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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326554/chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-responding-to-high-light-a-role-for-2-propenal-acrolein
#1
Thomas Roach, Theresa Baur, Wolfgang Stöggl, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
High light causes photosystem II to generate singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can react with membrane lipids, releasing reactive electrophile species (RES), such as acrolein. To investigate how RES may contribute to light stress responses, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was high light-treated in photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions and also in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere to elevate ROS production. The responses were compared to exogenous acrolein. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher in photoautotrophic cells, as a consequence of a more de-epoxidized state of the xanthophyll cycle pool and more LHCSR3 protein, showing that photosynthesis was under more pressure than in mixotrophic cells...
March 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326315/genomewide-expression-and-functional-interactions-of-genes-under-drought-stress-in-maize
#2
Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Rinku Sharma, Nidhi Singh, Kaliyugam Shiriga, Sweta Mohan, Swati Mittal, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Firoz Hossain, Hari Shanker Gupta
A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype) than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype), indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in stress tolerance. The global coexpression networks of the two genotypes differed significantly with respect to the number of modules and the coexpression pattern within the modules...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#3
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323299/cyanobacterial-nitrogenases-phylogenetic-diversity-regulation-and-functional-predictions
#4
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, João Henrique Frota Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira Vaz, Luna V Alvarenga, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Wagner L Araújo
Cyanobacteria is a remarkable group of prokaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms, with several genera capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and presenting a wide range of morphologies. Although the nitrogenase complex is not present in all cyanobacterial taxa, it is spread across several cyanobacterial strains. The nitrogenase complex has also a high theoretical potential for biofuel production, since H2 is a by-product produced during N2 fixation. In this review we discuss the significance of a relatively wide variety of cell morphologies and metabolic strategies that allow spatial and temporal separation of N2 fixation from photosynthesis in cyanobacteria...
March 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321894/light-respiration-by-subtropical-seaweeds
#5
Matheus C Carvalho, Bradley D Eyre
Here we report the first-ever measurements of light CO2 respiration rate (CRR) by seaweeds. We measured the influence of temperature (15 to 25°C) and light (irradiance from 60 to 670 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) on the light CCR of two subtropical seaweed species, and measured the CRR of seven different seaweed species under the same light (150 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) and temperature (25°C). There was little effect of irradiance on light CRR, but there was an effect of temperature. Across the seven species light CRR was similar to OCR (oxygen consumption rate in the dark), with the exception of a single species...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321883/higher-photosynthesis-nutrient-and-energy-use-efficiencies-contribute-to-invasiveness-of-exotic-plants-in-a-nutrient-poor-habitat-in-northeast-china
#6
Ming-Chao Liu, De-Liang Kong, Xiu-Rong Lu, Kai Huang, Shuo Wang, Wei-Bin Wang, Bo Qu, Yu-Long Feng
The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China...
March 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320948/highly-oriented-photosynthetic-reaction-centers-generate-a-proton-gradient-in-synthetic-protocells
#7
Emiliano Altamura, Francesco Milano, Roberto R Tangorra, Massimo Trotta, Omar Hassan Omar, Pasquale Stano, Fabio Mavelli
Photosynthesis is responsible for the photochemical conversion of light into the chemical energy that fuels the planet Earth. The photochemical core of this process in all photosynthetic organisms is a transmembrane protein called the reaction center. In purple photosynthetic bacteria a simple version of this photoenzyme catalyzes the reduction of a quinone molecule, accompanied by the uptake of two protons from the cytoplasm. This results in the establishment of a proton concentration gradient across the lipid membrane, which can be ultimately harnessed to synthesize ATP...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320865/9-cis-neoxanthin-in-lhcii-regulates-the-binding-of-violaxanthin-and-xanthophyll-cycle
#8
Ke Wang, Wenfeng Tu, Cheng Liu, Yan Rao, Zhimin Gao, Chunhong Yang
The light harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) a/b complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is able to switch to multiple functions under different light conditions, i.e. harvesting solar energy for photosynthesis and dissipating excess excitation energy for photoprotection. The role of the different carotenoids (Cars) bound to LHCII in regulating the structure and function of the complex is a long-lasting question in photosynthesis research. 9-cis-neoxanthin (Nx) is one of the important Cars, which can only be found in the light harvesting Chla/b complexes of photosystem II...
March 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318033/changes-in-the-chloroplastic-co2-concentration-explain-much-of-the-observed-kok-effect-a-model
#9
Graham D Farquhar, Florian A Busch
Mitochondrial respiration often appears to be inhibited in the light when compared with measurements in the dark. This inhibition is inferred from the response of the net CO2 assimilation rate (A) to absorbed irradiance (I), changing slope around the light compensation point (Ic ). We suggest a model that provides a plausible mechanistic explanation of this 'Kok effect'. The model uses the mathematical description of photosynthesis developed by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry; it involves no inhibition of respiration rate in the light...
April 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318016/the-transporter-synpam71-is-located-in-the-plasma-membrane-and-thylakoids-and-mediates-manganese-tolerance-in-synechocystis-pcc6803
#10
Chiara Gandini, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Søren Husted, Anja Schneider, Dario Leister
Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71 in cyanobacterial Mn homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317065/interactions-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-improve-seedling-survival-and-growth-in-post-mining-waste
#11
Katarzyna Wężowicz, Piotr Rozpądek, Katarzyna Turnau
The impact of fungal endophytes and the modulating role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the vitality of Verbascum lychnitis, grown in the laboratory in a substratum from a post-mining waste dump was investigated. We report that inoculation with a single endophyte negatively affected the survival rate and biomass production of most of the plant-endophyte consortia examined. The introduction of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi into this setup (dual inoculation) had a beneficial effect on both biomass yield and survivability...
