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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933676/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-disproportionate-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy
#1
Cassidy M Fiford, Emily N Manning, Jonathan W Bartlett, David M Cash, Ian B Malone, Gerard R Ridgway, Manja Lehmann, Kelvin K Leung, Carole Sudre, Sebastien Ourselin, Geert Jan Biessels, Owen T Carmichael, Nick C Fox, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
This study investigates relationships between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain and hippocampal volume loss. Subjects included 198 controls, 345 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 154 AD subjects with serial volumetric 1.5T MRI. CSF Aβ42 and total tau were measured (n=353). Brain and hippocampal loss were quantified from serial MRI using the Boundary Shift Integral (BSI). Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationships between WMHs and hippocampal and brain atrophy rates...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933667/a-mobile-web-based-system-can-improve-positive-airway-pressure-adherence
#2
Jordanna M Hostler, Karen L Sheikh, Teotimo F Andrada, Andrei Khramtsov, Paul R Holley, Aaron B Holley
SleepMapper is a mobile, web-based system that allows patients to self-monitor their positive airway pressure therapy, and provides feedback and education in real time. In addition to the usual, comprehensive support provided at our clinic, we gave the SleepMapper to 30 patients initiating positive airway pressure. They were compared with patients initiating positive airway pressure at our clinic without SleepMapper (controls) to determine whether SleepMapper affected adherence. A total of 61 patients had polysomnographic and adherence data analysed, 30 were given SleepMapper and 31 received our standard of care...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933641/method-of-b0-mapping-with-magnitude-based-correction-for-bipolar-two-point-dixon-cardiac-mri
#3
Junmin Liu, Dana C Peters, Maria Drangova
PURPOSE: The conventional two-point (2pt) Dixon technique explicitly estimates B0 map by performing phase unwrapping. When signal loss, phase singularity, artifacts, or spatially isolated regions corrupt the measured phase images, this unwrapping-based technique will face difficulty. This work aims to improve the reliability of B0 mapping by performing unwrapping error correction. METHOD: To detect the unwrapping-caused phase errors, we determined a magnitude-based fat/water mask and used it as reference to identify pixels being mismatched by the phase-based mask, which was derived from the B0-corrected phase term of the Hermitian product between echoes...
December 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933587/development-of-a-more-efficient-albumin-based-delivery-system-for-gambogic-acid-with-low-toxicity-for-lung-cancer-therapy
#4
Yan Zhang, Zhijie Yang, Xinyi Tan, Xing Tang, Zaixing Yang
Gambogic acid (GA) has been proven to be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer in clinical trials. However, GA is limited in its therapeutic value by properties such as poor water solubility and low chemical stability. In clinical trials, cationic arginine (Arg) was added to solubilize GA, and this may also cause other side effects. Here, we have designed and developed a more efficient human serum albumin (HSA)-based delivery system for GA with low toxicity which helps improve its solubility, chemical stability and increases its antitumor efficacy...
December 8, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933584/matrine-treatment-blocks-nogoa-induced-neural-inhibitory-signaling-pathway-in-ongoing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Quan-Cheng Kan, Hui-Jun Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Yu-Ming Xu, Rodolfo Thome, Ming-Liang Zhang, Nan Liu, Yao-Juan Chu, Guang-Xian Zhang, Li Zhu
Myelin-associated inhibitors, such as NogoA, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), play a pivotal role in the lack of neuroregeneration in multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Matrine (MAT), a monomer that is used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, has shown beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. However, the underlying mechanisms of MAT-induced EAE amelioration are not fully understood...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933473/high-percentage-of-ibd-patients-with-indefinite-fecal-calprotectin-levels-additional-value-of-a-combination-score
#6
Alexander G L Bodelier, Daisy Jonkers, Tim van den Heuvel, Evelien de Boer, Wim Hameeteman, Ad A M Masclee, Marie J Pierik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Monitoring mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of major importance to prevent complications and improve long-term disease outcome. The correlation of clinical activity indices with endoscopic disease activity is, however, moderate. Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a better predictor of mucosal inflammation, but values between 100 and 250 µg/g are difficult to interpret in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of indefinite FC levels in a real-life IBD cohort and study the additional value of a combination of biochemical markers and clinical activity indices...
