and refolding of a plant type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from cyanobacteria Anabaena...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075562/evidence-for-a-di-%C3%A2%C2%B5-oxo-diamond-core-in-the-mn-iv-fe-iv-activation-intermediate-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-from-chlamydia-trachomatis
#9
Ryan J Martinie, Elizabeth J Blaesi, Carsten Krebs, J Martin Bollinger, Alexey Silakov, Christopher J Pollock
High-valent iron and manganese complexes effect some of the most challenging biochemical reactions known, including hydrocarbon and water oxidations associated with the global carbon cycle and oxygenic photosynthesis, respectively. Their extreme reactivity presents an impediment to structural characterization, but their biological importance and potential chemical utility have, nevertheless, motivated extensive efforts toward that end. Several such intermediates accumulate during activation of class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) β subunits, which self-assemble dimetal cofactors with stable one-electron oxidants that serve to initiate the enzyme's free-radical mechanism...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075520/long-term-enhanced-winter-soil-frost-alters-growing-season-co2-fluxes-through-its-impact-on-vegetation-development-in-a-boreal-peatland
#10
Junbin Zhao, Matthias Peichl, Mats B Nilsson
At high latitudes, winter climate change alters snow cover and, consequently, may cause a sustained change in soil frost dynamics. Altered winter soil conditions could influence the ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and, in turn, provide feedbacks to ongoing climate change. To investigate the mechanisms that modify the peatland CO2 exchange in response to altered winter soil frost, we conducted a snow exclusion experiment to enhance winter soil frost and to evaluate its short-term (1-3 years) and long-term (11 years) effect on CO2 fluxes during subsequent growing seasons in a boreal peatland...
January 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075225/plants-contain-small-families-of-upf0016-proteins-including-the-photosynthesis-affected-mutant71-transporter
#11
Natalie Hoecker, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein that functions in manganese uptake into the lumen. Manganese is needed in the thylakoid lumen to build up the inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster, the catalytic center for water oxidation, and is hence indispensable for oxygen evolution. A recent study revealed that PAM71 is well conserved in plants and shares homology to GCR1 DEPENDENT TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (GDT1) and TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN 165 (TMEM165) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075047/growing-larger-with-domestication-a-matter-of-physiology-morphology-or-allocation
#12
R Milla, S Matesanz
• Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. • We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether the photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size, and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074485/light-temperature-and-tocopherol-status-influence-foliar-vascular-anatomy-and-leaf-function-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Jared J Stewart, Stephanie K Polutchko, William W Adams, Christopher M Cohu, Coleman A Wenzl, Barbara Demmig-Adams
This study addressed whether the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana can adjust foliar phloem and xylem anatomy both differentially and in parallel. In plants acclimated to hot versus cool temperature, foliar minor vein xylem-to-phloem ratio was greater, whereas xylem and phloem responded concomitantly to growth light intensity. Across all growth conditions, xylem anatomy correlated with transpiration rate, while phloem anatomy correlated with photosynthetic capacity for two plant lines (wildtype Col-0 and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant) irrespective of tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074036/redox-crisis-underlies-conditional-light-dark-lethality-in-cyanobacterial-mutants-that-lack-the-circadian-regulator-rpaa
#14
Spencer Diamond, Benjamin E Rubin, Ryan K Shultzaberger, You Chen, Chase D Barber, Susan S Golden
Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073912/auxiliary-metabolic-genes-distinct-features-of-cyanophage-encoded-t-type-phycobiliprotein-lyase-%C3%AE-cpet
#15
Raphael Gasper, Julia Schwach, Jana Hartmann, Andrea Holtkamp, Jessica Wiethaus, Natascha Riedel, Eckhard Hofmann, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMG) are commonly found in the genomes of phages that infect cyanobacteria and increase cyanophage's fitness. AMGs are often homologs of host genes, and also typically related to photosynthesis. For example, the θcpeT gene in the cyanophage P-HM1 encodes a putative phycobiliprotein lyase related to cyanobacterial T-type lyases, which facilitate attachment of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits, suggesting that θCpeT may also help assemble light-harvesting phycobiliproteins during infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073560/an-alternative-explanation-for-cyanobacterial-scum-formation-and-persistence-by-oxygenic-photosynthesis
#16
E Aparicio Medrano, R E Uittenbogaard, B J H van de Wiel, L M Dionisio Pires, H J H Clercx
The cause of persistent cyanobacteria scum formation in lakes is an unresolved subject. Scum refers to the event in which cyanobacteria are at the water surface of a lake. Factors like low turbulence levels, long day-light, high water temperatures and the buoyant capacity of cyanobacterial cells play a role in the occurrence of scums. However, they do not explain why scums are observed at periods during the day when according to theory they should have disappeared into the deeper water layers. In this study, we present an alternative explanation...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073553/the-effects-of-light-intensity-on-the-growth-of-japanese-gambierdiscus-spp-dinophyceae
#17
Takamichi Yoshimatsu, Chaoyu Tie, Haruo Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Funaki, Chiho Honma, Kouki Tanaka, Masao Adachi
Marine toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus are the causative agents of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a form of seafood poisoning that is widespread in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. The distributions of Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus and two phylotypes of Gambierdiscus spp. type 2 and type 3 have been reported for the waters surrounding the main island of Japan. To explore the bloom dynamics and the vertical distribution of these Japanese species and phylotypes of Gambierdiscus, the effects of light intensity on their growth were tested, using a photoirradiation-culture system...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073468/cryptophyte-gene-regulation-in-the-kleptoplastidic-karyokleptic-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum
#18
Gwang Hoon Kim, Ji Hee Han, Bora Kim, Jong Won Han, Seung Won Nam, Woongghi Shin, Jong Woo Park, Wonho Yih
Photosynthesis in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is achieved using a consortium of cryptophyte algal organelles enclosed in its specialized vacuole. A time-series microarray analysis was conducted on the photosynthetic ciliate using an oligochip containing 15,654 primers designed from EST data of the cryptophyte prey, Teleaulax amphioxeia. The cryptophycean nuclei were transcriptionally active over 13 weeks and approximately 13.5% of transcripts in the ciliate came from the sequestered nuclei. The cryptophyte nuclei and chloroplasts could divide in the ciliate, which were loosely synchronized with host cell division...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073022/ocean-depths-the-mesopelagic-and-implications-for%C3%A2-global-warming
#19
Mark J Costello, Sean Breyer
The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072773/photosynthesis-gets-a-boost
#20
Irene Jarchum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
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