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Regenerative therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820434/neuroprotective-and-nerve-regenerative-approaches-for-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-after-cavernous-nerve-injury
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Campbell, Arthur L Burnett
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a significant cause of reduced quality of life in men and their partners. Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) during pelvic surgery results in ED in greater than 50% of patients, regardless of additional patient factors. ED related to CNI is difficult to treat and typically poorly responsive to first- and second-line therapeutic options. Recently, a significant amount of research has been devoted to exploring neuroprotective and neuroregenerative approaches to salvage erectile function in patients with CNI...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819363/combined-analysis-of-endothelial-hematopoietic-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-compartments-shows-simultaneous-but-independent-effects-of-age-and-heart-disease
#2
Carine Ghem, Lucinara Dadda Dias, Roberto Tofani Sant'Anna, Renato A K Kalil, Melissa Markoski, Nance Beyer Nardi
Clinical trials using stem cell therapy for heart diseases have not reproduced the initial positive results obtained with animal models. This might be explained by a decreased regenerative capacity of stem cells collected from the patients. This work aimed at the simultaneous investigation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) in sternal bone marrow samples of patients with ischemic or valvular heart disease, using flow cytometry and colony assays...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819075/-advances-in-neurological-therapeutics-for-friedreich-ataxia-and-machado-joseph-disease
#3
Ichiro Yabe, Hidenao Sasaki
We reviewed advances in therapeutics for both Friedreich ataxia and Machado-Joseph disease. Various clinical trials have been carried out, mainly for Friedreich ataxia; however, the therapeutic reports from these trials have not provided much evidence for success. Some interesting clinical trials have been reported, and further developments are expected. Regenerative therapy using umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and a therapeutic study investigating a new pathomechanism in animal and/or cell culture studies were reported...
August 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817955/redox-signaling-mechanisms-in-nervous-system-development
#4
Mauricio Olguín-Albuerne, Julio Morán
SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as regulators of several physiological processes. Here we discuss how the redox signaling mechanisms operate to control different processes such as neuronal differentiation, oligodendrocyte differentiation, dendritic growth, and axonal growth. Recent Advances: Redox homeostasis regulates the physiology of neural stem cells (NSCs). Notably, the neuronal differentiation process of NSCs is determined by a change towards an oxidative metabolism, increased levels of mitochondrial ROS, increased activity of NOX enzymes, decreased levels of Nrf2, and a differential regulation of different redoxins...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#5
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817142/morphologic-patterns-of-the-atrophic-posterior-maxilla-and-clinical-implications-for-bone-regenerative-therapy
#6
Alberto Monje, Istvan A Urban, Richard J Miron, Jordi Caballe-Serrano, Daniel Buser, Hom-Lay Wang
Regenerative therapies are commonly needed prior to implant placement in the posterior maxilla following tooth extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical features of the atrophic posterior maxilla that might affect surgical approach selection and technique and risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Cone beam computed tomography files were screened to identify pristine atrophic maxillary ridges in need of bone augmentation (ridge height < 10 mm). Ridge height and width and lateral wall thickness (LWT) were measured at different levels, and palatonasal recess and lateral wall morphology were calculated...
September 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815542/long-noncoding-rnas-in-pluripotency-of-stem-cells-and-cell-fate-specification
#7
Debosree Pal, M R S Rao
Since the annotation of the mouse genome (FANTOM project) [Kawai J et al (2001) Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection. Nature 409(6821):685-690] or the human genome [An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. (2012) Nature 489(7414):57-74; Harrow J et al (2012) GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for the ENCODE project. Genome Res 22(9):1760-1774], the roles of long noncoding RNAs in coordinating specific signaling pathways have been established in a wide variety of model systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815178/stem-cell-manipulation-gene-therapy-and-the-risk-of-cancer-stem-cell-emergence
#8
REVIEW
Flora Clément, Elodie Grockowiak, Florence Zylbersztejn, Gaëlle Fossard, Stéphanie Gobert, Véronique Maguer-Satta
Stem cells (SCs) have been extensively studied in the context of regenerative medicine. Human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based therapies have been applied to treat leukemic patients for decades. Handling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has also raised hopes and concerns in the field of tissue engineering. Lately, discovery of cell reprogramming by Yamanaka's team has profoundly modified research strategies and approaches in this domain. As we gain further insight into cell fate mechanisms and identification of key actors and parameters, this also raises issues as to the manipulation of SCs...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814956/rapid-rapamycin-only-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-blood-derived-stem-cells-and-their-adhesion-to-natural-and-artificial-scaffolds
#9
Carpentieri Arianna, Cozzoli Eliana, Acri Flavio, Ranalli Marco, Diedenhofen Giacomo, Scimeca Manuel, Bonanno Elena, Gambacurta Alessandra
