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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#1
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068392/vegetation-changes-in-the-permafrost-regions-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-from-1982-2012-different-responses-related-to-geographical-locations-and-vegetation-types-in-high-altitude-areas
#2
Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Zhuotong Nan, Puchang Wang, Shuhua Yi, Defu Zou, Yu Qin, Tonghua Wu, Jianzong Shi
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066129/a-multi-year-estimate-of-methane-fluxes-in-alaska-from-carve-atmospheric-observations
#3
Scot M Miller, Charles E Miller, Roisin Commane, Rachel Y-W Chang, Steven J Dinardo, John M Henderson, Anna Karion, Jakob Lindaas, Joe R Melton, John B Miller, Colm Sweeney, Steven C Wofsy, Anna M Michalak
Methane (CH4) fluxes from Alaska and other arctic regions may be sensitive to thawing permafrost and future climate change, but estimates of both current and future fluxes from the region are uncertain. This study estimates CH4 fluxes across Alaska for 2012-2014 using aircraft observations from the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) and a geostatistical inverse model (GIM). We find that a simple flux model based on a daily soil temperature map and a static map of wetland extent reproduces the atmospheric CH4 observations at the state-wide, multi-year scale more effectively than global-scale, state-of-the-art process-based models...
October 2016: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062107/diurnal-evolution-of-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-efflux-in-permafrost-soils-under-control-and-warm-conditions
#4
Julien Fouché, Catherine Keller, Michel Allard, Jean Paul Ambrosi
Cryosols contain ~33% of the global soil organic carbon. Cryosol warming and permafrost degradation may enhance the CO2 release to the atmosphere through the microbial decomposition. Despite the large carbon pool, the permafrost carbon feedback on the climate remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the diurnal evolution of the temperature sensitivity of CO2 efflux in Cryosols. A Histic Cryosol and a Turbic Cryosol were instrumented in tussock tundra ecosystems near Salluit (Nunavik, Canada)...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057338/effects-of-local-factors-and-climate-on-permafrost-conditions-and-distribution-in-beiluhe-basin-qinghai-tibet-plateau-china
#5
Guoan Yin, Fujun Niu, Zhanju Lin, Jing Luo, Minghao Liu
Beiluhe basin is underlain by warm and ice-rich permafrost, and covered by vegetation and soils characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A field monitoring network was established to investigate permafrost conditions and to assess potential impacts of local factors and climate change. This paper describes the spatial variations in permafrost conditions from instrumented boreholes, controlling environmental factors, and recent thermal evolution of permafrost in the basin. The study area was divided into 10 ecotypes using satellite imagery based classification...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053706/-bacillus-massiliglaciei-a-new-bacterial-species-isolated-from-siberian-permafrost
#6
P Afouda, G Dubourg, F Cadoret, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
We describe here the main characteristics of a new species isolated from Siberian permafrost dated around 10 million years. This species was named 'Bacillus massiliglaciei' strain Marseille-P2600(T) (= CSUR P2600 = DSM 102861).
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031806/intensified-plant-n-and-c-pool-with-more-available-nitrogen-under-experimental-warming-in-an-alpine-meadow-ecosystem
#7
Fei Peng, Xian Xue, Quangang You, Manhou Xu, Xiang Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Wang
Nitrogen (N) availability is projected to increase in a warming climate. But whether the more available N is immobilized by microbes (thus stimulates soil carbon (C) decomposition), or is absorbed by plants (thus intensifies C uptake) remains unknown in the alpine meadow ecosystem. Infrared heaters were used to simulate climate warming with a paired experimental design. Soil ammonification, nitrification, and net mineralization were obtained by in situ incubation in a permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028223/climate-change-damages-to-alaska-public-infrastructure-and-the-economics-of-proactive-adaptation
#8
April M Melvin, Peter Larsen, Brent Boehlert, James E Neumann, Paul Chinowsky, Xavier Espinet, Jeremy Martinich, Matthew S Baumann, Lisa Rennels, Alexandra Bothner, Dmitry J Nicolsky, Sergey S Marchenko
Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011026/experimental-modeling-of-thaw-lake-water-evolution-in-discontinuous-permafrost-zone-role-of-peat-lichen-leaching-and-ground-fire
#9
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004690/the-permafrost-prediction
#10
Ted Schuur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994201/is-the-ancient-permafrost-bacteria-able-to-keep-dna-stable
#11
Anatoli Brouchkov, Gennady Griva, Oksana Fursova, Nadezda Fursova, Sergei Ignatov, Gennady Pogorelko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979621/recent-regional-climate-cooling-on-the-antarctic-peninsula-and-associated-impacts-on-the-cryosphere
#12
M Oliva, F Navarro, F Hrbáček, A Hernández, D Nývlt, P Pereira, J Ruiz-Fernández, R Trigo
The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is often described as a region with one of the largest warming trends on Earth since the 1950s, based on the temperature trend of 0.54°C/decade during 1951-2011 recorded at Faraday/Vernadsky station. Accordingly, most works describing the evolution of the natural systems in the AP region cite this extreme trend as the underlying cause of their observed changes. However, a recent analysis (Turner et al., 2016) has shown that the regionally stacked temperature record for the last three decades has shifted from a warming trend of 0...
