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Marit G Tellevik, Bjørn Blomberg, Øyvind Kommedal, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Sabrina J Moyo
BACKGROUND: Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103)...
2016: PloS One
Haodong Yin, Baoming Han, Dewei Li, Jianjun Wu, Huijun Sun
A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network...
2016: PloS One
Ruochen Fang, Huacheng Zhang, Liulin Yang, Huanting Wang, Ye Tian, Xi Zhang, Lei Jiang
Artificial nanochannels, inheriting smart gating functions of biological ion channels, promote the development of artificial functional nanofluidic devices for high-performance biosensing and electricity generation. However, gating states of the artificial nanochannels have been mainly realized through chemical modification of the channels with responsive molecules, and their gating states cannot be further regulated once the nanochannel is modified. In this work, we employed a new supramolecular layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method to achieve reversible and adjustable multiple gating features in nanofluidic diodes...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yu-Bin Zheng, Shuang Zhao, Shuo-Hui Cao, Sheng-Lin Cai, Xiu-Hong Cai, Yao-Qun Li
In this article, we have demonstrated for the first time a triple stimuli-responsive nanofluidic diode that can rectify ionic current under multiple external stimuli including temperature, pH, and sugar. This diode was fabricated by immobilizing poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-co-[4-vinyl phenylboronic acid] (P(DMAEMA-co-VPBA)) onto the wall of a single glass conical nanopore channel via surface-initiator atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The copolymer brushes contain functional groups sensitive to pH, temperature and sugar that can induce charge and configuration change to affect the status of the pore wall...
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
Brian L Phillips, C André Ohlin, John Vaughn, William Woerner, Scott Smart, Ravi Subramanyam, Long Pan
We report solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopic results for the sulfate salt of the γ-Al13 Keggin cluster, γ-[AlO4Al12(OH)25(OH2)11][SO4]3·[H2O]14, that provide a spectroscopic signature for partial hydrolysis of this Keggin-type cluster. In (27)Al multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectra, all 13 Al positions of the cluster are at least partially resolved and assigned with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the (27)Al electric field gradients. The isotropic chemical shift of the single tetrahedral site, 75...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Tahnee J Dening, Paul Joyce, Shasha Rao, Nicky Thomas, Clive A Prestidge
Biocompatible lipid hybrid particles composed of montmorillonite and medium chain triglycerides were engineered for the first time by spray drying oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by montmorillonite platelets to form montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) microparticles containing up to 75% w/w lipid. In vitro lipolysis studies under simulated intestinal conditions indicated that the specific porous nanoarchitecture and surface chemistry of MLH particles significantly increased the rate (>10-fold) and extent of lipase-mediated digestion compared to that of coarse and homogenized submicrometer triglyceride emulsions...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yujie Ke, Igal Balin, Ning Wang, Qi Lu, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Timothy J White, Shlomo Magdassi, Ibrahim Abdulhalim, Yi Long
Two-dimensional (2D) photonic structures, widely used for generating photonic band gaps (PBG) in a variety of materials, are for the first time integrated with the temperature-dependent phase change of vanadium dioxide (VO2). VO2 possesses thermochromic properties, whose potential remains unrealized due to an undesirable yellow-brown color. Here, a SiO2/VO2 core/shell 2D photonic crystal is demonstrated to exhibit static visible light tunability and dynamic near-infrared (NIR) modulation. Three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations predict that the transmittance can be tuned across the visible spectrum, while maintaining good solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol = 11...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Palamarneri Sivaraman Hariharan, Ebrahim M Mothi, Dohyun Moon, Savarimuthu Philip Anthony
Halochromic isoquinoline attached mechanochromic triphenylamine, N-phenyl-N-(4-(quinolin-2-yl)phenyl)benzenamine (PQPBA) and tris(4-(quinolin-2-yl)phenyl)amine (TQPA), smart fluorescent materials exhibit thermo/mechanochromism and tunable solid state fluorescence and their unusual halochromic response in PMMA matrix have been used for fabricating rewritable and self-erasable fluorescent platforms. PQPBA and TQPA showed strong fluorescence in solution (Φf = 0.9290 (PQPBA) and 0.9160 (TQPA)) and moderate solid state fluorescence (Φf = 20 (PQPBA) and 17% (TQPA)...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xuhui Zhang, Zhenghai Tang, Baochun Guo, Liqun Zhang
It poses a huge challenge to expand the application gallery of rubbers into advanced smart materials and achieve the reinforcement simultaneously. In the present work, inspired by the metal-ligand complexations of mussel byssus, ferric ion was introduced into an oxygen-abundant rubber network to create additional metal-oxygen coordination cross-links. Such complexation has been revealed to be highly efficient in enhancing the strength and toughness of the rubbers. Significantly, such complexation also enables the functionalization of the rubber into highly damping or excellent multishape memory materials...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fang Li, Wei-Liang Chen, Ben-Gang You, Yang Liu, Shu-di Yang, Zhi-Qiang Yuan, Wen-Jing Zhu, Ji-Zhao Li, Chen-Xi Qu, Ye-Juan Zhou, Xiao-Feng Zhou, Chun Liu, Xue-Nong Zhang
The efficient delivery of antitumor agents to tumor sites faces numerous obstacles, such as poor cellular uptake and slow intracellular drug release. In this regard, smart nanoparticles (NPs) that respond to the unique microenvironment of tumor tissues have been widely used for drug delivery. In this study, novel charge-reversal and reduction-responsive histidine-grafted chitosan-lipoic acid NPs (HCSL-NPs) were selected for efficient therapy of breast cancer by enhancing cell internalization and intracellular pH- and reduction-triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yugandhar Bitla, Ching Chen, Hsien-Chang Lee, Thi Hien Do, Chun-Hao Ma, Le Van Qui, Chun-Wei Huang, Wen-Wei Wu, Li Chang, Po-Wen Chiu, Ying-Hao Chu
