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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#1
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430187/poorly-known-microbial-taxa-dominate-the-microbiome-of-permafrost-thaw-ponds
#2
Christian Wurzbacher, R Henrik Nilsson, Milla Rautio, Sari Peura
In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408669/draft-genome-sequence-of-permafrost-bacterium-nesterenkonia-sp-strain-pf2b19-revealing-a-cold-adaptation-strategy-and-diverse-biotechnological-potential
#3
Purnima Singh, Neelam Kapse, Utpal Roy, Shiv Mohan Singh, P K Dhakephalkar
Nesterenkonia sp. strain PF2B19, a psychrophilic bacterium, was isolated from 44,800-year-old permafrost. The draft genome sequence of this strain revealed the presence of genes involved in the production of cold active enzymes, carotenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, and resistance to heavy metals. These results show the immense potential of the strain.
April 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390104/historical-and-projected-trends-in-landscape-drivers-affecting-carbon-dynamics-in-alaska
#4
Neal J Pastick, Paul Duffy, Hélène Genet, T Scott Rupp, Bruce K Wylie, Kristofer D Johnson, M Torre Jorgenson, Norman Bliss, A David McGuire, Elchin E Jafarov, Joseph F Knight
Modern climate change in Alaska has resulted in widespread thawing of permafrost, increased fire activity, and extensive changes in vegetation characteristics that have significant consequences for socio-ecological systems. Despite observations of the heightened sensitivity of these systems to change, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of factors that drive ecosystem changes throughout Alaska. Here we present research that improves our understanding of the main drivers of the spatiotemporal patterns of carbon dynamics using in situ observations, remote sensing data, and an array of modeling techniques...
April 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382964/erratum-potential-microbial-contamination-during-sampling-of-permafrost-soil-assessed-by-tracers
#5
Toke Bang-Andreasen, Morten Schostag, Anders Priemé, Bo Elberling, Carsten S Jacobsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378792/degradation-potentials-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-doc-from-thawed-permafrost-peat
#6
Balathandayuthabani Panneer Selvam, Jean-François Lapierre, Francois Guillemette, Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Christina Biasi, Torben R Christensen, Pertti J Martikainen, Martin Berggren
Global warming can substantially affect the export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat-permafrost to aquatic systems. The direct degradability of such peat-derived DOC, however, is poorly constrained because previous permafrost thaw studies have mainly addressed mineral soil catchments or DOC pools that have already been processed in surface waters. We incubated peat cores from a palsa mire to compare an active layer and an experimentally thawed permafrost layer with regard to DOC composition and degradation potentials of pore water DOC...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358825/nature-s-patchwork-how-water-sources-and-soil-salinity-determine-the-distribution-and-structure-of-halophytic-plant-communities-in-arid-environments-of-the-eastern-pamir
#7
Monika Mętrak, Łukasz Chachulski, Dovutsho Navruzshoev, Paweł Pawlikowski, Elżbieta Rojan, Marcin Sulwiński, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337070/genomic-methods-and-microbiological-technologies-for-profiling-novel-and-extreme-environments-for-the-extreme-microbiome-project-xmp
#8
Scott Tighe, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Tara M Rock, Ken McGrath, Noah Alexander, Alexa McIntyre, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Daniela Bezdan, Stefan J Green, Samantha Joye, Sarah Stewart Johnson, Don A Baldwin, Nathan Bivens, Nadim Ajami, Joseph R Carmical, Ian Charold Herriott, Rita Colwell, Mohamed Donia, Jonathan Foox, Nick Greenfield, Tim Hunter, Jessica Hoffman, Joshua Hyman, Ellen Jorgensen, Diana Krawczyk, Jodie Lee, Shawn Levy, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Matthew Settles, Kelley Thomas, Felipe Gómez, Lynn Schriml, Nikos Kyrpides, Elena Zaikova, Jon Penterman, Christopher E Mason
The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314921/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-five-psychrobacter-strains-isolated-from-world-wide-habitats-reveal-high-intra-genus-variations
#9
Shan Zhang, Weizhi Song, Min Yu, Xuezheng Lin
Psychrobacter has been regarded as an important genus for bacterial cold adaptation studies. However, members of this genus are highly varied in terms of both cold adaptability and genome content. To get an understanding of the diversity of members of this genus, five Psychrobacter strains (G, K5, 273-4, PAMC21119 and PRwf-1), with publicly available complete/draft genome, were selected and comprehensive comparative genomics analyses were performed among them. The closest phylogenetic relationship, highest average nucleotide identity (96...
March 17, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289836/prokaryotic-abundance-and-activity-in-permafrost-of-the-northern-victoria-land-and-upper-victoria-valley-antarctica
#10
Rosabruna La Ferla, Maurizio Azzaro, Luigi Michaud, Gabriella Caruso, Angelina Lo Giudice, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Antonella Conte, Alessandro Cosenza, Giovanna Maimone, Maria Papale, Alessandro Ciro Rappazzo, Mauro Guglielmin
Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type...
