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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215329/biotechnological-applications-of-marine-enzymes-from-algae-bacteria-fungi-and-sponges
#1
S Parte, V L Sirisha, J S D'Souza
Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208232/non-linear-co2-flux-response-to-seven-years-of-experimentally-induced-permafrost-thaw
#2
Marguerite Mauritz, Rosvel Bracho, Gerardo Celis, Jack Hutchings, Susan M Natali, Elaine Pegoraro, Verity G Salmon, Christina Schädel, Elizabeth E Webb, Edward A G Schuur
Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from seven years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE)...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205612/dna-analysis-of-a-30-000-year-old-urocitellus-glacialis-from-northeastern-siberia-reveals-phylogenetic-relationships-between-ancient-and-present-day-arctic-ground-squirrels
#3
Marina Faerman, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Elisabetta Boaretto, Gennady G Boeskorov, Nikolai E Dokuchaev, Oleg A Ermakov, Fedor N Golenishchev, Stanislav V Gubin, Eugenia Mintz, Evgeniy Simonov, Vadim L Surin, Sergei V Titov, Oksana G Zanina, Nikolai A Formozov
In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed (14)C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132402/direct-and-indirect-climate-change-effects-on-carbon-dioxide-fluxes-in-a-thawing-boreal-forest-wetland-landscape
#4
Manuel Helbig, Laura E Chasmer, Ankur R Desai, Natascha Kljun, William L Quinton, Oliver Sonnentag
In the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, boreal forest carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes will be altered directly by climate change through changing meteorological forcing and indirectly through changes in landscape functioning associated with thaw-induced collapse-scar bog ("wetland") expansion. However, their combined effect on landscape-scale net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEELAND ), resulting from changing gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), remains unknown. Here, we quantify indirect land cover change impacts on NEELAND and direct climate change impacts on modeled temperature- and light-limited NEELAND of a boreal forest-wetland landscape...
January 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117155/active-layer-and-permafrost-thermal-regime-in-a-patterned-ground-soil-in-maritime-antarctica-and-relationship-with-climate-variability-models
#5
D A Chaves, G B Lyra, M R Francelino, Ldb Silva, A Thomazini, Cegr Schaefer
Permafrost and active layer studies are important to understand and predict regional climate changes. The objectives of this work were: i) to characterize the soil thermal regime (active layer thickness and permafrost formation) and its interannual variability and ii) to evaluate the influence of different climate variability modes to the observed soil thermal regime in a patterned ground soil in Maritime Antarctica. The study was carried out at Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Six soil temperatures probes were installed at different depths (10, 30 and 80cm) in the polygon center (Tc) and border (Tb) of a patterned ground soil...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116688/spatiotemporal-variability-in-surface-energy-balance-across-tundra-snow-and-ice-in-greenland
#6
Magnus Lund, Christian Stiegler, Jakob Abermann, Michele Citterio, Birger U Hansen, Dirk van As
The surface energy balance (SEB) is essential for understanding the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere system in the Arctic. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability in SEB across tundra, snow and ice. During the snow-free period, the main energy sink for ice sites is surface melt. For tundra, energy is used for sensible and latent heat flux and soil heat flux leading to permafrost thaw. Longer snow-free period increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and glaciers and may promote tundra permafrost thaw...
February 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116685/ecosystem-responses-to-climate-change-at-a-low-arctic-and-a-high-arctic-long-term-research-site
#7
John E Hobbie, Gaius R Shaver, Edward B Rastetter, Jessica E Cherry, Scott J Goetz, Kevin C Guay, William A Gould, George W Kling
Long-term measurements of ecological effects of warming are often not statistically significant because of annual variability or signal noise. These are reduced in indicators that filter or reduce the noise around the signal and allow effects of climate warming to emerge. In this way, certain indicators act as medium pass filters integrating the signal over years-to-decades. In the Alaskan Arctic, the 25-year record of warming of air temperature revealed no significant trend, yet environmental and ecological changes prove that warming is affecting the ecosystem...
February 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116680/a-synthesis-of-the-arctic-terrestrial-and-marine-carbon-cycles-under-pressure-from-a-dwindling-cryosphere
#8
REVIEW
Frans-Jan W Parmentier, Torben R Christensen, Søren Rysgaard, Jørgen Bendtsen, Ronnie N Glud, Brent Else, Jacobus van Huissteden, Torsten Sachs, Jorien E Vonk, Mikael K Sejr
The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such as the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles in numerous interconnected ways. Nonetheless, processes in the ocean and on land have been too often considered in isolation while it has become increasingly clear that the two environments are strongly connected: Sea ice decline is one of the main causes of the rapid warming of the Arctic, and the flow of carbon from rivers into the Arctic Ocean affects marine processes and the air-sea exchange of CO2...
