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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526845/chemical-structure-of-the-lipid-a-component-of-pseudomonas-sp-strain-pamc-28618-from-thawing-permafrost-in-relation-to-pathogenicity
#1
Han-Gyu Park, Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Cheol-Hwan Hwang, Da-Hee Ann, Jung-Ho Kim, Geul Bang, Kyoung-Soon Jang, Hee Wook Ryu, Yoo Kyung Lee, Yung-Hun Yang, Yun-Gon Kim
Climate change causes permafrost thawing, and we are confronted with the unpredictable risk of newly discovered permafrost microbes that have disease-causing capabilities. Here, we first characterized the detailed chemical structure of the lipid A moiety from a Pseudomonas species that was isolated from thawing arctic permafrost using MALDI-based mass spectrometric approaches (i.e., MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS(n)). The MALDI multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of lipid A extracted from the Pseudomonas sp...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520473/a-new-method-and-mass-spectrometric-instrument-for-extraterrestrial-microbial-life-detection-using-the-elemental-composition-analyses-of-martian-regolith-and-permafrost-ice
#2
G G Managadze, A A Safronova, K A Luchnikov, E A Vorobyova, N S Duxbury, P Wurz, N G Managadze, A E Chumikov, R Kh Khamizov
We propose a new technique for the detection of microorganisms by elemental composition analyses of a sample extracted from regolith, permafrost, and ice of extraterrestrial bodies. We also describe the design of the ABIMAS instrument, which consists of the onboard time-of-flight laser mass-reflectron (TOF LMR) and the sample preparation unit (SPU) for biomass extraction. This instrument was initially approved to fly on board the ExoMars 2020 lander mission. The instrument can be used to analyze the elemental composition of possible extraterrestrial microbial communities and compare it to that of terrestrial microorganisms...
May 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510126/dehydrin-stress-proteins-in-pinus-sylvestris-l-needles-under-conditions-of-extreme-climate-of-yakutia
#3
T D Tatarinova, A A Perk, V V Bubyakina, I V Vasilieva, A G Ponomarev, T C Maximov
This is the first study to investigate stress proteins dehydrins with the use of specific antibodies in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and their changes in the annual cycle under extreme climate of Yakutia. No pronounced polymorphism of major dehydrins (14-15 and 66 kDa) has been found during the winter dormancy period of P. sylvestris. A clear correlation between the seasonal variations in dehydrins and changes in the water content in needles was revealed. Consistently high levels of dehydrins was retained throughout the period of low negative temperatures...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500038/enrichment-and-physiological-characterization-of-a-cold-adapted-nitrite-oxidizer-nitrotoga-sp-from-eelgrass-sediments
#4
Kento Ishii, Hirotsugu Fujitani, Kentaro Soh, Tatsunori Nakagawa, Reiji Takahashi, Satoshi Tsuneda
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are responsible for the second step of nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. The recently discovered genus Nitrotoga belongs to the Betaproteobacteria and has potentially high environmental importance. Although environmental clones affiliated with Nitrotoga are widely distributed, the limited number of cultivated Nitrotoga results in poor understanding of their ecophysiological features. In this study, we successfully enriched the non-marine cold-adapted Nitrotoga sp...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493191/distribution-and-variation-of-mercury-in-frozen-soils-of-a-high-altitude-permafrost-region-on-the-northeastern-margin-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#5
Shiwei Sun, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang, Shengyun Chen, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Wenjie Liu, Bigyan Neupane, Dahe Qin
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is home to the largest permafrost bodies at low- and mid-latitudes, yet little is known about the distribution and variation of mercury (Hg) in frozen soil of the permafrost regions. In this study, extensive soil sampling campaigns were carried out in 23 soil pits from 12 plots in a high-altitude permafrost region of the Shule River Basin, northeastern TP. Hg distribution, variation, and their dependences on soil properties were analyzed. The results have revealed that total Hg (THg) concentrations were low ranging from 6...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486678/the-paleosymbiosis-hypothesis-host-plants-can-be-colonized-by-root-symbionts-that-have-been-inactive-for-centuries-to-millenia
