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Lada E Petrovskaya, Ksenia A Novototskaya-Vlasova, Sultan Sh Gapizov, Elena V Spirina, Ekaterina V Durdenko, Elizaveta M Rivkina
Siberian permafrost is a unique environment inhabited with diverse groups of microorganisms. Among them, there are numerous producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes including lipases and esterases. Recently, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a permafrost sample and identified in it several genes coding for potential lipolytic enzymes. In the current work, properties of the recombinant esterases obtained from this library are compared with the previously characterized lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis and other representatives of the hormone-sensitive lipase family...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Hye Yeon Koh, Hyun Park, Jun Hyuck Lee, Se Jong Han, Young Chang Sohn, Sung Gu Lee
Psychrobacter sp. PAMC 21119, isolated from Antarctic permafrost soil, grows and proliferates at subzero temperatures. However, its major mechanism of cold adaptation regulation remains poorly understood. We investigated the transcriptomic and proteomic responses of this species to cold temperatures by comparing profiles at -5°C and 20°C to understand how extreme microorganisms survive under subzero conditions. We found a total of 2,906 transcripts and 584 differentially expressed genes (≥ 2 fold, p <0...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Catherine Thèves, Eric Crubézy, Philippe Biagini
Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
D Olefeldt, S Goswami, G Grosse, D Hayes, G Hugelius, P Kuhry, A D McGuire, V E Romanovsky, A B K Sannel, E A G Schuur, M R Turetsky
Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 10(6) km(2), thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ∼20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Leiyi Chen, Junyi Liang, Shuqi Qin, Li Liu, Kai Fang, Yunping Xu, Jinzhi Ding, Fei Li, Yiqi Luo, Yuanhe Yang
The sign and magnitude of permafrost carbon (C)-climate feedback are highly uncertain due to the limited understanding of the decomposability of thawing permafrost and relevant mechanistic controls over C release. Here, by combining aerobic incubation with biomarker analysis and a three-pool model, we reveal that C quality (represented by a higher amount of fast cycling C but a lower amount of recalcitrant C compounds) and normalized CO2-C release in permafrost deposits were similar or even higher than those in the active layer, demonstrating a high vulnerability of C in Tibetan upland permafrost...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
M Helbig, L Chasmer, N Kljun, W L Quinton, C C Treat, O Sonnentag
At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. Here, thawing permafrost in forested peat plateaus ("forest") leads to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ("wetland") in boreal lowlands. Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange...
September 30, 2016: Global Change Biology
Toni Roiha, Sari Peura, Mathieu Cusson, Milla Rautio
In the subarctic region, climate warming and permafrost thaw are leading to emergence of ponds and to an increase in mobility of catchment carbon. As carbon of terrestrial origin is increasing in subarctic freshwaters the resource pool supporting their microbial communities and metabolism is changing, with consequences to overall aquatic productivity. By sampling different subarctic water bodies for a one complete year we show how terrestrial and algal carbon compounds vary in a range of freshwaters and how differential organic carbon quality is linked to bacterial metabolism and community composition...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fujun Niu, Guodong Cheng, Yonghong Niu, Mingyi Zhang, Jing Luo, Zhanju Lin
Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth's surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about -1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Donatella Zona
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature
Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Mats A Granskog, Astrid Bracher, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Paul A Dodd, Colin A Stedmon
Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zeyong Gao, Fujun Niu, Yibo Wang, Jing Luo, Zhanju Lin
The formation of thermokarst lakes can degrade alpine meadow ecosystems through changes in soil water and heat properties, which might have an effect on the regional surface water and groundwater processes. In this study, a typical thermokarst lake was selected in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and the ecological index (SL) was used to divide the affected areas into extremely affected, severely affected, medium-affected, lightly affected, and non-affected areas, and soil hydrological properties, including saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water-holding capacity, were investigated...
