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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341765/magnetic-fluctuations-precursor-phenomena-and-phase-transition-in-mnsi-under-a-magnetic-field
#1
C Pappas, L J Bannenberg, E Lelièvre-Berna, F Qian, C D Dewhurst, R M Dalgliesh, D L Schlagel, T A Lograsso, P Falus
The reference chiral helimagnet MnSi is the first system where Skyrmion lattice correlations have been reported. At a zero magnetic field the transition at T_{C} to the helimagnetic state is of first order. Above T_{C}, in a region dominated by precursor phenomena, neutron scattering shows the buildup of strong chiral fluctuating correlations over the surface of a sphere with radius 2π/ℓ, where ℓ is the pitch of the helix. It has been suggested that these fluctuating correlations drive the helical transition to first order following a scenario proposed by Brazovskii for liquid crystals...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341493/modeling-the-downstream-processing-of-monoclonal-antibodies-reveals-cost-advantages-for-continuous-methods-for-a-broad-range-of-manufacturing-scales
#2
Jonathan Hummel, Mark Pagkaliwangan, Xhorxhi Gjoka, Terence Davidovits, Rick Stock, Thomas Ransohoff, Rene Gantier, Mark Schofield
The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing platform was modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and single-use batch formats...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341229/assessing-and-mitigating-simulated-population-level-effects-of-three-herbicides-to-a-threatened-plant-application-of-a-species-specific-population-model-of-boltonia-decurrens
#3
Amelie Schmolke, Richard Brain, Pernille Thorbek, Daniel Perkins, Valery Forbes
Extrapolating from organism-level endpoints, as generated from standard pesticide toxicity tests, to populations is an important step in threatened and endangered species risk assessments. We apply a population model for a threatened herbaceous plant species, Boltonia decurrens, to estimate the potential population-level impacts of 3 herbicides. We combine conservative exposure scenarios with dose-response relationships for growth and survival of standard test species, and apply those in the species-specific model...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341180/risk-assessment-of-salmonellosis-from-consumption-of-alfalfa-sprouts-and-evaluation-of-the-public-health-impact-of-sprout-seed-treatment-and-spent-irrigation-water-testing
#4
Yuhuan Chen, Régis Pouillot, Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Steven Duret, Judith Spungen, Tong-Jen Fu, Fazila Shakir, Patricia A Homola, Sherri Dennis, Jane M Van Doren
We developed a risk assessment of human salmonellosis associated with consumption of alfalfa sprouts in the United States to evaluate the public health impact of applying treatments to seeds (0-5-log10 reduction in Salmonella) and testing spent irrigation water (SIW) during production. The risk model considered variability and uncertainty in Salmonella contamination in seeds, Salmonella growth and spread during sprout production, sprout consumption, and Salmonella dose response. Based on an estimated prevalence of 2...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339840/complex-knee-injury-scenario-in-tertiary-level-care-in-north-india-an-epidemiological-study
#5
Mukul Kaushal, Devendra K Chouhan, Gaurav Sharma, Rajendra K Kanojia
Floating knee injury has been considered as one of the severe orthopedic injury, and is often associated with major systemic trauma involving other organs. Objective: To identify the incidence of floating knee injury, severity of injury and associated orthopaedic and non-orthopaedic injury. Methods: Epidemiologic study conducted from 1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2014. Results: A total of 136 cases with floating knee injury were registered. Modified Fraser classification showed 58 patients had type 1, 74 had type 2 and 4 had type 3 floating knees...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339802/biases-of-structure-software-when-exploring-introduction-routes-of-invasive-species
#6
Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Emeline Deleury
Population genetic methods are widely used to retrace the introduction routes of invasive species. The unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in STRUCTURE is amongst the most frequently used of these methods, but its ability to provide reliable information about introduction routes has never been assessed. We simulated microsatellite datasets to evaluate the extent to which the results provided by STRUCTURE were misleading for the inference of introduction routes. We focused on an invasion scenario involving one native and two independently introduced populations, because it is the sole scenario that can be rejected when obtaining a particular clustering with a STRUCTURE analysis at K = 2 (two clusters)...