#6
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles
Paleoecologists have speculated that post-glacial migration of tree species could have been facilitated by mycorrhizal symbionts surviving glaciation as resistant propagules belowground. The general premise of this idea, which we call the 'paleosymbiosis hypothesis', is that host plants can access and be colonized by fungal root symbionts that have been inactive for millennia. Here, we explore the plausibility of this hypothesis by synthesizing relevant findings from a diverse literature. For example, the paleoecology literature provided evidence of modern roots penetrating paleosols containing ancient (> 6000 yr) fungal propagules, though these were of unknown condition...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484237/no-protection-of-permafrost-due-to-desertification-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#7
Qingbai Wu, Wenbing Yu, Huijun Jin
Desertification of tundra regions may form an escalating cycle with permafrost degradation where more permafrost thaw leads to continued desertification. This traditional viewpoint has been challenged in recent reports that state desertification protects the underlying permafrost. However, our measurements of soil temperature from nine sites in the Honglianghe River Basin, interior Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, show that desertification can degrade permafrost. If one compares the permafrost temperatures at sites with thin sand covers (e...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484018/enhanced-co2-uptake-at-a-shallow-arctic-ocean-seep-field-overwhelms-the-positive-warming-potential-of-emitted-methane
#8
John W Pohlman, Jens Greinert, Carolyn Ruppel, Anna Silyakova, Lisa Vielstädte, Michael Casso, Jürgen Mienert, Stefan Bünz
Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10(6) tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465527/elasticity-and-stability-of-clathrate-hydrate-role-of-guest-molecule-motions
#9
Jihui Jia, Yunfeng Liang, Takeshi Tsuji, Sumihiko Murata, Toshifumi Matsuoka
Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to determine the elastic constants of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) hydrates at one hundred pressure-temperature data points, respectively. The conditions represent marine sediments and permafrost zones where gas hydrates occur. The shear modulus and Young's modulus of the CO2 hydrate increase anomalously with increasing temperature, whereas those of the CH4 hydrate decrease regularly with increase in temperature. We ascribe this anomaly to the kinetic behavior of the linear CO2 molecule, especially those in the small cages...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464494/high-arctic-summer-warming-tracked-by-increased-cassiope-tetragona-growth-in-the-world-s-northernmost-polar-desert
#10
Stef Weijers, Agata Buchwal, Daan Blok, Jörg Löffler, Bo Elberling
Rapid climate warming has resulted in shrub expansion, mainly of erect deciduous shrubs in the Low Arctic, but the more extreme, sparsely vegetated, cold and dry High Arctic, is generally considered to remain resistant to such shrub expansion in the next decades. Dwarf shrub dendrochronology may reveal climatological causes of past changes in growth, but is hindered at many High Arctic sites by short and fragmented instrumental climate records. Moreover, only few High Arctic shrub chronologies cover the recent decade of substantial warming...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#11
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430187/poorly-known-microbial-taxa-dominate-the-microbiome-of-permafrost-thaw-ponds
#12
Christian Wurzbacher, R Henrik Nilsson, Milla Rautio, Sari Peura
In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408669/draft-genome-sequence-of-permafrost-bacterium-nesterenkonia-sp-strain-pf2b19-revealing-a-cold-adaptation-strategy-and-diverse-biotechnological-potential
#13
Purnima Singh, Neelam Kapse, Utpal Roy, Shiv Mohan Singh, P K Dhakephalkar
Nesterenkonia sp. strain PF2B19, a psychrophilic bacterium, was isolated from 44,800-year-old permafrost. The draft genome sequence of this strain revealed the presence of genes involved in the production of cold active enzymes, carotenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, and resistance to heavy metals. These results show the immense potential of the strain.
