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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453955/acoustic-tweezing-cytometry-enhances-osteogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-cytoskeletal-contractility-and-yap-activation
#1
Xufeng Xue, Xiaowei Hong, Zida Li, Cheri X Deng, Jianping Fu
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential for cell-based therapies for treating degenerative bone diseases. It is known that mechanical cues in the cell microenvironment play an important role in regulating osteogenic (bone) differentiation of hMSCs. However, mechanoregulation of lineage commitment of hMSCs in conventional two-dimensional (2D) monocultures or bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs remains suboptimal due to complex biomaterial design criteria for hMSC culture...
April 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453486/cognitive-deficits-after-cerebral-ischemia-and-underlying-dysfunctional-plasticity-potential-targets-for-recovery-of-cognition
#2
Holly M Stradecki-Cohan, Charles H Cohan, Ami P Raval, Kunjan R Dave, Diego Reginensi, Rolando A Gittens, Mehdi Youbi, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Cerebral ischemia affects millions of people worldwide and survivors suffer from long-term functional and cognitive deficits. While stroke and cardiac arrest are typically considered when discussing ischemic brain injuries, there is much evidence that smaller ischemic insults underlie neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The "regenerative" capacity of the brain relies on several aspects of plasticity that are crucial for normal functioning; less affected brain areas may take over function previously performed by irreversibly damaged tissue...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453285/pharmacological-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#3
Min Xie, Shibing Tang, Ke Li, Sheng Ding
Lost or damaged cells in tissues and organs can be replaced by transplanting therapeutically competent cells. This approach requires methods that effectively manipulate cellular identities and properties to generate sufficient numbers of desired cell types for transplantation. These cells can be generated by reprogramming readily available somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can replicate indefinitely and give rise to any somatic cell type. This reprogramming can be achieved with genetic methods, such as forced expression of pluripotency-inducing transcription factors (TFs), which can be further improved, or even avoided, with pharmacological agents...
April 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448871/immunomodulatory-effects-of-stem-cells-therapeutic-option-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Katarina Gazdikova, Iveta Gasparova, Vanda Valentova, Nadezda Stollarova, Giampiero La Rocca, Nazarii Kobyliak, Jozef Dragasek, Ioana Mozos, Robert Prosecky, Dario Siniscalco, Dietrich Büsselberg, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak
Stem cells have the capability of self-renewal and can differentiate into different cell types that might be used in regenerative medicine. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) currently lack effective treatments. Although stem cell therapy is still on the way from bench to bedside, we consider that it might provide new hope for patients suffering with neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we will give an overview of recent studies on the potential therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and perinatal stem cells to neurodegenerative disorders and we will describe their immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in specific therapeutic modalities...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447991/isolation-and-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-and-fetal-placenta
#5
Naimisha Beeravolu, Christina McKee, Ali Alamri, Sasha Mikhael, Christina Brown, Mick Perez-Cruet, G Rasul Chaudhry
The human umbilical cord (UC) and placenta are non-invasive, primitive and abundant sources of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that have increasingly gained attention because they do not pose any ethical or moral concerns. Current methods to isolate MSCs from UC yield low amounts of cells with variable proliferation potentials. Since UC is an anatomically-complex organ, differences in MSC properties may be due to the differences in the anatomical regions of their isolation. In this study, we first dissected the cord/placenta samples into three discrete anatomical regions: UC, cord-placenta junction (CPJ), and fetal placenta (FP)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447974/3d-whole-heart-myocardial-tissue-analysis
#6
Hans Thijs Van den Broek, Leon De Jong, Pieter A Doevendans, Steven A J Chamuleau, Frebus J Van Slochteren, René Van Es
Cardiac regenerative therapies aim to protect and repair the injured heart in patients with ischemic heart disease. By injecting stem cells or other biologicals that enhance angio- or vasculogenesis into the infarct border zone (IBZ), tissue perfusion is improved, and the myocardium can be protected from further damage. For maximum therapeutic effect, it is hypothesized that the regenerative substance is best delivered to the IBZ. This requires accurate injections and has led to the development of new injection techniques...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447876/intrinsic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-dysfunction-in-diabetes-mellitus-implications-for-autologous-cell-therapy
#7
Mari van de Vyver
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) have multi-functional properties that have made them a promising therapeutic agent for many regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and auto-immune applications. Under chronic pathological conditions, however, BM-MSCs can become functionally compromised due to long term exposure to changes in the systemic and localized stem cell niche micro-environments. In addition to the fact that functionally compromised BM-MSCs may be therapeutically ineffective, the impairment of BM-MSCs is potentially a contributing factor to disease progression and the development of co-morbidities...
