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neurobiology pain science

Arran Davis, Emma Cohen
In humans, socio-environmental cues play an important role in determining adaptive psychophysiological states and behaviours. In sport and exercise, cues to cohesive groups and close, supportive relationships are ubiquitous, possibly because of their effects on neurobiological mechanisms underlying physical performance. Clinical research has shown that the presence of supportive others can lead to reductions in perceptions of pain, while research from sport and exercise science has shown that pain and physical fatigue occupy ranges on a single spectrum of physical discomfort, which works to regulate outputs during strenuous physical exertion...
2018: Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology
M A Fitzcharles, E Eisenberg
Medical cannabis has entered mainstream medicine and is here to stay. Propelled by public advocacy, the media and mostly anecdote rather than sound scientific study, patients worldwide are exploring marijuana use for a vast array of medical conditions including management of chronic pain. Contrary to the usual path of drug approval, medical cannabis has bypassed traditional evidence-based study and has been legalized as a therapeutic product by legislative bodies in various countries. While there is a wealth of basic science and preclinical studies demonstrating effects of cannabinoids in neurobiological systems, especially those pertaining to pain and inflammation, clinical study remains limited...
March 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Theodore J Price, Michael S Gold
Objective: Persistent pain causes untold misery worldwide and is a leading cause of disability. Despite its astonishing prevalence, pain is undertreated, at least in part because existing therapeutics are ineffective or cause intolerable side effects. In this review, we cover new findings about the neurobiology of pain and argue that all but the most transient forms of pain needed to avoid tissue damage should be approached as a disease where a cure can be the goal of all treatment plans, even if attaining this goal is not yet always possible...
October 25, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Erin E Young, Amy DʼAgata, Dorothy Vittner, Kyle M Baumbauer
As healthcare teams have worked to improve infant survival rates, the management of painful events experienced by these hospitalized neonates has increased and yet pain management remains highly variable between healthcare institutions. At the same time, emerging evidence suggests that these early painful experiences may alter the trajectory of development for pain-processing pathways both peripherally and centrally. This concise review highlights findings from both the basic and clinical science literature supporting the hypothesis that early painful experiences can have long-lasting negative effects on biological, psychological, and socioemotional functions...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
Adriaan Louw, Kory Zimney, Christine O'Hotto, Sandra Hilton
Teaching people about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain experience has a therapeutic effect and has been referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). Various high-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. Research studies, however, by virtue of their design, are very controlled environments and, therefore, in contrast to the ever-increasing evidence for PNE, little is known about the clinical application of this emerging therapy...
July 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
D K Prusator, A Andrews, B Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that females are twice as likely to receive a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than their male counterparts. Despite evidence pointing to a role for sex hormones in the onset or exacerbation of IBS symptoms, the mechanism by which ovarian hormones may predispose women to develop IBS remains largely undefined. On the other hand, there is a growing body of research showing a correlation between reports of early life stress (ELS) and the diagnosis of IBS...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
C Kersten, M G Cameron, B Laird, S Mjåland
BACKGROUND: Neurobiological work has demonstrated that expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is upregulated on neurones and glial cells after nerve damage. Furthermore, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been identified as having a key role in this process and subsequent interruption of this using EGFR-Inhibitors (EGFR-I), may improve neuropathic pain. The aim of this report was to explore if EGFR-I attenuated neuropathic pain in humans. METHODS: A selection of patients with neuropathic pain were treated off-label with one of four EGFR-Is, approved for the treatment of cancer...
November 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Inbo Han, Alexander E Ropper, Deniz Konya, Serdar Kabatas, Zafer Toktas, Zaid Aljuboori, Xiang Zeng, John H Chi, Ross Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is a common, chronic, and complex degeneration process that frequently leads to back pain and disability, resulting in a major public health issue. In this review we describe biological therapies under preclinical or clinical development with an emphasis on stem cell-based multimodal approaches that target prevention and treatment of IVD degeneration. Systematical review of the basic science and clinical literature was performed to summarize the current status of devising biological approaches to treating IVD degeneration...
2015: Cell Transplantation
Ruth Defrin, Martina Amanzio, Marina de Tommaso, Violeta Dimova, Sasa Filipovic, David P Finn, Lydia Gimenez-Llort, Sara Invitto, Christina Jensen-Dahm, Stefan Lautenbacher, Joukje M Oosterman, Laura Petrini, Chaim G Pick, Gisele Pickering, Lene Vase, Miriam Kunz
Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained, and complex health care needs, which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty communicating the features of their pain to others, which in turn presents a significant challenge for effective diagnosis and treatment of their pain. Herein, we review the literature on responsivity of individuals with CI to experimental pain stimuli...