February 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#9
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068392/vegetation-changes-in-the-permafrost-regions-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-from-1982-2012-different-responses-related-to-geographical-locations-and-vegetation-types-in-high-altitude-areas
#10
Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Zhuotong Nan, Puchang Wang, Shuhua Yi, Defu Zou, Yu Qin, Tonghua Wu, Jianzong Shi
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066129/a-multi-year-estimate-of-methane-fluxes-in-alaska-from-carve-atmospheric-observations
#11
Scot M Miller, Charles E Miller, Roisin Commane, Rachel Y-W Chang, Steven J Dinardo, John M Henderson, Anna Karion, Jakob Lindaas, Joe R Melton, John B Miller, Colm Sweeney, Steven C Wofsy, Anna M Michalak
Methane (CH4) fluxes from Alaska and other arctic regions may be sensitive to thawing permafrost and future climate change, but estimates of both current and future fluxes from the region are uncertain. This study estimates CH4 fluxes across Alaska for 2012-2014 using aircraft observations from the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) and a geostatistical inverse model (GIM). We find that a simple flux model based on a daily soil temperature map and a static map of wetland extent reproduces the atmospheric CH4 observations at the state-wide, multi-year scale more effectively than global-scale, state-of-the-art process-based models...
October 2016: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062107/diurnal-evolution-of-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-efflux-in-permafrost-soils-under-control-and-warm-conditions
#12
Julien Fouché, Catherine Keller, Michel Allard, Jean Paul Ambrosi
Cryosols contain ~33% of the global soil organic carbon. Cryosol warming and permafrost degradation may enhance the CO2 release to the atmosphere through the microbial decomposition. Despite the large carbon pool, the permafrost carbon feedback on the climate remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the diurnal evolution of the temperature sensitivity of CO2 efflux in Cryosols. A Histic Cryosol and a Turbic Cryosol were instrumented in tussock tundra ecosystems near Salluit (Nunavik, Canada)...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057338/effects-of-local-factors-and-climate-on-permafrost-conditions-and-distribution-in-beiluhe-basin-qinghai-tibet-plateau-china
#13
Guoan Yin, Fujun Niu, Zhanju Lin, Jing Luo, Minghao Liu
Beiluhe basin is underlain by warm and ice-rich permafrost, and covered by vegetation and soils characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A field monitoring network was established to investigate permafrost conditions and to assess potential impacts of local factors and climate change. This paper describes the spatial variations in permafrost conditions from instrumented boreholes, controlling environmental factors, and recent thermal evolution of permafrost in the basin. The study area was divided into 10 ecotypes using satellite imagery based classification...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053706/-bacillus-massiliglaciei-a-new-bacterial-species-isolated-from-siberian-permafrost
#14
P Afouda, G Dubourg, F Cadoret, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
We describe here the main characteristics of a new species isolated from Siberian permafrost dated around 10 million years. This species was named 'Bacillus massiliglaciei' strain Marseille-P2600(T) (= CSUR P2600 = DSM 102861).
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031806/intensified-plant-n-and-c-pool-with-more-available-nitrogen-under-experimental-warming-in-an-alpine-meadow-ecosystem
#15
Fei Peng, Xian Xue, Quangang You, Manhou Xu, Xiang Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Wang
Nitrogen (N) availability is projected to increase in a warming climate. But whether the more available N is immobilized by microbes (thus stimulates soil carbon (C) decomposition), or is absorbed by plants (thus intensifies C uptake) remains unknown in the alpine meadow ecosystem. Infrared heaters were used to simulate climate warming with a paired experimental design. Soil ammonification, nitrification, and net mineralization were obtained by in situ incubation in a permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028223/climate-change-damages-to-alaska-public-infrastructure-and-the-economics-of-proactive-adaptation
#16
April M Melvin, Peter Larsen, Brent Boehlert, James E Neumann, Paul Chinowsky, Xavier Espinet, Jeremy Martinich, Matthew S Baumann, Lisa Rennels, Alexandra Bothner, Dmitry J Nicolsky, Sergey S Marchenko
Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011026/experimental-modeling-of-thaw-lake-water-evolution-in-discontinuous-permafrost-zone-role-of-peat-lichen-leaching-and-ground-fire
#17
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004690/the-permafrost-prediction
#18
Ted Schuur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994201/is-the-ancient-permafrost-bacteria-able-to-keep-dna-stable
#19
Anatoli Brouchkov, Gennady Griva, Oksana Fursova, Nadezda Fursova, Sergei Ignatov, Gennady Pogorelko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979621/recent-regional-climate-cooling-on-the-antarctic-peninsula-and-associated-impacts-on-the-cryosphere
#20
M Oliva, F Navarro, F Hrbáček, A Hernández, D Nývlt, P Pereira, J Ruiz-Fernández, R Trigo
The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is often described as a region with one of the largest warming trends on Earth since the 1950s, based on the temperature trend of 0.54°C/decade during 1951-2011 recorded at Faraday/Vernadsky station. Accordingly, most works describing the evolution of the natural systems in the AP region cite this extreme trend as the underlying cause of their observed changes. However, a recent analysis (Turner et al., 2016) has shown that the regionally stacked temperature record for the last three decades has shifted from a warming trend of 0...
December 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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