Stem cells are a centerpiece of regenerative medicine research, and the recent development of adult stem cell-based therapy systems has vigorously expanded the scope and depth of this scientific field. The regeneration of damaged and/or degraded bone tissue in orthopedic, dental, or maxillofacial surgery is one of the main areas where stem cells and their regenerative potential could be used successfully, requiring tissue engineering solutions incorporating an ideal stem cell type paired with the correct mechanical support...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#10
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813666/microrna-9-couples-brain-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#11
Romain Madelaine, Steven A Sloan, Nina Huber, James H Notwell, Louis C Leung, Gemini Skariah, Caroline Halluin, Sergiu P Paşca, Gill Bejerano, Mark A Krasnow, Ben A Barres, Philippe Mourrain
In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813021/enhanced-cell-growth-of-adipocyte-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-chemically-defined-serum-free-media
#12
Myung-Suk Lee, Christine Youn, Jeong Hyun Kim, Byoung Jun Park, Jongchan Ahn, Sungyoul Hong, Young-Deug Kim, Young Kee Shin, Sang Gyu Park
The multipotency and anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. A large number of MSCs is required for efficient therapy owing to the low homing efficiency of MSCs to target sites. Furthermore, owing to limitations in obtaining sufficient amounts of MSCs, in vitro expansion of MSCs that preserves their differentiation and proliferative potential is essential. The animal factor included in culture media also limits clinical application...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#13
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811172/current-options-for-cell-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Irma Vismara, Simonetta Papa, Filippo Rossi, Gianluigi Forloni, Pietro Veglianese
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex pathology that evolves after primary acute mechanical injury, causing further damage to the spinal cord tissue that exacerbates clinical outcomes. Based on encouraging results from preclinical experiments, some cell treatments being translated into clinical practice demonstrate promising and effective improvement in sensory/motor function. Combinatorial treatments of cell and drug/biological factors have been demonstrated to be more effective than cell treatments alone...
August 12, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808812/antioxidant-effects-of-chrysin-loaded-electrospun-nanofibrous-mats-on-proliferation-and-stemness-preservation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#15
Yaghoub Deldar, Faraz Zarghami, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Nosratollah Zarghami
An ideal biomaterial in regenerative medicine should be able to regulate the stem cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency. Chrysin (Chr) is a naturally occurring flavone with a wide spectrum of biological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study describes the influence of Chr-loaded nanofibrous mats on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). For this purpose, Chr-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone)/poly (ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) nanofibrous mats were produced via electrospinning process and the successful fabrication of these bioactive mats was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
August 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807603/stem-cell-industry-update-2012-to-2016-reveals-accelerated-investment-but-market-capitalization-and-earnings-lag
#16
Mitchell Ng, Simon Song, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Kenneth Ng, Chukwuweike Gwam, Michael A Mont, George F Muschler
Treatments based on stem cells have long been heralded for their potential to drive the future of regenerative medicine and have inspired increasing medical and business interest. The stem cell therapy market has been expanding since 2012, but earnings and profitability still lag the broader health care sector (compounded annual growth rate in annual financing of 31.5% versus 13.4%, respectively). On the basis of historical financial data, approximately $23 billion has been invested in stem cell companies since 1994, with more than 80% of this raised from 2011 through 2016...
August 11, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801269/elastin-plga-hybrid-electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-for-salivary-epithelial-cell-self-organization-and-polarization
#17
Zahraa I Foraida, Tim Kamaldinov, Deirdre A Nelson, Melinda Larsen, James Castracane
Development of electrospun nanofibers that mimic the structural, mechanical and biochemical properties of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) is a promising approach for tissue regeneration. Electrospun fibers of synthetic polymers partially mimic the topography of the ECM, however, their high stiffness, poor hydrophilicity and lack of in vivo-like biochemical cues is not optimal for epithelial cell self-organization and function. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we investigated the potential of elastin, an ECM protein, to generate elastin hybrid nanofibers that have favorable physical and biochemical properties for regeneration of the salivary glands...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800871/malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-state-of-the-art-and-advanced-cell-therapy
#18
Giorgio Facchetti, Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Isabella Rimoldi
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy highly resistant to chemotherapy, with a response rate of 20% of patients and for this reason an efficient treatment is still a challenge. Platinum-based chemotherapy in association with a third-generation antifolate is the front-line standard of care whereas any second-line treatment was approved for MPM thus making it a pathology that evokes the need for new therapeutic agents. Different platinum-drugs were synthesised and tested as an option for patients who are not candidates to cisplatin-based therapy...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799490/neurotransplantation-therapy-and-cerebellar-reserve
#19
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity...
August 10, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#20
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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