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Photosynthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938155/nickel-accumulation-by-the-green-algae-like-euglena-gracilis
#1
J D García-García, K A Peña-Sanabria, R Sánchez-Thomas, R Moreno-Sánchez
Nickel accumulation and nickel effects on cellular growth, respiration, photosynthesis, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and levels of thiols, histidine and phosphate-molecules were determined in Euglena gracilis. Cells incubated with 0.5-1mM NiCl2 showed impairment of O2 consumption, photosynthesis, Chl a+b content and APX activity whereas cellular integrity and viability were unaltered. Nickel accumulation was depressed by Mg(2+) and Cu(2+), while Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) were innocuous. The growth half-inhibitory concentrations for Ni(2+) in the culture medium supplemented with 2 or 0...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938057/outbreak-of-drepanopeziza-fungus-in-aspen-forests-and-variation-in-stand-susceptibility-leaf-functional-traits-compensatory-growth-and-phenology
#2
Anson C Call, Samuel B St Clair
In the spring of 2015, a severe outbreak of the necrotrophic pathogen Drepanopeziza (also known as Marssonina) spread across large portions of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests in the western United States. Among adjacent stands, some were diseased and others were not. Drepanopeziza infection in diseased aspen stands stimulated compensatory growth of second-flush leaves at the top of the canopy. These patterns of infection provided an opportunity to characterize associations of pathogen infection and leaf functional traits...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938056/short-term-effects-of-light-quality-on-leaf-gas-exchange-and-hydraulic-properties-of-silver-birch-betula-pendula
#3
Aigar Niglas, Kaisa Papp, Maciej Sekiewicz, Arne Sellin
Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938055/photosynthetic-phenological-variation-may-promote-coexistence-among-co-dominant-tree-species-in-a-madrean-sky-island-mixed-conifer-forest
#4
D L Potts, R L Minor, Z Braun, G A Barron-Gafford
Across much of western North America, forests are predicted to experience a transition from snow- to rain-dominated precipitation regimes due to anthropogenic climate warming. Madrean sky island mixed conifer forests receive a large portion of their precipitation from summertime convective storms and may serve as a lens into the future for snow-dominated forests after prolonged warming. To better understand the linkage between physiological traits, climate variation, and the structure and function of mixed conifer forests, we measured leaf photosynthetic (A) responses to controlled variation in internal CO2 concentration (Ci) to quantify interspecific phenological variation in A/Ci-derived ecophysiological traits among ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937985/interference-with-plastome-gene-expression-and-clp-protease-activity-in-arabidopsis-triggers-a-chloroplast-unfolded-protein-response-to-restore-protein-homeostasis
#5
Ernesto Llamas, Pablo Pulido, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
Disruption of protein homeostasis in chloroplasts impairs the correct functioning of essential metabolic pathways, including the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the production of plastidial isoprenoids involved in photosynthesis and growth. We previously found that misfolded and aggregated forms of the first enzyme of the MEP pathway are degraded by the Clp protease with the involvement of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpC1 chaperones in Arabidopsis thaliana. By contrast, the combined unfolding and disaggregating actions of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpB3 chaperones allow solubilization and hence reactivation of the enzyme...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937283/engineering-rubisco-activase-from-thermophilic-cyanobacteria-into-high-temperature-sensitive-plants
#6
Chukwuma C Ogbaga, Piotr Stepien, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ashraf
In the past decade, various strategies to improve photosynthesis and crop yield, such as leaf morphology, light interception and use efficiency, biochemistry of light reactions, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, and source to sink regulation, have been discussed at length. Leaf morphology and physiology are tightly coupled to light capturing efficiency, gas exchange capacity, and temperature regulation. However, apart from the photoprotective mechanism of photosystem-II (PSII), i.e. non-photochemical quenching, very low genetic variation in the components of light reactions has been observed in plants...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936217/evaluation-of-fertilizer-potential-of-different-k-compounds-prepared-utilizing-sea-bittern-as-feed-stock
#7
Khanjan Trivedi, Denish Kubavat, Krishna K Ghara, Ranjeet Kumar, Hardik Trivedi, K G Vijay Anand, Pratyush Maiti, Arup Ghosh
Aim: Many countries import potassic fertilizers due to dearth of K-mineral deposits. Therefore processes to obtain K-nutrient sources from sea bittern were developed by our Institute. The present investigation evaluated the fertilizer potential of three different sea bittern-derived (SBD) potassium forms developed viz., potassium schoenite, potassium nitrate and potassium ammonium sulfate on maize productivity in two cropping seasons. Methods: The pot and field experiments consisted of four treatments, wherein the three K forms were applied at the recommended rate of 40 kg K2O ha(-1) and were compared with commercially used sulfate of potash...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936200/the-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatus-enhances-salt-stress-tolerance-metabolite-accumulation-and-improves-forage-quality-in-perennial-ryegrass