March 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284636/data-driven-mapping-of-the-potential-mountain-permafrost-distribution
#11
Nicola Deluigi, Christophe Lambiel, Mikhail Kanevski
Existing mountain permafrost distribution models generally offer a good overview of the potential extent of this phenomenon at a regional scale. They are however not always able to reproduce the high spatial discontinuity of permafrost at the micro-scale (scale of a specific landform; ten to several hundreds of meters). To overcome this lack, we tested an alternative modelling approach using three classification algorithms belonging to statistics and machine learning: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines and Random forests...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284141/characterization-of-pb-2-biosorption-by-psychrotrophic-strain-pseudomonas-sp-i3-isolated-from-permafrost-soil-of-mohe-wetland-in-northeast-china
#12
Dandan Li, Xingjian Xu, Hongwen Yu, Xuerong Han
Due to the long and severe winter in Northeast China, wastewater containing lead (Pb) is treated inefficiently, resulting in irregular disposal. In order to solve this problem, a Pb-resistant psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. I3, was isolated from permafrost soil of Mohe wetland and served as biosorbent for Pb(2+) removal under 15 °C. The minimum inhibitory concentration of strain I3 for Pb(2+) was 7.5 mM, which was higher than that of Escherichia coli DH5α (1.5 mM). However, acid digestion results showed that these two bacteria had a comparable biosorption capacity for Pb(2+), suggesting no direct relationship between biosorption ability of bacteria and their metal-resistance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280011/draft-genome-sequence-of-agrococcusbaldri-strain-marseille-p2731
#13
Pamela Afouda, Gregory Dubourg, Noemie Labas, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Agrococcus baldri strain Marseille-P2731 was isolated from a Siberian permafrost specimen dated around 10 million years. The 3,021,022-bp genome of strain Marseille-P2731, with a 71.82% G+C content, includes 2,844 protein-coding genes, 72 toxin/antitoxin modules, nine bacteriocin-encoding genes, and 1,266 genes associated with mobilome.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262362/freezing-enhanced-reduction-of-chromate-by-nitrite
#14
Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Jinjung Ju, Jungwon Kim
The redox reactions between pollutants and chemicals (e.g., pollutant, oxygen, and water) critically affect the fate and potential risk of pollutants, and their rates significantly depend on the environmental media. Although the kinetics and mechanism of various redox reactions in water have been extensively investigated, those in ice have been hardly explored, despite the large areal extent of the cryosphere, which includes permafrost, polar regions, and mid-latitudes during the winter season on Earth. In this study, we investigated the reduction of chromate (Cr(VI)) by nitrite (NO2(-)) in ice (i...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230151/potential-microbial-contamination-during-sampling-of-permafrost-soil-assessed-by-tracers
#15
Toke Bang-Andreasen, Morten Schostag, Anders Priemé, Bo Elberling, Carsten S Jacobsen
Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215329/biotechnological-applications-of-marine-enzymes-from-algae-bacteria-fungi-and-sponges
#16
S Parte, V L Sirisha, J S D'Souza
Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208232/nonlinear-co2-flux-response-to-7%C3%A2-years-of-experimentally-induced-permafrost-thaw
#17
Marguerite Mauritz, Rosvel Bracho, Gerardo Celis, Jack Hutchings, Susan M Natali, Elaine Pegoraro, Verity G Salmon, Christina Schädel, Elizabeth E Webb, Edward A G Schuur
Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE)...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205612/dna-analysis-of-a-30-000-year-old-urocitellus-glacialis-from-northeastern-siberia-reveals-phylogenetic-relationships-between-ancient-and-present-day-arctic-ground-squirrels
#18
Marina Faerman, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Elisabetta Boaretto, Gennady G Boeskorov, Nikolai E Dokuchaev, Oleg A Ermakov, Fedor N Golenishchev, Stanislav V Gubin, Eugenia Mintz, Evgeniy Simonov, Vadim L Surin, Sergei V Titov, Oksana G Zanina, Nikolai A Formozov
In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed (14)C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132402/direct-and-indirect-climate-change-effects-on-carbon-dioxide-fluxes-in-a-thawing-boreal-forest-wetland-landscape
#19
Manuel Helbig, Laura E Chasmer, Ankur R Desai, Natascha Kljun, William L Quinton, Oliver Sonnentag
In the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, boreal forest carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes will be altered directly by climate change through changing meteorological forcing and indirectly through changes in landscape functioning associated with thaw-induced collapse-scar bog ("wetland") expansion. However, their combined effect on landscape-scale net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEELAND ), resulting from changing gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), remains unknown. Here, we quantify indirect land cover change impacts on NEELAND and direct climate change impacts on modeled temperature- and light-limited NEELAND of a boreal forest-wetland landscape...
January 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117155/active-layer-and-permafrost-thermal-regime-in-a-patterned-ground-soil-in-maritime-antarctica-and-relationship-with-climate-variability-models
#20
D A Chaves, G B Lyra, M R Francelino, Ldb Silva, A Thomazini, Cegr Schaefer
Permafrost and active layer studies are important to understand and predict regional climate changes. The objectives of this work were: i) to characterize the soil thermal regime (active layer thickness and permafrost formation) and its interannual variability and ii) to evaluate the influence of different climate variability modes to the observed soil thermal regime in a patterned ground soil in Maritime Antarctica. The study was carried out at Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Six soil temperatures probes were installed at different depths (10, 30 and 80cm) in the polygon center (Tc) and border (Tb) of a patterned ground soil...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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