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Late effects of cancer therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348871/radiation-therapy-for-stage-iva-uterine-cervical-cancer-treatment-outcomes-including-prognostic-factors-and-risk-of-vesicovaginal-and-rectovaginal-fistulas
#1
Masaharu Hata, Izumi Koike, Etsuko Miyagi, Reiko Numazaki, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Hisashi Kaizu, Yuki Mukai, Shoko Takano, Eiko Ito, Madoka Sugiura, Tomio Inoue
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiation therapy for stage IVA uterine cervical cancer and to identify an optimal radiation regimen. Results: Seventeen of the 28 patients developed recurrence after radiation therapy (local recurrence in 10 and distant metastasis in 12). The local control and distant metastasis-free rates at 3 years in all patients were 61% and 49%, respectively. Fourteen patients died after radiation therapy, and all but 2 died of tumor progression...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346008/follow-up-care-provider-preferences-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#2
Joemy M Ramsay, Karely Mann, Sapna Kaul, Eduardo R Zamora, Rochelle R Smits-Seemann, Anne C Kirchhoff
PURPOSE: To explore the experiences and perspectives of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors regarding patient-provider relationships and their preferences surrounding type of healthcare provider for follow-up care. METHODS: We recruited AYA cancer survivors who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 using the Utah Cancer Registry. Twenty-eight survivors participated in six focus groups held between March and May of 2015 in Salt Lake City and St...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345394/viruses-as-key-modulators-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-a-double-edged-sword-involved-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Habibollah Mirzaei, Ebrahim Faghihloo
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a key network in cell signaling that controls vital processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and migration, thus acting as a double-edged sword in normal development and diseases, in particular organ fibrosis, vascular disorders, and cancer. Early in tumorigenesis, the pathway exerts anti-tumor effects through suppressing cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, while during late stages, it functions as a tumor promoter by enhancing tumor invasiveness and metastasis...
January 18, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345152/changes-in-radiotherapy-fractionation-breast-cancer
#4
John Yarnold
Conventional fractionation for half a century has been justified on the basis that 2.0 Gy fractions spare dose-limiting late-responding normal tissues to a greater degree than cancerous tissues. Early indications that breast cancer responds more strongly to fraction size than many other common cancers were followed several decades of investigation, but there is now reliable level I evidence that this is the case. Four randomised trials testing fraction sizes in the range 2.7-3.3 Gy have reported 10-year follow in almost 8,000 patients, and they provide robust estimates of α/β in the range of 3 Gy...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338744/new-insights-in-the-relative-radiobiological-effectiveness-of-proton-irradiation
#5
REVIEW
K Ilicic, S E Combs, T E Schmid
BACKGROUND: Proton radiotherapy is a form of charged particle therapy that is preferentially applied for the treatment of tumors positioned near to critical structures due to their physical characteristics, showing an inverted depth-dose profile. The sparing of normal tissue has additional advantages in the treatment of pediatric patients, in whom the risk of secondary cancers and late morbidity is significantly higher. Up to date, a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336669/first-line-treatment-of-apatinib-in-elderly-patient-of-advanced-gastric-carcinoma-a-case-report-of-ngs-driven-targeted-therapy
#6
Yan Yang, Wuqiong Zhang, Jinghao Yao, Jing Liu, Shukui Qin, Qiong Wu
Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a common gastrointestinal malignancy with high incidence and mortality worldwide, and most patients are diagnosed in the late stages of disease. Palliative chemotherapy provides a survival benefit for patients with inoperable advanced GC. However, elderly patients who are unable to tolerate chemotherapy had worse prognosis due to lack of effective treatment. Herein we reported a Chinese elderly GC patient using next generation sequencing (NGS)-based tumor DNA analysis. Valuable gene variants of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A gene amplification were detected...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322827/hypofractionated-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-toxicity-and-cosmetic-outcome-from-a-prospective-series
#7
Fiorenza De Rose, Antonella Fogliata, Davide Franceschini, Cristina Iftode, Rosalba Torrisi, Giovanna Masci, Andrea Sagona, Corrado Tinterri, Alberto Testori, Wolfgang Gatzemeier, Bethania Fernandes, Daoud Rahal, Luca Cozzi, Armando Santoro, Marta Scorsetti
OBJECTIVE: Hypofractionated radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer is an effective adjuvant treatment, but there is a lack of randomized data for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Aim of this study is the evaluation of skin toxicity and cosmesis, and early clinical outcome of DCIS patients enrolled in an institutional phase II trial of hypofractionated breast irradiation. METHODS: One hundred thirty-seven DCIS patients were enrolled in the trial...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319919/outcomes-and-toxicities-in-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-brachytherapy-alone-or-brachytherapy-and-supplemental-external-beam-radiation-therapy
#8
Emily Schlussel Markovic, Michael Buckstein, Nelson N Stone, Richard G Stock
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cancer control outcomes and long-term treatment-related morbidity of brachytherapy as well as combination brachytherapy and EBRT in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in a prospectively collected database of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated either with brachytherapy or brachytherapy and EBRT, with or without ADT, from 1990-2014. Urinary and erectile dysfunction symptoms are measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Mount Sinai erectile function scale, and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), respectively...