August 2015: Pain
Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber
Surprisingly often in the psychoanalyses of chronically depressed patients, depression represents an unconscious attempt to psychically cope with unbearable psychic pain following severe traumatisation: dissociative states, a chronified psychic state of shock, a disappearance of emotions, an emptying of the self and the object relationships, as well as a disappearance of the psyche in the body are among the possible consequences. The treatment of these difficult groups of analysands can also frequently bring analysts to the limits of the endurable...
June 2015: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Anthony Dickenson
The neurobiology of pain and analgesia exhibits plasticity in different pain states. Animal models allow the study of the pathways, neuronal plasticity, and pharmacology that reflect the pains many patients have. Inherited pain disorders may also indicate the pain-related roles of gene products. Mixed pain states are more difficult to model and research in this area is ongoing. Pain remains a subjective experience, and the search for objective measures or biomarkers of pain has so far not yielded definitive results...
March 2015: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Jun-Xia Yang, Lu Hua, Yan-Qiang Li, Yan-Yu Jiang, Dong Han, He Liu, Qian-Qian Tang, Xiao-Na Yang, Cui Yin, Ling-Yun Hao, Le Yu, Peng Wu, Cui-Jie Shao, Hai-Lei Ding, Yong-Mei Zhang, Jun-Li Cao
Chronic pain is still a basic science and clinical challenge. Unraveling of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in chronic pain will offer novel targets for the development of therapeutic strategies. It is well known that central sensitization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a critical role in initiation, development, and maintenance of chronic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we reported that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a scaffolding protein in membrane rafts, was persistently upregulated and activated in the ACC neurons after chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice...
January 7, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cliodhna O'Connor, Helene Joffe
Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a 'neurosexism' that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain...
2014: PloS One
Ben Thornton, Bruce Cohen, William Copeland, Bernard L Maria
Mitochondrial medicine provides a metabolic perspective on the pathology of conditions linked with inadequate oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondrial machinery can result in improper energy production, leading to cellular injury or even apoptosis. Clinical presentations are often subtle, so clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to make early diagnoses. Symptoms could include muscle weakness and pain, seizures, loss of motor control, decreased visual and auditory functions, metabolic acidosis, acute developmental regression, and immune system dysfunction...
September 2014: Journal of Child Neurology
Erica S Schwartz, G F Gebhart
Modeling visceral pain requires an appreciation of the underlying neurobiology of visceral sensation, including characteristics of visceral pain that distinguish it from pain arising from other tissues, the unique sensory innervation of visceral organs, the functional basis of visceral pain, and the concept of viscero-somatic and viscero-visceral convergence. Further, stimuli that are noxious when applied to the viscera are different than stimuli noxious to skin, muscle, and joints, thus informing model development and assessment...
2014: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Howard L Fields
Howard Fields received his MD and PhD in Neuroscience at Stanford University (CA, USA) in 1965-1966. After Internal Medicine training at Bellevue Hospital in New York, he spent 3 years as a research neurologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (MD, USA). Following clinical training in neurology at the Boston City Hospital Service of Harvard Medical School in 1972, he joined the faculty of the University of California, San Francisco (USA) where he is currently Professor of Neurology, Director of the Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction and Principal Investigator at the Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center...
January 2011: Pain Management
Tom Buller
As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics...
April 2014: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Eric L Garland
This selective review discusses the psychobiological mediation of nociception and pain. Summarizing literature from physiology and neuroscience, first an overview of the neuroanatomic and neurochemical systems underpinning pain perception and modulation is provided. Second, findings from psychological science are used to elucidate cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors central to the pain experience. This review has implications for clinical practice with patients suffering from chronic pain, and provides strong rationale for assessing and treating pain from a biopsychosocial perspective...
September 2012: Primary Care
Ulrike Bingel, Irene Tracey, Katja Wiech
The observation that cognitive factors such as beliefs and expectations not only modulate the perception of pain, but also the therapeutic benefit and adverse effects of any pharmacological treatment is not new. However, the contribution of cognitive factors to pharmacotherapy is still poorly understood and far from being systematically exploited to maximize treatment outcome. Recent insights into placebo and nocebo phenomena and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms have, however, rekindled the interest in interactions between pharmacological effects and cognitive factors...
June 29, 2012: Neuroscience Letters
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