April 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390104/historical-and-projected-trends-in-landscape-drivers-affecting-carbon-dynamics-in-alaska
#14
Neal J Pastick, Paul Duffy, Hélène Genet, T Scott Rupp, Bruce K Wylie, Kristofer D Johnson, M Torre Jorgenson, Norman Bliss, A David McGuire, Elchin E Jafarov, Joseph F Knight
Modern climate change in Alaska has resulted in widespread thawing of permafrost, increased fire activity, and extensive changes in vegetation characteristics that have significant consequences for socio-ecological systems. Despite observations of the heightened sensitivity of these systems to change, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of factors that drive ecosystem changes throughout Alaska. Here we present research that improves our understanding of the main drivers of the spatiotemporal patterns of carbon dynamics using in situ observations, remote sensing data, and an array of modeling techniques...
April 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382964/erratum-potential-microbial-contamination-during-sampling-of-permafrost-soil-assessed-by-tracers
#15
Toke Bang-Andreasen, Morten Schostag, Anders Priemé, Bo Elberling, Carsten S Jacobsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378792/degradation-potentials-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-doc-from-thawed-permafrost-peat
#16
Balathandayuthabani Panneer Selvam, Jean-François Lapierre, Francois Guillemette, Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Christina Biasi, Torben R Christensen, Pertti J Martikainen, Martin Berggren
Global warming can substantially affect the export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat-permafrost to aquatic systems. The direct degradability of such peat-derived DOC, however, is poorly constrained because previous permafrost thaw studies have mainly addressed mineral soil catchments or DOC pools that have already been processed in surface waters. We incubated peat cores from a palsa mire to compare an active layer and an experimentally thawed permafrost layer with regard to DOC composition and degradation potentials of pore water DOC...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358825/nature-s-patchwork-how-water-sources-and-soil-salinity-determine-the-distribution-and-structure-of-halophytic-plant-communities-in-arid-environments-of-the-eastern-pamir
#17
Monika Mętrak, Łukasz Chachulski, Dovutsho Navruzshoev, Paweł Pawlikowski, Elżbieta Rojan, Marcin Sulwiński, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337070/genomic-methods-and-microbiological-technologies-for-profiling-novel-and-extreme-environments-for-the-extreme-microbiome-project-xmp
#18
Scott Tighe, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Tara M Rock, Ken McGrath, Noah Alexander, Alexa McIntyre, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Daniela Bezdan, Stefan J Green, Samantha Joye, Sarah Stewart Johnson, Don A Baldwin, Nathan Bivens, Nadim Ajami, Joseph R Carmical, Ian Charold Herriott, Rita Colwell, Mohamed Donia, Jonathan Foox, Nick Greenfield, Tim Hunter, Jessica Hoffman, Joshua Hyman, Ellen Jorgensen, Diana Krawczyk, Jodie Lee, Shawn Levy, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Matthew Settles, Kelley Thomas, Felipe Gómez, Lynn Schriml, Nikos Kyrpides, Elena Zaikova, Jon Penterman, Christopher E Mason
The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314921/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-five-psychrobacter-strains-isolated-from-world-wide-habitats-reveal-high-intra-genus-variations
#19
Shan Zhang, Weizhi Song, Min Yu, Xuezheng Lin
Psychrobacter has been regarded as an important genus for bacterial cold adaptation studies. However, members of this genus are highly varied in terms of both cold adaptability and genome content. To get an understanding of the diversity of members of this genus, five Psychrobacter strains (G, K5, 273-4, PAMC21119 and PRwf-1), with publicly available complete/draft genome, were selected and comprehensive comparative genomics analyses were performed among them. The closest phylogenetic relationship, highest average nucleotide identity (96...
March 17, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289836/prokaryotic-abundance-and-activity-in-permafrost-of-the-northern-victoria-land-and-upper-victoria-valley-antarctica
#20
Rosabruna La Ferla, Maurizio Azzaro, Luigi Michaud, Gabriella Caruso, Angelina Lo Giudice, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Antonella Conte, Alessandro Cosenza, Giovanna Maimone, Maria Papale, Alessandro Ciro Rappazzo, Mauro Guglielmin
Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type...
March 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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