December 8, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#7
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933435/ranolazine-promotes-muscle-differentiation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-c2c12-skeletal-muscle-cells
#8
Terruzzi Ileana, Montesano Anna, Senesi Pamela, Vacante Fernanda, Benedini Stefano, Luzi Livio
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate Ranolazine action on skeletal muscle differentiation and mitochondrial oxidative phenomena. Ranolazine, an antianginal drug, which acts blocking the late INaL current, was shown to lower hemoglobin A1c in patients with diabetes. In the present study, we hypothesized an action of Ranolazine on skeletal muscle cells regeneration and oxidative process, leading to a reduction of insulin resistance. METHODS: 10 μM Ranolazine was added to C2C12 murine myoblastic cells during proliferation, differentiation and newly formed myotubes...
December 8, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933404/genome-wide-high-content-sirna-screening-identifies-the-alzheimer-s-genetic-risk-factor-fermt2-as-a-major-modulator-of-app-metabolism
#9
Julien Chapuis, Amandine Flaig, Benjamin Grenier-Boley, Fanny Eysert, Virginie Pottiez, Gaspard Deloison, Alexandre Vandeputte, Anne-Marie Ayral, Tiago Mendes, Shruti Desai, Alison M Goate, John S K Kauwe, Florence Leroux, Adrien Herledan, Florie Demiautte, Charlotte Bauer, Fréderic Checler, Ronald C Petersen, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Lennart Minthon, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia Man-Yee Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Marilyn Albert, Abhay Moghekar, Richard O'Brien, Elaine R Peskind, Nicolas Malmanche, Gerard D Schellenberg, Pierre Dourlen, Ok-Ryul Song, Carlos Cruchaga, Philippe Amouyel, Benoit Deprez, Priscille Brodin, Jean-Charles Lambert
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 19 susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, understanding how these genes are involved in the pathophysiology of AD is one of the main challenges of the "post-GWAS" era. At least 123 genes are located within the 19 susceptibility loci; hence, a conventional approach (studying the genes one by one) would not be time- and cost-effective. We therefore developed a genome-wide, high-content siRNA screening approach and used it to assess the functional impact of gene under-expression on APP metabolism...
December 8, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933282/myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy-dosimetry-optimal-use-of-spect-and-spect-ct-technologies-in-stress-first-imaging-protocol
#10
REVIEW
M Lecchi, S Malaspina, C Scabbio, V Gaudieri, A Del Sole
PURPOSE: Over the past decade, nuclear medicine experts have been seeking to minimize patient exposure to radiation in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This review describes the latest technological innovations in MPS, particularly with regard to dose reduction. METHODS: We searched in PubMed for original clinical papers in English, published after 2008, using the following research criteria: (dose) and ((reduction) or (reducing)) and ((myocardial) or (cardiac) or (heart)) and ((nuclear medicine) or (nuclear imaging) or (radionuclide) or (scintigraphy) or (SPET) or (SPECT))...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933260/use-of-a-10-22%C3%A2-m-diameter-epb-shield-a-case-study-in-beijing-subway-construction
#11
Xinggao Li, Dajun Yuan, Yuhai Guo, Zhiyong Cai
INTRODUCTION: Beijing subway line 14 includes four stations and approximately 2.8 km of tunnels between the Dongfengbeiqiao and Jingshunlu areas of the city. Due to the surface and underground space limitations of this section, a double-track running tunnel instead of two single-track running tunnels was adopted to connect the two stations. The double-track tunnels were excavated by a 10.22 m diameter earth pressure balance (EPB) shield. It was the first time that an EPB shield more than 10 m in diameter was used in Beijing subway construction...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933233/isolation-and-characterisation-of-crude-oil-sludge-degrading-bacteria
#12
Linda U Obi, Harrison I Atagana, Rasheed A Adeleke
BACKGROUND: The use of microorganisms in remediating environmental contaminants such as crude oil sludge has become a promising technique owing to its economy and the fact it is environmentally friendly. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as the major components of oil sludge, are hydrophobic and recalcitrant. An important way of enhancing the rate of PAH desorption is to compost crude oil sludge by incorporating commercial surfactants, thereby making them available for microbial degradation...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933199/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-in-patients-with-persistently-active-sle-results-of-a-phase-4-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#13