January 10, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318449/reduction-oxidation-redox-system-in-radiation-induced-normal-tissue-injury-molecular-mechanisms-and-implications-in-radiation-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
R Yahyapour, E Motevaseli, A Rezaeyan, H Abdollahi, B Farhood, M Cheki, S Rezapoor, D Shabeeb, A E Musa, M Najafi, V Villa
Every year, millions of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy for treating and destroying abnormal cell growths within normal cell environmental conditions. Thus, ionizing radiation can have positive therapeutic effects on cancer cells as well as post-detrimental effects on surrounding normal tissues. Previous studies in the past years have proposed that the reduction and oxidation metabolism in cells changes in response to ionizing radiation and has a key role in radiation toxicity to normal tissue. Free radicals generated from ionizing radiation result in upregulation of cyclooxygenases (COXs), nitric oxide synthase (NOSs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and their effected changes in mitochondrial functions are markedly noticeable...
January 9, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304991/a-multi-institutional-phase-2-trial-of-prostate-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-using-continuous-real-time-evaluation-of-prostate-motion-with-patient-reported-quality-of-life
#10
William C Jackson, Robert T Dess, Dale W Litzenberg, Pin Li, Matthew Schipper, Seth A Rosenthal, Garrick C Chang, Eric M Horwitz, Robert A Price, Jeff M Michalski, Hiram A Gay, John T Wei, Mary Feng, Felix Y Feng, Howard M Sandler, Robert E Wallace, Daniel E Spratt, Daniel A Hamstra
PURPOSE: The use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer has been reported predominantly from single institutional studies, although concerns for broader adoption exist. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2011 through 2013, 66 men were accrued to a phase 2 trial at 5 centers. SBRT consisted of 5 fractions of 7.4 Gy to a total dose of 37 Gy using conventional linear accelerators. Electromagnetic transponders were used for motion management. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated via the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 26 questionnaire...
January 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303101/-testosterone-therapy-indications-and-risks
#11
M G F Maatje, M Dinkelman-Smit, W P A Boellaard, G R Dohle
- Late onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a shortage of testosterone in adult men whose male development was normal. This form of hypogonadism results in decreased testosterone levels and variable gonadotrophin levels. - The symptoms of LOH are often aspecific and may be consistent with ageing in men: lowered libido, loss of strength, reduced cognitive functioning and disorders of sleeping and mood. - There is discussion about testosterone parameters, but if clinical symptoms are consistent with LOH and the testosterone level is < 8 nmol/l, hypogonadism is evidently indicated...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302697/-laser-and-light-therapy-for-treatment-of-radiation-dermatitis
#12
REVIEW
H-J Laubach, J Robijns
Radiation dermatitis (RD), an inflammatory skin disease that can be an unwanted side effect of medical radiation therapy (RT), most commonly occurs in patients undergoing cancer of the ENT, anal, and vulvar regions. The side effects on the skin and mucous membranes occur within a few weeks after the initiation of RT; however, late side effects can develop months to years after the RT. Therapeutically, various treatment approaches are considered such as pentoxifylline, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, laser therapy, and PBMT...