#8
Xiaoning Li, Shijuan Han, Guangyang Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Erick Amombo, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is an important forage grass with high yield and superior quality in temperate regions which is widely used in parks, sport field, and other places. However, perennial ryegrass is moderately tolerant to salinity stress compared to other commercial cultivars and salt stress reduces their growth and productivity. Aspergillus aculeatus has been documented to participate in alleviating damage induced by salinity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935841/light-and-plastid-signals-regulate-different-sets-of-genes-in-the-albino-mutant-pap7-1
#9
Björn Grübler, Livia Merendino, Sven O Twardziok, Morgane Mininno, Guillaume Allorent, Fabien Chevalier, Monique Liebers, Robert Blanvillain, Klaus Mayer, Silva Lerbs-Mache, Stephane Ravanel, Thomas Pfannschmidt
Plants possessing dysfunctional plastids due to defects in pigment biosynthesis or translation are known to repress photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) via retrograde signals from the disturbed organelles towards the nucleus. These signals are thought to be essential for proper biogenesis and function of the plastid. Mutants lacking plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-associated proteins (PAPs) display a genetic arrest in eoplast-chloroplast transition leading to an albino phenotype in the light. Retrograde signaling in these mutants, thus, could be expected to be similar as under conditions inducing plastid dysfunction...
September 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935692/probing-structure-function-relationships-in-early-events-in-photosynthesis-using-a-chimeric-photocomplex
#10
Kenji V P Nagashima, Mai Sasaki, Kanako Hashimoto, Shinichi Takaichi, Sakiko Nagashima, Long-Jiang Yu, Yuto Abe, Kenta Gotou, Tomoaki Kawakami, Mizuki Takenouchi, Yuuta Shibuya, Akira Yamaguchi, Takashi Ohno, Jian-Ren Shen, Kazuhito Inoue, Michael T Madigan, Yukihiro Kimura, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo
The native core light-harvesting complex (LH1) from the thermophilic purple phototrophic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum requires Ca(2+) for its thermal stability and characteristic absorption maximum at 915 nm. To explore the role of specific amino acid residues of the LH1 polypeptides in Ca-binding behavior, we constructed a genetic system for heterologously expressing the Tch. tepidum LH1 complex in an engineered Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutant strain. This system contained a chimeric pufBALM gene cluster (pufBA from Tch...
September 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934652/ecophysiological-responses-to-excess-iron-in-lowland-and-upland-rice-cultivars
#11
Caroline Müller, Solange Ferreira da Silveira Silveira, Danilo de Menezes Daloso, Giselle Camargo Mendes, Andrew Merchant, Kacilda Naomi Kuki, Marco Antonio Oliva, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro, Andréa Miyasaka Almeida
Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for plants but under high concentrations, such as that found naturally in clay and waterlogged soils, its toxic effect can limit production. This study aimed to investigate the stress tolerance responses exhibited by different rice cultivars. Both lowland and upland cultivars were grown under excess Fe and hypoxic conditions. Lowland cultivars showed higher Fe accumulation in roots compared with upland cultivars suggesting the use of different strategies to tolerate excess Fe...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934298/transcriptome-analysis-of-callery-pear-pyrus-calleryana-reveals-a-comprehensive-signalling-network-in-response-to-alternaria-alternata
#12
Jialiang Kan, Tingli Liu, Na Ma, Hui Li, Xiaogang Li, Jinyan Wang, Baolong Zhang, Youhong Chang, Jing Lin
The pear is an important temperate fruit worldwide that is produced by a group of species in the genus Pyrus. Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne) is characterized by high resistance to multiple diseases, good adaptability, and high ornamental value, and is therefore widely planted in pear orchards for edible fruit production or as stock. Plant pathogens are a major threat to pear yield. Black spot disease, caused by the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious diseases in pear. Elucidation of resistant genes to black spot disease is extremely important for understanding the underlying mechanisms as well as for the development of resistant cultivars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932232/re-analyses-of-algal-genes-suggest-a-complex-evolutionary-history-of-oomycetes
#13
Qia Wang, Hang Sun, Jinling Huang
The spread of photosynthesis is one of the most important but constantly debated topics in eukaryotic evolution. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the plastid distribution in extant eukaryotes. Notably, the chromalveolate hypothesis suggested that multiple eukaryotic lineages were derived from a photosynthetic ancestor that had a red algal endosymbiont. As such, genes of plastid/algal origin in aplastidic chromalveolates, such as oomycetes, were considered to be important supporting evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931464/the-interactive-effects-of-diclofop-methyl-and-silver-nanoparticles-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-growth-photosynthesis-and-antioxidant-system