April 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446226/xenotransplantation-of-interferon-gamma-pretreated-clumps-of-a-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-extracellular-matrix-complex-induces-mouse-calvarial-bone-regeneration
#8
Kei Takeshita, Souta Motoike, Mikihito Kajiya, Nao Komatsu, Manabu Takewaki, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Tomoyuki Iwata, Katsuhiro Takeda, Noriyoshi Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional cultured clumps of a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complex (C-MSC) consists of cells and self-produced ECM. C-MSC can regulate the cellular function in vitro and induce successful bone regeneration using ECM as a cell scaffold. Potentiating the immunomodulatory capacity of C-MSCs, which can ameliorate the allo-specific immune response, may be helpful in developing beneficial "off-the-shelf" cell therapy for tissue regeneration. It is well reported that interferon (IFN)-γ stimulates the immunosuppressive properties of MSC via upregulation of the immunomodulatory enzyme IDO...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#9
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445466/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-recurrently-acquire-and-expand-dominant-negative-p53-mutations
#10
Florian T Merkle, Sulagna Ghosh, Nolan Kamitaki, Jana Mitchell, Yishai Avior, Curtis Mello, Seva Kashin, Shila Mekhoubad, Dusko Ilic, Maura Charlton, Genevieve Saphier, Robert E Handsaker, Giulio Genovese, Shiran Bar, Nissim Benvenisty, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin Eggan
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) can self-renew indefinitely, making them an attractive source for regenerative therapies. This expansion potential has been linked with the acquisition of large copy number variants that provide mutated cells with a growth advantage in culture. The nature, extent and functional effects of other acquired genome sequence mutations in cultured hPS cells are not known. Here we sequence the protein-coding genes (exomes) of 140 independent human embryonic stem cell (hES cell) lines, including 26 lines prepared for potential clinical use...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445154/role-of-delta-like-4-in-jagged1-induced-tumour-angiogenesis-and-tumour-growth
#11
Chern Ein Oon, Esther Bridges, Helen Sheldon, Richard C A Sainson, Adrian Jubb, Helen Turley, Russell Leek, Francesca Buffa, Adrian L Harris, Ji-Liang Li
Delta-like 4 (DLL4) and Jagged1 (JAG1) are two key Notch ligands implicated in tumour angiogenesis. They were shown to have opposite effects on mouse retinal and adult regenerative angiogenesis. In tumours, both ligands are upregulated but their relative effects and interactions in tumour biology, particularly in tumour response to therapeutic intervention are unclear. Here we demonstrate that DLL4 and JAG1 displayed equal potency in stimulating Notch target genes in HMEC-1 endothelial cells but had opposing effects on sprouting angiogenesis in vitro...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444181/allogeneic-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-infusions-for-aging-frailty
#12
Samuel Golpanian, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Ivonne Hernandez Schulman, Ana Marie Landin, Bryon A Tompkins, Alan W Heldman, Roberto Miki, Bradley J Goldstein, Muzammil Mushtaq, Silvina Levis-Dusseau, John J Byrnes, Maureen Lowery, Makoto Natsumeda, Cindy Delgado, Russell Saltzman, Mayra Vidro-Casiano, Marietsy V Pujol, Moisaniel Da Fonseca, Anthony A Oliva, Geoff Green, Courtney Premer, Audrey Medina, Krystalenia Valasaki, Victoria Florea, Erica Anderson, Jill El-Khorazaty, Adam Mendizabal, Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont, Joshua M Hare
Background: Impaired endogenous stem cell repair capacity is hypothesized to be a biologic basis of frailty. Therapies that restore regenerative capacity may therefore be beneficial. This Phase 1 study evaluated the safety and potential efficacy of intravenous, allogeneic, human mesenchymal stem cell (allo-hMSC)-based therapy in patients with aging frailty. Methods: In this nonrandomized, dose-escalation study, patients received a single intravenous infusion of allo-hMSCs: 20-million (n = 5), 100-million (n = 5), or 200-million cells (n = 5)...