Richard Furie, Margaret Mitrane, Enxu Zhao, Maya Das, Daner Li, Patrice M Becker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a prolonged-release formulation of a porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone analogue (repository corticotropin injection (RCI)) added to standard of care in patients requiring moderate-dose corticosteroids for symptomatic SLE. METHODS: This prospective, randomised, double-blind, phase 4, pilot study (NCT01753401) enrolled 38 patients with persistently active SLE involving skin and/or joints. Enrolled patients received RCI, 40 U daily or 80 U every other day, or volume-matched placebo gel, for 8 weeks, with dose tapering to twice weekly during weeks 5-8...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933194/contribution-of-the-long-term-care-insurance-certificate-for-predicting-1-year-all-cause-readmission-compared-with-validated-risk-scores-in-elderly-patients-with-heart-failure
#14
Kayo Takahashi, Makoto Saito, Shinji Inaba, Toru Morofuji, Hiroe Aisu, Takumi Sumimoto, Akiyoshi Ogimoto, Shuntaro Ikeda, Jitsuo Higaki
OBJECTIVES: Readmission is a common and serious problem associated with heart failure (HF). Unfortunately, conventional risk models have limited predictive value for predicting readmission. The recipients of long-term care insurance (LTCI) are frail and have mental and physical impairments. We hypothesised that adjustment of the conventional risk score with an LTCI certificate enables a more accurate appreciation of readmission for HF. METHODS: We investigated 452 patients with HF who were followed up for 1 year to determine all-cause readmission...
2016: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933151/improving-asthma-care-in-a-pediatric-resident-clinic
#15
Julia Lee, Albina Gogo, Daniel Tancredi, Erik Fernandez Y Garcia, Ulfat Shaikh
There is variation in pediatric asthma management in the outpatient setting. Adherence to national asthma guidelines provides a systematic standardized approach to asthma management. There is a gap between usual and guideline-consistent asthma care in resident clinics. Practice improvement modules aimed at improving resident physician adherence to asthma care guidelines have not been consistently utilized and have not yet been studied. Our aim was to increase guideline consistent care in our pediatric resident clinic in a twelve-month period via increasing performance on the following measures to 75%: spirometry testing; influenza immunization recommendation; level of control assessed through the use of a standardized questionnaire; appropriate medications per national guideline; and use of written asthma action plans...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933091/spatially-heterogeneous-environmental-selection-strengthens-evolution-of-reproductively-isolated-populations-in-a-dobzhansky-muller-system-of-hybrid-incompatibility
#17
Samuel A Cushman, Erin L Landguth
Within-species hybrid incompatibility can arise when combinations of alleles at more than one locus have low fitness but where possession of one of those alleles has little or no fitness consequence for the carriers. Limited dispersal with small numbers of mate potentials alone can lead to the evolution of clusters of reproductively isolated genotypes despite the absence of any geographical barriers or heterogeneous selection. In this paper, we explore how adding heterogeneous natural selection on the genotypes (e...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933055/responses-of-methanogenic-and-methanotrophic-communities-to-elevated-atmospheric-co2-and-temperature-in-a-paddy-field
#18
Yuan Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Kun Cheng, Lianqing Li, Xuhui Zhang, Jufeng Zheng, Jinwei Zheng, Genxing Pan
Although climate change is predicted to affect methane (CH4) emissions in paddy soil, the dynamics of methanogens and methanotrophs in paddy fields under climate change have not yet been fully investigated. To address this issue, a multifactor climate change experiment was conducted in a Chinese paddy field using the following experimental treatments: (1) enrichment of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (500 ppm, CE), (2) canopy air warming (2°C above the ambient, WA), (3) combined CO2 enrichment and warming (CW), and (4) ambient conditions (CK)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933053/waste-conversion-into-n-caprylate-and-n-caproate-resource-recovery-from-wine-lees-using-anaerobic-reactor-microbiomes-and-in-line-extraction
#19
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#20
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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