December 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935187/holocene-carbon-dynamics-at-the-forest-steppe-ecotone-of-southern-siberia
#13
Anson William Mackay, Alistair W R Seddon, Melanie J Leng, Georg Heumann, David W Morley, Natalia Piotrowska, Patrick Rioual, Sarah Roberts, George E A Swann
The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ(13) CTOC )...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933054/nifh-harboring-bacterial-community-composition-across-an-alaskan-permafrost-thaw-gradient
#14
C Ryan Penton, Caiyun Yang, Liyou Wu, Qiong Wang, Jin Zhang, Feifei Liu, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Christopher L Hemme, Tianling Zheng, Edward A G Schuur, James Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932654/draft-genome-sequence-of-antarctic-methanogen-enriched-from-dry-valley-permafrost
#15
Joy Buongiorno, Jordan T Bird, Kirill Krivushin, Victoria Oshurkova, Victoria Shcherbakova, Elizaveta M Rivkina, Karen G Lloyd, Tatiana A Vishnivetskaya
A genomic reconstruction belonging to the genus Methanosarcina was assembled from metagenomic data from a methane-producing enrichment of Antarctic permafrost. This is the first methanogen genome reported from permafrost of the Dry Valleys and can help shed light on future climate-affected methane dynamics.
December 8, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913019/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-shallow-percolated-water-of-the-alps-karst-system-zugspitze-summit-germany
#16
Walkiria Levy, Marchela Pandelova, Bernhard Henkelmann, Silke Bernhöft, Norbert Fischer, Felix Antritter, Karl-Werner Schramm
In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901306/plants-microorganisms-and-soil-temperatures-contribute-to-a-decrease-in-methane-fluxes-on-a-drained-arctic-floodplain
#17
Min Jung Kwon, Felix Beulig, Iulia Ilie, Marcus Wildner, Kirsten Küsel, Lutz Merbold, Miguel D Mahecha, Nikita Zimov, Sergey A Zimov, Martin Heimann, Edward A G Schuur, Joel E Kostka, Olaf Kolle, Ines Hilke, Mathias Göckede
As surface temperatures are expected to rise in the future, ice-rich permafrost may thaw, altering soil topography and hydrology and creating a mosaic of wet and dry soil surfaces in the Arctic. Arctic wetlands are large sources of CH4 , and investigating effects of soil hydrology on CH4 fluxes is of great importance for predicting ecosystem feedback in response to climate change. In this study, we investigate how a decade-long drying manipulation on an Arctic floodplain influences CH4 -associated microorganisms, soil thermal regimes, and plant communities...
November 7, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897191/massive-remobilization-of-permafrost-carbon-during-post-glacial-warming
#18
T Tesi, F Muschitiello, R H Smittenberg, M Jakobsson, J E Vonk, P Hill, A Andersson, N Kirchner, R Noormets, O Dudarev, I Semiletov, Ö Gustafsson
Recent hypotheses, based on atmospheric records and models, suggest that permafrost carbon (PF-C) accumulated during the last glaciation may have been an important source for the atmospheric CO2 rise during post-glacial warming. However, direct physical indications for such PF-C release have so far been absent. Here we use the Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) as an archive to investigate PF-C destabilization during the last glacial-interglacial period. Our results show evidence for massive supply of PF-C from Siberian soils as a result of severe active layer deepening in response to the warming...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886221/hydrocarbon-degraders-establish-at-the-costs-of-microbial-richness-abundance-and-keystone-taxa-after-crude-oil-contamination-in-permafrost-environments
#19
Sizhong Yang, Xi Wen, Yulan Shi, Susanne Liebner, Huijun Jin, Amedea Perfumo
Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870556/twenty-species-of-hypobarophilic-bacteria-recovered-from-diverse-soils-exhibit-growth-under-simulated-martian-conditions-at-0-7%C3%A2-kpa
#20
Andrew C Schuerger, Wayne L Nicholson
Bacterial growth at low pressure is a new research area with implications for predicting microbial activity in clouds and the bulk atmosphere on Earth and for modeling the forward contamination of planetary surfaces like Mars. Here, we describe experiments on the recovery and identification of 20 species of bacterial hypobarophiles (def., growth under hypobaric conditions of approximately 1-2 kPa) in 10 genera capable of growth at 0.7 kPa. Hypobarophilic bacteria, but not archaea or fungi, were recovered from diverse soils, and high numbers of hypobarophiles were recovered from Arctic and Siberian permafrost soils...
December 2016: Astrobiology
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