April 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443133/analysis-of-purified-pancreatic-islet-beta-and-alpha-cell-transcriptomes-reveals-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd11b1-as-a-novel-disallowed-gene
#13
Timothy J Pullen, Mark O Huising, Guy A Rutter
We and others have previously identified a group of genes, dubbed "disallowed," whose expression is markedly lower in pancreatic islets than in other mammalian cell types. Forced mis-expression of several members of this family leads to defective insulin secretion, demonstrating the likely importance of disallowance for normal beta cell function. Up to now, transcriptomic comparisons have been based solely on data from whole islets. This raises the possibilities that (a) there may be important differences in the degree of disallowance of family members between beta and other either neuroendocrine cells; (b) beta (or alpha) cell disallowed genes may have gone undetected...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442776/mir-301b-mir-130b-ppar%C3%AE-axis-underlies-the-adipogenic-capacity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-different-tissue-origins
#14
Lulu Liu, Haihui Liu, Mingtai Chen, Saisai Ren, Panpan Cheng, Hao Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in regenerative medicine and cellular therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory function. The applicability of MSCs also depends on their cellular sources and in vivo functions. Here in this study, we systematically compared the morphologic characteristics, immunophenotypes and the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from umbilical cord (UC), adipose tissue (Ad) and bone marrow (BM). We found that the three tissues-derived MSCs displayed decreased adipogenic capacity in the order: Ad-MSC > BM-MSC > UC-MSC, and no morphologic and immunophenotypic differences were observed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439998/the-effects-of-chosen-plant-extracts-and-compounds-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-bridge-between-molecular-nutrition-and-regenerative-medicine-concise-review
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kornicka, Ievgeniia Kocherova, Krzysztof Marycz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) stand as a promising tool in regenerative medicine because of their high therapeutic potential in treatment of degenerative, metabolic and other types of diseases. The cellular therapies involving MSCs include their isolation mainly from the bone marrow, adipose tissue or umbilical cord and in vitro expansion for further autologous or allogeneic transplantation. Recent studies revealed, that bioactive compounds, naturally occurring in seaweeds, herbs, fruits and vegetables, possess the ability to modulate self-renewal and differentiation potential of adult stem cells, targeting a broad range of intracellular signal transduction pathways...
April 25, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437133/the-impact-of-the-centrifuge-characteristics-and-centrifugation-protocols-on-the-cells-growth-factors-and-fibrin-architecture-of-a-leukocyte-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-l-prf-clot-and-membrane
#16
David M Dohan Ehrenfest, Nelson R Pinto, Andrea Pereda, Paula Jiménez, Marco Del Corso, Byung-Soo Kang, Mauricio Nally, Nicole Lanata, Hom-Lay Wang, Marc Quirynen
L-PRF (leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin) is one of the four families of platelet concentrates for surgical use and is widely used in oral and maxillofacial regenerative therapies. The first objective of this article was to evaluate the mechanical vibrations appearing during centrifugation in four models of commercially available table-top centrifuges used to produce L-PRF and the impact of the centrifuge characteristics on the cell and fibrin architecture of a L-PRF clot and membrane. The second objective of this article was to evaluate how changing some parameters of the L-PRF protocol may influence its biological signature, independently from the characteristics of the centrifuge...
April 24, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435007/stem-cells-and-their-potential-clinical-applications-in-psychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Andrzej K Ciechanowicz, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
The robustness of stem cells is one of the major factors that directly impacts life quality and life span. Evidence has accumulated that changes in the stem cell compartment affect human mental health and serve as an indicator of psychiatric problems. It is well known that stem cells continuously replace differentiated cells and tissues that are used up during life, although this replacement occurs at a different pace in the various organs. However, the participation of local neural stem cells in regeneration of the central nervous system is controversial...
April 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431070/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#19
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430345/healing-response-of-rat-pulp-treated-with-an-injectable-keratin-hydrogel
#20
Lavanya Ajay Sharma, Robert M Love, Mohammad A Ali, Ajay Sharma, Soraia Macari, Avadhoot Avadhani, George J Dias
BACKGROUND: Keratin has shown promising outcomes as a biomaterial due to its inherent bioactivity, biocompatibility and regenerative effects. The effect of keratin on repair and regeneration of dental tissues has never been studied before. Current therapies to treat pulp tissues involve its replacement with inert, synthetic materials that do not have a proper biological function, leading to failure and tooth loss. This study aimed to develop a biocompatible keratin hydrogel (KH) suitable for pulp therapies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
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