January 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339646/automated-screening-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-systematic-review
#7
Mads Fonager Nørgaard, Jakob Grauslund
PURPOSE: Worldwide ophthalmologists are challenged by the rapid rise in the prevalence of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication in diabetes, and possible consequences range from mild visual impairment to blindness. Repetitive screening for DR is cost-effective, but it is also a costly and strenuous affair. Several studies have examined the application of automated image analysis to solve this problem. Large populations are needed to assess the efficacy of such programs, and a standardized and rigorous methodology is important to give an indication of system performance in actual clinical settings...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339579/conclusions-and-recommendations-from-the-17th-workshop-of-the-european-alara-network-alara-in-emergency-exposure-situations
#8
Sylvain Andresz, Julie Morgan, Pascal Croüail, Fernand Vermeersch
The European ALARA Network regularly organises workshops on topical issues in radiation protection. In light of the Fukushima accident, the most recent workshop questioned the application of the ALARA principle in emergency exposures situations. This memorandum presents the conclusions and recommendations of this workshop. One of the outcomes is that the process of optimisation in emergency exposure situations should be flexible enough to be able to modify or refine decisions over the course of an accident...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339335/potential-impacts-of-offshore-oil-spills-on-polar-bears-in-the-chukchi-sea
#9
Ryan R Wilson, Craig Perham, Deborah P French-McCay, Richard Balouskus
Sea ice decline is anticipated to increase human access to the Arctic Ocean allowing for offshore oil and gas development in once inaccessible areas. Given the potential negative consequences of an oil spill on marine wildlife populations in the Arctic, it is important to understand the magnitude of impact a large spill could have on wildlife to inform response planning efforts. In this study we simulated oil spills that released 25,000 barrels of oil for 30 days in autumn originating from two sites in the Chukchi Sea (one in Russia and one in the U...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338871/likelihood-of-total-resolution-in-selective-comprehensive-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-with-parallel-processing-simulation-and-theory
#10
Joe M Davis, Dwight R Stoll
The probability Pr(sLC×LC) that all peaks are separated by a resolution of 1.5 or more in selective comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (sLC × LC) is computed for simple model systems of 5 to 60 peaks and first-dimension (1D) gradient times of 100 to 2000 s. The computations include mimics of a commercial instrument, whose fixed second-dimension (2D) gradient time and use of one cycle time for initialization reduces Pr(sLC×LC) relative to an earlier report. For serial sLC × LC, in which a single device collects and transfers 1D multiplets to the second dimension, Pr(sLC×LC) under practical conditions is predicted to be only slightly larger than the probability of total resolution in LC × LC for separations of the same duration in each case...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338776/takayasu-arteritis-a-cause-of-hypertensive-disorder-of-pregnancy-a-case-report
#11
Jesus Lumbreras-Marquez, Roberto Arturo Castillo-Reyther, Salvador De-la-Maza-Labastida, Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz
BACKGROUND: Takayasu arteritis is a rare, chronic, granulomatous systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology and a few cases have been reported in pregnancy. In pregnancies concomitant with Takayasu arteritis or after diagnosis, Takayasu arteritis negatively affects pregnancy by increasing 13-fold the odds of complications such as hypertensive disorders. The best recommendations in this scenario are still to be made. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 21-year-old, gravid 1, Mexican woman of Mestizo descent with chronic hypertension diagnosed since she was 15-years old who presented severe hypertension during pregnancy (early second trimester); the diagnosis of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was ruled out requiring first-line and second-line antihypertensive therapy without serious associated maternal or fetal morbidity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338267/theory-for-the-liquid-liquid-phase-separation-in-aqueous-antibody-solutions
#12
Miha Kastelic, Vojko Vlachy
This study presents the theory for liquid--liquid phase separation for systems of molecules modeling monoclonal antibodies. Individual molecule is depicted as an assembly of seven hard spheres, organized to mimic the Y--shaped antibody. We consider the antibody--antibody interactions either through Fab, Fab' (two Fab fragments may be different), or Fc domain. Interaction between these three domains of the molecule (hereafter denoted as A, B, and C, respectively) is modeled by a short--range square--well attraction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338148/novel-applications-of-bedside-monitoring-to-plumb-patient-hemodynamic-state-and-response-to-therapy
#13
Fabio Guarracino, Pietro Bertini, Michael R Pinsky
Hemodynamic monitoring is essential during the treatment of the critically ill in order to address the hemodynamic alterations and assess the response to treatment. Traditionally classified causes of shock and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are often neglected by resuscitative strategies included in the guidelines. Most of hemodynamic management focuses on the ability to early recognise patients susceptible to increase cardiac output (CO) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) after a defined fluid challenge by eliciting Starling's law of the heart, and less is known of the ones presenting in shock and not volume responsive...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337079/rising-pco2-in-freshwater-ecosystems-has-the-potential-to-negatively-affect-predator-induced-defenses-in-daphnia
#14
Linda C Weiss, Leonie Pötter, Annika Steiger, Sebastian Kruppert, Uwe Frost, Ralph Tollrian
Anthropogenically released CO2 accumulates in the global carbon cycle and is anticipated to imbalance global carbon fluxes [1]. For example, increased atmospheric CO2 induces a net air-to-sea flux where the oceans take up large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (i.e., ocean acidification [2-5]). Research on ocean acidification is ongoing, and studies have demonstrated the consequences for ecosystems and organismal biology with major impacts on marine food webs, nutrient cycles, overall productivity, and biodiversity [6-9]...
