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Late effects of cancer therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438879/definitive-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-in-elderly-patients-with-locally-advanced-oropharyngeal-cancer
#1
Francesca DE Felice, Alessandro Galdieri, Gessica Abate, Nadia Bulzonetti, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes in patients aged 70 years and older with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated by definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive elderly patients, with histologically-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, staged T3-4 with or without involved lymph nodes at diagnosis, who received definitive sequential IMRT (70 Gy; 2 Gy/fraction)...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436606/early-and-late-adverse-effects-of-radioiodine-for-pediatric-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#2
Domenico Albano, Francesco Bertagna, Maria Beatrice Panarotto, Raffaele Giubbini
BACKGROUND: Radioiodine-131 (I131) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is generally a safe and effective treatment, but it has some potential side effects, which have been well described in adults but less analyzed in children. Our aim was to describe early and late adverse events of radioactive I131 in pediatric patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients ≤18 years treated for DTC in the period 1980-2015 were retrospectively analyzed for early and late side effects of radioiodine...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435223/efficacy-of-the-dual-pi3k-and-mtor-inhibitor-nvp-bez235-in-combination-with-imatinib-mesylate-against-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-cell-lines
#3
Pengliang Xin, Chuntuan Li, Yan Zheng, Qunyi Peng, Huifang Xiao, Yuanling Huang, Xiongpeng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is a therapy target of cancer. We aimed to confirm the effect of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells and sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in vitro. METHODS: Two human CML cell lines, K562 and KBM7R (T315I mutant strain), were used. The proliferation of CML cells was detected by MTS (Owen's reagent) assay...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431920/the-microbiome-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Eran Elinav
The commensal microbiome constitutes an important modulator of host physiology and risk of disease, including cancer development and progression. Lately, the microbiome has been suggested to modulate the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. Examples include chemotherapy and total body irradiation-induced barrier function disruption, leading to microbial efflux that drives activation of anti-tumorigenic T cells; Microbiome-driven release of reactive oxygen species contributing to the efficacy of platinum salts; and microbiome-induced immune priming promoting the anti-tumor effects of alkylating chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424071/imatinib-treatment-of-poor-prognosis-mesenchymal-type-primary-colon-cancer-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-the-preoperative-window-period-impacct
#5
I Ubink, H J Bloemendal, S G Elias, M A Brink, M P Schwartz, Y C W Holierhoek, P M Verheijen, A W Boerman, R H J Mathijssen, W W J de Leng, R A de Weger, W M U van Grevenstein, M Koopman, M P Lolkema, O Kranenburg, I H M Borel Rinkes
BACKGROUND: The identification of four Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS1-4) of colorectal cancer forms a new paradigm for the design and evaluation of subtype-directed therapeutic strategies. The most aggressive subtype - CMS4 - has the highest chance of disease recurrence. Novel adjuvant therapies for patients with CMS4 tumours are therefore urgently needed. CMS4 tumours are characterized by expression of mesenchymal and stem-like genes. Previous pre-clinical work has shown that targeting Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptors (PDGFRs) and the related KIT receptor with imatinib is potentially effective against mesenchymal-type colon cancer...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421481/cancer-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Dana Elena Giza, Gloria Iliescu, Saamir Hassan, Konstantinos Marmagkiolis, Cezar Iliescu
Improvements in early diagnosis and cancer treatments have contributed to high survival rates for many cancer patients. However, these patients often die of cardiovascular disease rather than recurrence of their cancer. Heart disease manifesting after cancer may be due to several mechanisms: shared cardiovascular risks between cancer and cardiovascular disease, inflammatory states associated with malignancies, and/or cardiotoxic effects of cancer therapy. Cancer treatment increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases directly by damaging critical structures of the heart or indirectly by promoting accelerated atherosclerosis...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415645/peritoneal-carcinomatosis-limits-of-diagnosis-and-the-case-for-liquid-biopsy
#7
REVIEW
James R W McMullen, Matthew Selleck, Nathan R Wall, Maheswari Senthil
Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) is a late stage manifestation of several gastrointestinal malignancies including appendiceal, colorectal, and gastric cancer. In PC, tumors metastasize to and deposit on the peritoneal surface and often leave patients with only palliative treatment options. For colorectal PC, median survival is approximately five months, and palliative systemic therapy is able to extend this to approximately 12 months. However, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) with a curative intent is possible in some patients with limited tumor burden...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414564/tivantinib-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Jan Best, Clemens Schotten, Gregor Lohmann, Guido Gerken, Alexander Dechêne
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide with a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis in the majority of cases. Physicians are frequently confronted with patients who are not eligible for curative or locoregional treatments any more. In this scenario, the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib remains the only systemic first-line treatment option providing modest survival benefit compared to placebo with significant but for most patients acceptable adverse effects...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406985/metformin-inhibited-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-and-enhanced-the-anti-cancer-effect-of-cisplatin
#9
Feng Wang, Xianfei Ding, Tao Wang, Zhengzheng Shan, Jun Wang, Shaoxuan Wu, Yanyan Chi, Yana Zhang, Zhuan Lv, Liuxing Wang, Qingxia Fan
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis in China. Chemotherapy now is one of the most frequently used treatments for patients with ESCC in middle or late stage, however the effects were often limited by increased chemoresistance or treatment toxicity. So it is urgent to find new drugs to treat ESCC patients. Metformin with low cost and toxicity has proved to have anti-cancer effects in a numerous cancers, while its role and mechanism in ESCC has seldom been studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404925/microrna-143-3p-up-regulated-in-h-pylori-positive-gastric-cancer-suppresses-tumor-growth-migration-and-invasion-by-directly-targeting-akt2
#10
Fang Wang, Jiatao Liu, Yanfeng Zou, Yang Jiao, Yawei Huang, Lulu Fan, Xiaoqiu Li, Hanqing Yu, Chengqun He, Wei Wei, Hua Wang, Guoping Sun
Our previous studies have suggested a protective role for H. pylori infection in the prognosis of gastric cancer. Based on those findings, we hypothesized that H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric cancers may exhibit different growth patterns and pathobiological behaviors, indicating different mechanisms of cancer progression. By microarray analysis, we studied miRNAs expression profiles in 42 gastric cancer patients, comparing 21 H. pylori-positive and 21 H. pylori-negative groups. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were used to examine the potential target genes of the interested miRNA...
February 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404378/axl-molecular-targeting-counteracts-aggressiveness-but-not-platinum-resistance-of-ovarian-carcinoma-cells
#11
Cristina Corno, Laura Gatti, Noemi Arrighetti, Nives Carenini, Nadia Zaffaroni, Cinzia Lanzi, Paola Perego
Ovarian carcinoma, the most common gynecological cancer, is characterized by high lethality mainly due to late diagnosis and treatment failure. The efficacy of platinum drug-based therapy in the disease is limited by the occurrence of drug resistance, a phenomenon often associated with increased metastatic potential. Because the Tyr-kinase receptor Axl can be deregulated in ovarian carcinoma and plays a pro-metastatic/anti-apoptotic role, the aim of this study was to examine if Axl inhibition modulates drug resistance and aggressive features of ovarian carcinoma cells, using various pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cell lines...
April 9, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404098/screening-for-liver-fibrosis-in-the-general-population-a-call-for-action
#12
Pere Ginès, Isabel Graupera, Frank Lammert, Paolo Angeli, Llorenç Caballeria, Aleksander Krag, I Neil Guha, S Darwish Murad, Laurent Castera
Liver cirrhosis is one of the main causes of death and disability-adjusted life-years worldwide. Generally, cirrhosis develops after a long period of liver-cell injury that leads to the deposition of collagen, leading to progressive fibrosis and nodule formation in the liver tissue. Most patients are diagnosed in late stages when liver decompensation or liver cancer develops. The diagnosis is rarely made in early stages-when liver fibrosis is mild to moderate but cirrhosis is not yet established-because the disease is asymptomatic...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398284/manifestations-and-management-of-veno-occlusive-disease-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-in-the-era-of-contemporary-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Priti Tewari, Whitney Wallis, Partow Kebriaei
The concept of veno-occlusive disease (VOD), along with our understanding of it, has historically been and remains an evolving phenomenon. This review presents a broad view of VOD, also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), including (1) traditional hematopoietic stem cell transplant-associated VOD/SOS, (2) late-onset VOD/SOS, (3) pulmonary VOD, and (4) VOD/SOS associated with chemotherapy only. Several VOD/SOS management modalities exist that include modes for both prophylaxis and treatment. An extensive review of the literature on monoclonal antibodies, both approved and pending approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, reveals that only a few have been associated with an increased risk for VOD/SOS...
