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Eduardo Duque-Redondo, Yamada Kazuo, Iñigo López-Arbeloa, Hegoi Manzano
Cementation is a widespread technique to immobilize nuclear waste due to the low leachability of cementitious materials. The capacity of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the main component of cement, to retain radionuclide Cs has been empirically studied at the macroscale, yet the specific molecular scale mechanisms that govern the retention have not been determined. In this work, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the adsorption and diffusivity of Cs into a C-S-H gel nanopore. From the simulations, it was possible to distinguish three types of Cs adsorption configurations on the C-S-H: an inner-sphere surface site where Cs is strongly bound, an outer-sphere surface site where Cs is loosely bound, and Cs free in the nanopore...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
K G Gopakumar, T Priyakumari, Manjusha Nair, P Kusumakumary
In India, the clinical guidelines and laws governing consent for blood transfusion in a minor are meager and vague. In an elective situation, whether the parents can make a decision for the child on his/her behalf or whether the doctor has the right to make the decision in the best interests of the child is not clear. We present the case scenario of a child belonging to Jehovah's Witness denomination diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. His parents were in a dilemma whether to opt for blood transfusion or not. In the absence of laws and guidelines in this context, and considering the complications that he developed during the treatment period, it was very challenging for us to manage the situation both medically and medico-legally...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Guillaume Rohat
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) are the new set of alternative futures of societal development that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure-i...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chiara Fenoglio, Elio Scarpini, Maria Serpente, Daniela Galimberti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent the first cause of dementia in senile and pre-senile population, respectively. A percentage of cases have a genetic cause, inherited with an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission. The majority of cases, however, derive from complex interactions between a number of genetic and environmental factors. Gene variants may act as risk or protective factors. Their combination with a variety of environmental exposures may result in increased susceptibility to these diseases or may influence their course...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Brener Santos Silva, Hiago Victor Coelho, Ricardo Bezerra Cavalcante, Valéria Conceição de Oliveira, Eliete Albano de Azevedo Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To carry out the National Immunization Program Information System (SIPNI) accessability assessment (EA), considering the description of the intervention, the elaboration of the theoretical-logical model and the identification of the evaluative questions. METHOD: A single case study with a qualitative approach, based on the system of seven elements proposed by Thurston and Ramaliu (2005). The SIPNI and the context of analysis, the vaccination rooms, were defined as the case...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Carlos Arturo Alvarez-Moreno, Jorge Alberto Cortes, David W Denning
Data with respect to the epidemiological situation of fungal diseases in Colombia is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the burden of fungal infections. A population projection for 2017 from the Colombian Department for National Statistics was used, as well as official information from the Ministry of Health and National Institute of Health. A bibliographical search for Colombian data on mycotic diseases and population at risk (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV infection/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients) was done...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Caitlin S Brown, Wesley R Zemrak, Kaitlin J Dyer, Stephen Rolfe
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become an important advancement for patients with end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist devices come with the risk of stroke and pump thrombosis, and to mitigate these risks, anticoagulation is given to these patients. With anticoagulation comes increased bleeding risk, and urgent reversal may be necessary. Reports have shown that the risk of thrombosis with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) does exist, especially in patients with baseline risk factors for thrombosis...
March 20, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Peter R Tentscher, Marc Bourgin, Urs von Gunten
Phenolic moieties are common functional groups in organic micropollutants and in dissolved organic matter, and are exposed to ozone during drinking water and wastewater ozonation. Although unsubstituted phenol is known to yield potentially genotoxic p-benzoquinone during ozonation, little is known about the effects of substitution of the phenol ring on transformation product formation. With batch experiments employing differing ozone/target compound ratios, it is shown that para-substituted phenols ( p-alkyl, p-halo, p-cyano, p-methoxy, p-formyl, p-carboxy) yield p-benzoquinones, p-substituted catechols, and 4-hydroxy-4-alkyl-cyclohexadien-1-ones as common ozonation products...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
N Laube, F Bernsmann, C Fisang
Urological implants in the urinary tract are routinely used to ensure urine flow. However, the morbidities are numerous concerning long-term derivations. Especially with the ureteral stents, failure can have considerable consequences. Since the surfaces of all urological implants are more or less ideal substrates for microorganisms, the formation of bacterial biofilms is a regularly observed and often serious complication, which in many cases forces early implant replacement. The burden on the patient and the health system are enormous...