January 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336790/a-multiple-kernel-classification-approach-based-on-a-quadratic-successive-geometric-segmentation-methodology-with-a-fault-diagnosis-case
#15
Leonardo M Honório, Daniele A Barbosa, Edimar J Oliveira, Paulo A Nepomuceno Garcia, Murillo F Santos
This work presents a new approach for solving classification and learning problems. The Successive Geometric Segmentation technique is applied to encapsulate large datasets by using a series of Oriented Bounding Hyper Box (OBHBs). Each OBHB is obtained through linear separation analysis and each one represents a specific region in a pattern's solution space. Also, each OBHB can be seen as a data abstraction layer and be considered as an individual Kernel. Thus, it is possible by applying a quadratic discriminant function, to assemble a set of nonlinear surfaces separating each desirable pattern...
January 11, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336402/mechanical-discordance-between-left-atrium-and-left-atrial-appendage
#16
Arash Khamooshian, Jelliffe Jeganthan, Yannis Amador, Roger J Laham, Feroze Mahmood, Robina Matyal
During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR) patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA) is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336401/bleeding-in-the-lung-complicates-a-routine-intracardiac-repair-what-went-wrong
#17
Neeti Makhija, Rohan Magoon, Minati Choudhury, Sivasubramanian Ramakrishnan
Cyanotic congenital heart disease presents an increased tendency to bleed in view of subtle coagulation defects. Airway bleeding can be particularly difficult to manage while maintaining an adequate ventilation. An isolated lung bleed with the exclusion of possible traumatic, medical and surgical causes of bleeding, should alert the attending anesthesiologist to the possibility of the collateral-related bleeding. Preoperative coil embolization remains an important initial management step in a case of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with major aortopulmonary collaterals...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336333/simulation-and-training-in-urology-in-collaboration-with-esu-esut
#18
Domenico Veneziano, Giovanni Cacciamani, Chandra Shekhar Biyani
Being a Surgeon today means taking on your shoulders countless responsibilities. It is definitely a high-stakes job but, even though the professionals do not go through the intense, focused and demanding training schedule as followed by the other equally risky fields, it doesn't yet require any practical training certification. Simulation was introduced in the aviation field in the early '30s with the "Link Trainer", designed to reproduce the most difficult flying case scenario: landing on an air-carrier. After almost a century, flight simulation is still becoming more sophisticated, while surgical training is slowly starting to fill the gap...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335429/rfa-guardian-comprehensive-simulation-of-radiofrequency-ablation-treatment-of-liver-tumors
#19
Philip Voglreiter, Panchatcharam Mariappan, Mika Pollari, Ronan Flanagan, Roberto Blanco Sequeiros, Rupert Horst Portugaller, Jurgen Fütterer, Dieter Schmalstieg, Marina Kolesnik, Michael Moche
The RFA Guardian is a comprehensive application for high-performance patient-specific simulation of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors. We address a wide range of usage scenarios. These include pre-interventional planning, sampling of the parameter space for uncertainty estimation, treatment evaluation and, in the worst case, failure analysis. The RFA Guardian is the first of its kind that exhibits sufficient performance for simulating treatment outcomes during the intervention. We achieve this by combining a large number of high-performance image processing, biomechanical simulation and visualization techniques into a generalized technical workflow...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334979/measuring-spatial-accessibility-to-healthcare-services-with-constraint-of-administrative-boundary-a-case-study-of-yanqing-district-beijing-china
#20
Zhuolin Tao, Yang Cheng, Qingjing Zheng, Guicai Li
BACKGROUND: The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method, which is one of the most widely used methods for measuring healthcare spatial accessibility, defines the catchment area of each facility as the area within a certain distance from the facility. However, in some cases, the service utilization behavior is constrained by administrative boundaries, therefore the definition of catchment area within a certain distance may be inappropriate. METHODS: In this study, we aim to propose a modification of the 2SFCA method for measuring spatial accessibility to healthcare services in a system constrained by administrative boundaries...
January 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
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