February 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397507/-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer-effectiveness-and-toxicity
#14
E Skácelíková, D Feltl, J Cvek, T Jelenová, L Knybel, H Tomášková
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males and its incidence is steadily increasing. Most cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed during the early asymptomatic period, in which case the prognosis is very good. Therapies differ widely in their efficacies and toxicities, and this is an important consideration when it comes to deciding which treatment is optimal for a particular patient. One treatment method for early stage prostate cancer is stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392313/uncomplicated-and-cancer-free-control-probability-ucfcp-a-new-integral-approach-to-treatment-plan-optimization-in-photon-radiation-therapy
#15
Beatriz Sánchez-Nieto, Maite Romero-Expósito, José A Terrón, Francisco Sánchez-Doblado
PURPOSE: Biological treatment plan evaluation does not currently consider second cancer induction from peripheral doses associated to photon radiotherapy. The aim is to propose a methodology to characterize the therapeutic window by means of an integral radiobiological approach, which considers not only Tumour Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) but also Secondary Cancer Probability (SCP). METHODS: Uncomplicated and Cancer-Free Control Probability (UCFCP) function has been proposed assuming a statistically uncorrelated response for tumour and normal tissues...
April 6, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391420/a-neuro-oncologist-s-perspective-on-management-of-brain-metastases-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Tresa McGranahan, Seema Nagpal
Management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BrM) has been revolutionized by identification of molecular subsets that have targetable oncogenes. Historically, survival for NSCLC with symptomatic BrM was weeks to months. Now, many patients are surviving years with limited data to guide treatment decisions. Tumors with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRact+) have a higher incidence of BrM, but a longer overall survival. The high response rate of both systemic and BrM EGFRact+ NSCLC to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has led to the rapid incorporation of new therapies but is outpacing evidence-based decisions for BrM in NSCLC...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379662/the-prostate-after-castration-and-hormone-replacement-in-a-rat-model-structural-and-ultrastructural-analysis
#17
Bruno Felix-Patrício, Alexandre F Miranda, Jorge L Medeiros, Carla B M Gallo, Bianca M Gregório, Diogo B Souza, Waldemar S Costa, Francisco J B Sampaio
PURPOSE: To evaluate if late hormonal replacement is able to recover the prostatic tissue modified by androgenic deprivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 rats were assigned into a Sham group; an androgen deficient group, submitted to bilateral orchiectomy (Orch); and a group submitted to bilateral orchiectomy followed by testosterone replacement therapy (Orch+T). After 60 days from surgery blood was collected for determination of testosterone levels and the ventral prostate was collected for quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis...
April 6, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376556/-uveal-melanoma-cell-under-oxidative-stress-influence-of-vegf-and-vegf-inhibitors
#18
M Dithmer, A M Kirsch, L Gräfenstein, F Wang, H Schmidt, S E Coupland, S Fuchs, J Roider, A K Klettner
Background The role of oxidative stress in cancer is complex. While the pathological alterations induced by oxidative stress may be involved in the induction of tumours, in the late stages of tumour development, it can facilitate the loss of tumour cells and might even prevent metastasis. Tumour cells show metabolic alterations, often inducing an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which makes these cells particularly vulnerable to additional oxidative stress. This is an important mode of action in the use of many chemotherapeutics and in the application of ionizing radiation...
April 4, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376372/synthesis-of-xanthone-derivatives-and-studies-on-the-inhibition-against-cancer-cells-growth-and-synergistic-combinations-of-them
#19
Jie Liu, Jianrun Zhang, Huailing Wang, Zhijun Liu, Cao Zhang, Zhenlei Jiang, Heru Chen
34 Xanthones were synthesized by microwave assisted technique. Their in vitro inhibition activities against five cell lines growth were evaluated. The SAR has been thoroughly discussed. 7-Bromo-1,3-dihydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one (3-1) was confirmed as the most active agent against MDA-MB-231 cell line growth with an IC50 of 0.46 ± 0.03 μM. Combination of 3-1 and 5,6-dimethylxanthone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) showed the best synergistic effect. Apoptosis analysis indicated different contributions of early/late apoptosis and necrosis to cell death for both monomers and the combination...
March 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369068/all-trans-retinoic-acid-suppresses-the-angiopoietin-tie2-pathway-and-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Na Li, Yanjuan Lu, Daoming Li, Xiangyu Zheng, Jingyao Lian, Shanshan Li, Huijuan Cui, Linda Zhang, Luqian Sang, Ying Wang, Jane J Yu, Taiying Lu
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the second common cancer in Henan province and is well-known for aggressiveness and dismal prognosis. Adjuvant therapies, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endoscopic treatment have not improved survival rates in patients with late stage esophageal carcinoma. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the active ingredient of Vitamin A and affects a wide spectrum of biological processes including development, growth, neural function, immune function, reproduction, and vision...
2017: PloS One
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