March 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316044/changes-and-relations-of-photosynthesis-and-iron-cycling-in-anoxic-paddy-soil-amended-with-high-concentrations-of-sulfate
#12
Qin Chen, Rong Jia, Dong Qu, Ming Li
Sulfate contamination is an increasingly serious environmental problem related to microbial reduction processes in anoxic paddy soil. This study revealed the changes and interrelations of ferric iron [Fe(III)] reduction, ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation, and oxygenic photosynthesis in an anoxic paddy soil (Fe-accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) amended with a range of high sulfate concentrations. Soil slurries mixed with 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 400 mmol kg(-1) Na2SO4 were incubated anaerobically under dark and light conditions...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315133/remembering-navasard-v-karapetyan-1936-2015
#13
Nadezhda P Yurina, Vladimir O Popov, Alexander A Krasnovsky, Govindjee
Navasard Vaganovich Karapetyan (September 6, 1936-March 6, 2015) began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and was associated with this institute for over 56 years. He worked in the area of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis and was especially known for his studies on chlorophyll a fluorescence in higher plants and cyanobacteria, molecular organization of Photosystem I, photoprotective energy dissipation, and dynamics of energy migration in the two photosystems...
March 17, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314132/rhizobial-symbiosis-alleviates-polychlorinated-biphenyls-induced-systematic-oxidative-stress-via-brassinosteroids-signaling-in-alfalfa
#14
Xiaomi Wang, Ying Teng, Ning Zhang, Peter Christie, Zhengao Li, Yongming Luo, Jun Wang
The role of symbiotic rhizobia in the alleviation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced phytotoxicity in alfalfa and the brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling involved were investigated during phytoremediation. The association between alfalfa and Sinorhizobium meliloti was adopted as a remediation model. Phytotoxicity due to PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) exerted adverse impacts on plant performance (biomass accumulation and photosynthesis) and elicited cellular oxidative stress (overproduction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and cell necrosis) which was largely attenuated by pre-inoculation with S...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304127/molecular-regulation-of-sucrose-catabolism-and-sugar-transport-for-development-defence-and-phloem-function
#15
REVIEW
Jun Li, Limin Wu, Ryan Foster, Yong-Ling Ruan
Sucrose (Suc) is the major end product of photosynthesis in mesophyll cells of most vascular plants. It is loaded into phloem of mature leaves for long-distance translocation to non-photosynthetic organs where it is unloaded for diverse uses. Clearly, Suc transport and metabolism is central to plant growth and development and the functionality of the entire vascular system. Despite of vast information in the literature about the physiological roles of individual sugar metabolic enzymes and transporters, there is a lack of systematic evaluation about their molecular regulation from transcriptional to post-translational levels...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303955/differential-proteomic-analysis-by-itraq-reveals-the-mechanism-of-pyropia-haitanensis-responding-to-high-temperature-stress
#16
Jianzhi Shi, Yuting Chen, Yan Xu, Dehua Ji, Changsheng Chen, Chaotian Xie
Global warming increases sea temperature and leads to high temperature stress, which affects the yield and quality of Pyropia haitanensis. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying high temperature stress in a high temperature tolerance strain Z-61, the iTRAQ technique was employed to reveal the global proteomic response of Z-61 under different durations of high temperature stress. We identified 151 differentially expressed proteins and classified them into 11 functional categories. The 4 major categories of these are protein synthesis and degradation, photosynthesis, defense response, and energy and carbohydrate metabolism...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303390/the-hydroperoxide-lyase-branch-of-the-oxylipin-pathway-protects-against-photoinhibition-of-photosynthesis
#17
Tatyana Savchenko, Denis Yanykin, Andrew Khorobrykh, Vasily Terentyev, Vyacheslav Klimov, Katayoon Dehesh
This study describes a new role for hydroperoxide lyase branch of oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in protecting photosynthetic apparatus under high light conditions. Lipid-derived signaling molecules, oxylipins, produced by a multi-branch pathway are central in regulation of a wide range of functions. The two most known branches, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and 13-hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathways, are best recognized as producers of defense compounds against biotic challenges. In the present work, we examine the role of these two oxylipin branches in plant tolerance to the abiotic stress, namely excessive light...
March 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303198/impacts-of-leaf-age-and-heat-stress-duration-on-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-and-foliar-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-coffea-arabica
#18
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, Christopher Still
Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica. Treated plants were heated in a growth chamber at 49°C for 45 or 90 min. Physiological recovery was monitored in situ using gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, FV/FM), and leaf nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mature and expanding leaves before and 2, 15, 25, and 50 days after treatment...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#19
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302977/real-time-in-situ-simultaneous-monitoring-of-dissolved-oxygen-and-materials-movements-at-a-vicinity-of-micrometers-from-an-aquatic-plant-by-combining-deflection-of-a-probe-beam-and-fluorescence-quenching
#20
Xing-Zheng Wu, Xiaoyan Wu, Tomomi Inoue
It is desirable to be able to monitor the intake or release of the components at different organs of aquatic plants in real time and in-situ. Here, we report a novel optical detection system that allows for real-time in-situ simultaneous monitoring of the dissolved oxygen and material movements at a vicinity of micrometers from the aquatic plant surface. A blue semiconductor diode-laser was used as the light source of both the probe beam and excitation light for fluorescence. The laser light reflected by a dichroic mirror was focused to a vicinity of the plant/water interface in a culture dish by an objective lens...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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