January 4, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295534/angiogenesis-and-anti-angiogenic-therapy-in-gastric-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Henrik Nienhüser, Thomas Schmidt
Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Despite improvements in diagnosis and therapy, the overall prognosis remains poor. In the last decade, several anti-angiogenic drugs for cancer treatment have been approved and lately also introduced to gastric cancer treatment. While the initial trials focused only on unresectable or metastatic cancer, anti-angiogenic treatment is now also investigated in the perioperative and neoadjuvant setting. In this review, an overview of the role of angiogenesis and angiogenic factors in gastric cancer as well as anti-angiogenic treatment of gastric cancer is provided...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286495/early-and-late-radiation-effects-in-healthy-tissues-of-oncologic-patients-under-therapeutic-irradiations
#14
E A Domina
The objective of the article is summarize the literature regarding on the patterns and mechanisms of the formation of early and distant radiation reactions of healthy cells due to the therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients. Particular attention is given to the modern views on the molecular mechanisms of the processes of various repair systems (DDR, BER, NER, MMR, etc.) whose ineffectiveness is associated with radiation induced instability of the genome of healthy cells and the etiology of secondary tumours of radiation genesis in cancer patients as a result of radiation therapy...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279699/endocrine-health-problems-detected-in-764-patients-evaluated-in-a-late-effects-clinic
#15
Maria Conceição Pereira, Joana S Pereira, Daniela Dias, Sara Donato, Duarte Salgado
Background: Many pediatric cancer survivors have endocrine conditions. After treatment with alkylating agents, steroids, methotrexate, and radiation, several endocrine dysfunctions may appear. Surveillance for late effects is recommended by guidelines worldwide. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the endocrine outcomes of 764 patients followed during a 20 years' period in our out-patient clinic. Design: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273944/health-status-of-polish-children-and-adolescents-after-cancer-treatment
#16
Krawczuk-Rybak Maryna, Panasiuk Anna, Stachowicz-Stencel Teresa, Zubowska Małgorzata, Skalska-Sadowska Jolanta, Sęga-Pondel Dorota, Czajńska-Deptuła Aneta, Sławińska Dorota, Badowska Wanda, Kamieńska Elżbieta, Pobudejska-Pieniążek Aneta, Wieczorek Maria
In the last 40 years, considerable progress was made in the treatment of childhood cancer. Nearly 80% of children achieve long-term clinical remission or are permanently cured. This improvement is however not without sacrifice. This is the first Polish study analyzing the general health status and epidemiology of organ late effects in the cohort of Polish childhood and adolescent cancer survivors monitored by doctors and registered in the on-line national database for late effects (N = 1761). This tool collects information on previous therapy and current health status (medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests) of cancer survivors...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249017/teriparatide-therapy-for-severe-refractory-osteoradionecrosis-of-the-jaw
#17
Y H Cha, N Hong, Y Rhee, I-H Cha
Although osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a serious complication of craniofacial radiotherapy, the current management methods remain suboptimal. Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34), has shown beneficial effects on osseous regeneration in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw or periodontitis. However, TPTD therapy in irradiated bones has not been indicated yet because of the theoretical risk of osteosarcoma seen in rat models. Hence, we first report here two patients with tongue cancer with late-emerging ORN who were successfully treated with TPTD for 4-6 months with serum calcium and vitamin D supplementation...
December 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241549/trafficking-mediated-sting-degradation-requires-sorting-to-acidified-endolysosomes-and-can-be-targeted-to-enhance-anti-tumor-response
#18
Vijay K Gonugunta, Tomomi Sakai, Vladislav Pokatayev, Kun Yang, Jianjun Wu, Nicole Dobbs, Nan Yan
STING is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated transmembrane protein that turns on and quickly turns off downstream signaling as it translocates from the ER to vesicles. How STING signaling is attenuated during trafficking remains poorly understood. Here, we show that trafficking-mediated STING degradation requires ER exit and function of vacuolar ATPase complex. Late-stage STING vesicles are sorted to Rab7-positive endolysosomes for degradation. Based on analysis of existing structures, we also identified the helix amino acid 281 (aa281)-297 as a motif required for trafficking-mediated STING degradation...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229325/prospective-phase-2-trial-of-permanent-seed-implantation-prostate-brachytherapy-for-intermediate-risk-localized-prostate-cancer-efficacy-toxicity-and-quality-of-life-outcomes
#19
Steven J Frank, Thomas J Pugh, Pierre Blanchard, Usama Mahmood, William J Graber, Rajat J Kudchadker, John W Davis, Jeri Kim, Haesun Choi, Patricia Troncoso, Deborah A Kuban, Seungtaek Choi, Sean McGuire, Karen E Hoffman, Hsiang-Chun Chen, Xuemei Wang, David A Swanson
PURPOSE: To report the efficacy, physician-reported toxicity, and patient-reported outcomes of men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer after brachytherapy in a prospective phase 2 trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This prospective phase 2 trial involved 300 patients with previously untreated prostate cancer treated from 2006 through 2013. Eligible patients had ≤cT2b (T3 excluded according to magnetic resonance imaging), Gleason score (GS) 6 with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 10-15 ng/mL, or GS 7 with PSA <10 ng/mL, and were treated with prostate brachytherapy (without hormonal therapy)...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228685/eb1-phosphorylation-mediates-the-functions-of-ask1-in-pancreatic-cancer-development
#20
Siqi Gao, Youguang Luo, Xiaofan Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Yunqiang Zhou, Rui Lyu, Min Liu, Dengwen Li, Jun Zhou
Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to its rapid rate of metastasis and frequent late-stage diagnosis. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is urgently needed to promote the development of improved diagnostic tools and more effective therapies. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) has been shown to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and to promote the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in a kinase activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ASK1 promotes cell proliferation remain to be elucidated...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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