The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huihui Zhang, Yan Qiao, Zhisong Lu
Textile-based supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their great potential as energy storage components in wearable electronics. However, fabrication of a high-performance, fully printed, and ultraflexible supercapacitor based on a single textile still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile, low-cost, and textile-compatible method involving screen printing and transfer printing is developed to construct all-solid-state supercapacitors on a single silk fabric. The system exhibits a high specific capacitance of 19...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Danilo Dini, Mário J F Calvete, Michael Hanack
The control of luminous radiation has extremely important implications for modern and future technologies as well as in medicine. In this Review, we detail chemical structures and their relevant photophysical features for various groups of materials, including organic dyes such as metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines (and derivatives), other common organic materials, mixed metal complexes and clusters, fullerenes, dendrimeric nanocomposites, polymeric materials (organic and/or inorganic), inorganic semiconductors, and other nanoscopic materials, utilized or potentially useful for the realization of devices able to filter in a smart way an external radiation...
November 23, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Kathleen Abrahamson, Arif Nazir, Karis Pressler
There have been numerous calls within the medical community urging providers to consider the complex problem of inappropriate polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use among nursing home residents. It is clear that innovative, longitudinal policy-supported interventions are needed to better understand prescribing practices in long-term care settings and to curtail the negative, cascading outcomes associated with inappropriate polypharmacy among elderly patients. The Indiana Safer Medication Administration Regimens and Treatment (SMART) campaign is funded by the Indiana State Department of Health for a pilot period of 2 years (2016-18) with the objectives of: 1...
November 30, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Nour Rashwan, Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Nipul Kithsiri Gunawardena, Nilanthi de Silva, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent intestinal helminths of humans, and a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are used for treatment of human STH infections and this use is increasing dramatically with massive drug donations. Frequent and prolonged use of these drugs could lead to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance as has occurred in nematodes of livestock...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Antonio Di Maio, Maria Rita Palattella, Ridha Soua, Luca Lamorte, Xavier Vilajosana, Jesus Alonso-Zarate, Thomas Engel
The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens' quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy...
December 6, 2016: Sensors
Purbarun Dhar, Ajay Katiyar, Arvind Pattamatta, Sarit K Das
Large-scale electrorheology (ER) response has been reported for dilute graphene nanoflake-based ER fluids that have been engineered as novel, readily synthesizable polymeric gels. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) based graphene gels have been synthesized and a very high ER response (∼125 000% enhancement in viscosity under influence of an electric field) has been observed for low concentration systems (∼2 wt.%). The gels overcome several drawbacks innate to ER fluids. The gels exhibit long term stability, a high graphene packing ratio which ensures very high ER response, and the microstructure of the gels ensures that fibrillation of the graphene nanoflakes under an electric field is undisturbed by thermal fluctuations, further leading to mega ER...
December 8, 2016: Nanotechnology
Brandon J Reizman, Yi-Ming Wang, Stephen L Buchwald, Klavs F Jensen
An automated, droplet-flow microfluidic system explores and optimizes Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. A smart optimal DoE-based algorithm is implemented to increase the turnover number and yield of the catalytic system considering both discrete variables-palladacycle and ligand-and continuous variables-temperature, time, and loading-simultaneously. The use of feedback allows for experiments to be run with catalysts and under conditions more likely to produce an optimum; consequently complex reaction optimizations are completed within 96 experiments...
December 1, 2016: Reaction Chemistry & Engineering
Diane Feeney Mahoney, David W Coon, Cecil Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To gain an understanding of Latino/Hispanic caregivers' dementia-related dressing issues, their impressions of using a "smart" context-aware dresser to coach dressing, and recommendations to improve its acceptability. METHOD: The same Latina moderator conducted all the caregiver focus groups. She followed a semi-structured interview guide that was previously used with White and African American family caregivers who experienced Alzheimer's disease related dressing challenges...
November 2016: Digit Health
Filipe Rodrigues, Stanislav Borysov, Bernardete Ribeiro, Francisco Pereira
Public special events, like sports games, concerts and festivals are well known to create disruptions in transportation systems, often catching the operators by surprise. Although these are usually planned well in advance, their impact is difficult to predict, even when organisers and transportation operators coordinate. The problem highly increases when several events happen concurrently. To solve these problems, costly processes, heavily reliant on manual search and personal experience, are usual practice in large cities like Singapore, London or Tokyo...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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