March 20, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Florian F Dibra, Hernan A Prieto, Chancellor F Gray, Hari K Parvataneni
Background: Hip osteoarthritis typically manifests with groin or thigh pain. Other atypical pain patterns, including knee pain, have been described. Except for 2 case reports, there is no literature on this subject. Methods: From our institutional database, between 2011 and 2016, we identified 21 patients who were referred for treatment of knee pain but ultimately diagnosed with hip pathology as the cause of their pain. This group was evaluated for duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, previous interventions, presence of walking aids, and symptom resolution after treatment of the hip pathology...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Humaid Ahmad, Jahanzaib Haider, Sheeraz S Siddiqui, Sumbul Naz, Faizan Nihal, Shams Nadeem Alam
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare entity with its subacute form being even rarer. The condition has also been described to occur in the peristomal area in relation to different clinical scenarios. However, it has not been described in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy where these medications have already been given. While the diagnosis may be delayed or missed due to the subtle symptomatology of the indolent subacute form of NF, another reason for a delayed or missed diagnosis may be the excessive use of tape and the stoma belt around the stomal appliance to prolong the life of the appliance beyond its recommended days of usage due to economic constraints...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Peter Fromberger, Sabrina Meyer, Kirsten Jordan, Jürgen L Müller
The decision about unsupervised privileges for sexual offenders against children (SOC) is one of the most difficult decisions for practitioners in forensic high-security hospitals. Facing the possible consequences of the decision for the society, a valid and reliable risk management of SOCs is essential. Some risk management approaches provide frameworks for the construction of relevant future risk situations. Due to ethical reasons, it is not possible to evaluate the validity of constructed risk situations in reality...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie C Cajigas-Loyola, Ricky L Miller, Bradley Spieler, Gregory Carbonella
Background: Mycotic aneurysms arising from the pulmonary arteries are rare; only a few cases have been reported. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species are the most common causative pathogens. Mycotic aneurysms are seldom clinically apparent unless as a sequela of adverse procedural complications. They carry high morbidity and mortality if not treated expeditiously. Case Report: We present the case of a 37-year-old male with bacteremia and bronchopneumonia associated with a pulmonary artery mycotic aneurysm...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Klemm et al. (mBio 9:e00105-18, 2018, present comprehensive antibiotic sensitivity patterns and genomic sequence data on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from typhoid fever cases during an epidemic in Pakistan. Microbiologic and genomic data pinpoint the identities and locations of the antimicrobial resistance genes and the outbreak strain's lineage. They propose that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi be added to the list of bacterial pathogens of public health importance that have become extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Benjamin T Pollard, Anthony N Turner, Robin Eager, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Patrick Hogben, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a high intensity intermittent sport, typically analysed via set time periods or rolling average methods. This study reports the demands of international rugby union via global positioning system (GPS) metrics expressed as mean ball in play (BiP), maximum BiP (max BiP), and whole match outputs. DESIGN: Single cohort cross sectional study involving 22 international players, categorised as forwards and backs. METHODS: A total of 88 GPS files from eight international test matches were collected during 2016...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
David Perez-Diaz-de-Cerio, Ángela Hernández-Solana, Antonio Valdovinos, Jose Luis Valenzuela
Timing points used in running races and other competition events are generally based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Athletes' times are calculated via passive RFID tags and reader kits. Specifically, the reader infrastructure needed is complex and requires the deployment of a mat or ramps which hide the receiver antennae under them. Moreover, with the employed tags, it is not possible to transmit additional and dynamic information such as pulse or oximetry monitoring, alarms, etc. In this paper we present a system based on two low complex schemes allowed in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE): the non-connectable undirected advertisement process and a modified version of scannable undirected advertisement process using the new capabilities present in Bluetooth 5...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Namita Maharjan, Naoki Nomoto, Tadashi Tagawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Shigeki Uemura, Nadeem Khalil, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Hideki Harada
This paper assesses the technical and economic sustainability of a combined system of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)- down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) for sewage treatment. Additionally, this study compares UASB-DHS with current technologies in India like trickling filters (TF), sequencing batch reactor (SBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and other combinations of UASB with post-treatment systems such as final polishing ponds (FPU) and extended aeration sludge process (EASP). The sustainability of the sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a composite indicator, which incorporated environmental, societal and economic dimensions...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Tony K L Kiang
Elbasvir and grazoprevir, in a fixed-dose combination of 50 and 100 mg, respectively, have received approval to be administered orally once daily, with or without ribavirin, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The absorption characteristics of elbasvir and grazoprevir have been adequately summarized, although differences were observed for grazoprevir (e.g., increased exposure at steady state in patients), but not elbasvir, between healthy and HCV-infected subjects. Inconsistencies with respect to absorption were also reported on the effects of food or acid reducers (famotidine or pantoprazole) in the literature...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Raja Muhammad Rashid, Zahid Nabi, Ahmad Zaki Ansari, Quratul-Ain Qaiser
BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is primarily characterized by immune-mediated destruction of platelets in circulation. Major treatment options range from careful observation, steroids, immunosuppressive medications, immunoglobulins to splenectomy. Interestingly and rarely, ITP has also been reported after solid organ transplantation in patients receiving immunosuppressive medications. While the incidence of new onset ITP after solid organ transplant is comparatively well documented, new onset ITP after renal transplant has only been reported in two patients...
March 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Beibei Wang, Chunye Lin, Xuan Zhang, Xiaoli Duan, Dongqun Xu, Hongguang Cheng, Qin Wang, Xitao Liu, Jin Ma, Junwei Ma, Fengchang Wu
Soil ingestion by people is an important route of exposure to environmental contaminants. Studies on soil ingestion using tracer mass-balance method are mainly for young children and adults, scarcely for teenagers. In such case, the soil ingestion rate for teenagers recommended by regulators is generally identical to that of adults based on one activity pattern modeling study. However, teenagers are expected to have different soil ingestion exposure via ingestion pathway due to different activity patterns and exposure scenarios...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
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