#14
Xingxing Li, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, W J G M Peijnenburg, Xiaoji Fan, Jiahui Xu, Zhenyan Zhang, Tao Lu, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
Diclofop-methyl (DM), a common post-emergence herbicide, is frequently used in agricultural production. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanoparticles, and as such, have been detected and monitored in several environmental systems. Here we investigated the interactive effects of DM and AgNPs on the physiological morphology, photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that a 1.0 mg/L DM treatment had no significant effect on the fresh weight of plant shoots and the content of total chlorophyll and anthocyanin...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929284/effects-of-beneficial-microorganisms-on-lowland-rice-development
#15
Adriano Stephan Nascente, Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi, Anna Cristina Lanna, Thatyane Pereira de Sousa, Alan Carlos Alves de Souza, Valácia Lemes da Silva Lobo, Gisele Barata da Silva
Microorganisms can promote plant growth by increasing phytomass production, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis rates, and grain yield, which can result in higher profits for farmers. However, there is limited information available about the physiological characteristics of lowland rice after treatment with beneficial microorganisms in the tropical region. This study aimed to determine the effects of different beneficial microorganisms and various application forms on phytomass production, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in the lowland rice cultivar 'BRS Catiana' in a tropical region...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929276/the-photosynthetic-responses-to-stocking-depth-and-algal-mat-density-in-the-farmed-seaweed-gracilaria-lemaneiformis-gracilariales-rhodophyta
#16
Heng Jiang, Dinghui Zou, Weizhou Chen, Yufeng Yang
The branches and mass of Gracilaria lemaneiformis increase with growth season, and the thalli sink to deeper depths with increasing biomass density during maricultivation. The changing depth and algal mat density may affect the physiology of the algae. In the present study, the photosynthetic behaviors regarding different biomass densities in G. lemaneiformis thalli collected from different stocking depths were determined, to examine how photosynthesis of this farmed alga was affected by the growth depths and algal mat densities...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926102/in-situ-temperature-relationships-of-biochemical-and-stomatal-controls-of-photosynthesis-in-four-lowland-tropical-tree-species
#17
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Net photosynthetic carbon uptake of Panamanian lowland tropical forest species is typically optimal at 30-32°C. The processes responsible for the decrease in photosynthesis at higher temperatures are not fully understood for tropical trees. We determined temperature responses of maximum rates of RuBP-carboxylation (VCMax ) and RuBP-regeneration (JMax ), stomatal conductance (Gs ) and respiration in the light (RLight ) in situ for four lowland tropical tree species in Panama. Gs had the lowest temperature optimum (TOpt ), similar to that of net photosynthesis, and photosynthesis became increasingly limited by stomatal conductance as temperature increased...
September 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924017/in-silico-analysis-of-the-regulation-of-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-chain-in-c3-plants
#18
Alejandro Morales, Xinyou Yin, Jeremy Harbinson, Steven Michiel Driever, Jaap Molenaar, David M Kramer, Paul Struik
We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923961/evolution-of-the-3-hydroxypropionate-bicycle-and-recent-transfer-of-anoxygenic-photosynthesis-into-the-chloroflexi
#19
Patrick M Shih, Lewis M Ward, Woodward W Fischer
Various lines of evidence from both comparative biology and the geologic record make it clear that the biochemical machinery for anoxygenic photosynthesis was present on early Earth and provided the evolutionary stock from which oxygenic photosynthesis evolved ca. 2.3 billion years ago. However, the taxonomic identity of these early anoxygenic phototrophs is uncertain, including whether or not they remain extant. Several phototrophic bacterial clades are thought to have evolved before oxygenic photosynthesis emerged, including the Chloroflexi, a phylum common across a wide range of modern environments...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923729/simultaneous-removal-of-cr-vi-and-phenol-contaminants-using-z-scheme-bismuth-oxyiodide-reduced-graphene-oxide-bismuth-sulfide-system-under-visible-light-irradiation
#20
Acong Chen, Zhaoyong Bian, Jie Xu, Xin Xin, Hui Wang
An all-solid-state Z-scheme system containing Bi-based semiconductors bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) and bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) was constructed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through an electrostatic self-assembly method to simultaneously remove aqueous Cr(VI) and phenol. In this Z-scheme that mimicked natural photosynthesis, photoinduced electrons in the conduction band (CB) of BiOI were transferred through rGO and reacted with photoinduced holes in the valence band (VB) of Bi2S3, which significantly increased its photocatalytic activity...
September 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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