September 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lucas C R Silva, Geng Sun, Xia Zhu-Barker, Qianlong Liang, Ning Wu, William R Horwath
Many forest ecosystems have experienced recent declines in productivity; however, in some alpine regions, tree growth and forest expansion are increasing at marked rates. Dendrochronological analyses at the upper limit of alpine forests in the Tibetan Plateau show a steady increase in tree growth since the early 1900s, which intensified during the 1930s and 1960s, and have reached unprecedented levels since 1760. This recent growth acceleration was observed in small/young and large/old trees and coincided with the establishment of trees outside the forest range, reflecting a connection between the physiological performance of dominant species and shifts in forest distribution...
August 2016: Science Advances
Hisashi Sato, Hideki Kobayashi, Go Iwahana, Takeshi Ohta
The larch (Larix spp.) forest in eastern Siberia is the world's largest coniferous forest. Its persistence is considered to depend on near-surface permafrost, and thus, forecast warming over the 21st century and consequent degradation of near-surface permafrost is expected to affect the larch forest in Siberia. However, predictions of these effects vary greatly, and many uncertainties remain about land - atmosphere interactions within the ecosystem. We developed an integrated land surface model to analyze how the Siberian larch forest will react to current warming trends...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Jeong-Hoon Sa, Gye-Hoon Kwak, Kunwoo Han, Docheon Ahn, Seong Jun Cho, Ju Dong Lee, Kun-Hong Lee
Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sophie Crevecoeur, Warwick F Vincent, Connie Lovejoy
The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites...
2016: Scientific Reports
Catharina Clewing, Christian Albrecht, Thomas Wilke
Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site...
2016: PloS One
V A Malchevskii, A M Subbotin, A G Nemkov, S A Petrov
We studied the effect of contamination with Bacillus genus microorganisms isolated from perennial permafrost samples on the outcome of closed brain neurotrauma in Wistar rats. It was found that contamination with different Bacillus strains produced different effects on the mortality of experimental animals with closed neurotrauma. The complex of metabolites from strain Ch2/9 - Bacillus spp. (pumilus) produced a protective effect in experimental closed brain neurotrauma.
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Heather N Buelow, Ara S Winter, David J Van Horn, John E Barrett, Michael N Gooseff, Egbert Schwartz, Cristina D Takacs-Vesbach
The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM) amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
A G Kozlovskii, T V Antipova, V P Zhelifonova, B P Baskunov, G A Kochkina, S M Ozerskaya
Exometabolites of 22 strains of the genus Penicillium, section Chrysogena isolated from low-temperature ecotopes of various geographical regions were analyzed. The ecotopes included permafrost deposits, frozen volcanic ash, a fossil horse, cryopeg, and water from an Antarctic lake. The studied strains were found to contain exometabolites belonging to the groups of penicillins (penicillin G), chrysogins (chrysogin, 3-acetylquinazolone-4, 2-pyruvoyl aminobenzamide, 2-hydroxypropionyl amunobenzamide, and questiomycin A), roquefortines (3,12-dihydroroquefortine, roquefortine, glandicolines A and B, and meleagrine), xanthocillins (xanthocillin X), and simple tryptophan derivatives (N-acetyltriptamine and indoleacetic acid)...
March 2016: Mikrobiologiia
B Stackhouse, M C Y Lau, T Vishnivetskaya, N Burton, R Wang, A Southworth, L Whyte, T C Onstott
The response of methanotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing atmospheric CH4 to climate warming is poorly understood, especially for those present in Arctic mineral cryosols. The atmospheric CH4 oxidation rates were measured in microcosms incubated at 4 °C and 10 °C along a 1-m depth profile and over a range of water saturation conditions for mineral cryosols containing type I and type II methanotrophs from Axel Heiberg Island (AHI), Nunavut, Canada. The cryosols exhibited net consumption of ~2 ppmv CH4 under all conditions, including during anaerobic incubations...
July 29, 2016: Geobiology
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