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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156735/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-mediates-emt-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Yan Wu, Chunxiang Bian, Chunlin Zhen, Liu Liu, Zhenghong Lin, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Mei Wang, Jörg W Bartsch, Enyi Huang, Ping Ji, Li Yang, Yanhong Yu, Junfeng Yang, Xuemei Jiang, Julia Li Zhong
Locoregional lymph nodes metastasis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma represents one of important and common prognostic factors for poor clinical outcome. The human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) is one of key players in cancer metastasis and stemness, but its exact function in tongue squamous cell carcinoma remains unknown. Here, we aim to understand the role of hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system to deplete hTERT in the SCC-15 cell line. Functional comparison of SCC-15 control and knockout cells (hTERT(-/-)) showed that loss of hTERT suppressed cell proliferation and migration/invasion...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156729/a-rasgap-dab2ip-regulates-lipid-droplet-homeostasis-by-serving-as-gap-toward-rab40c
#2
Xiaomin Luo, Chunman Li, Ran Tan, Xiaohui Xu, William K K Wu, Ayano Satoh, Tuanlao Wang, Sidney Yu
Lipid droplet (LD) homeostasis involves activities of various RAB small GTPases. Recently, we found RAB40C was one of the RAB proteins regulating LD homeostasis. RAB40C contains a unique SOCS domain that is required for clustering of LDs. However, its precise functional role in LD homeostasis and mechanism of regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed over-accumulation of LDs in cells with RAB40C deleted by Crispr-Cas9 editing. RAB40C appeared to reduce LD accumulation after long term incubation of cells with oleic acid (24 hours)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156638/development-of-evidence-based-disease-education-literature-for-pakistani-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#3
Atta Abbas Naqvi, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Muhammad Tariq Aftab, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Fatima Zehra, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
Rheumatoid arthritis affects 0.5% to 1% of the population globally and is one of the most common causes of disability. Patient education plays a key role in improving treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to discuss the process involved in designing an evidence-based disease education literature for rheumatoid arthritis patients of Pakistan in Urdu language with culturally relevant illustrations. A study was conducted to develop disease education literature using Delphi consensus, content validity, and patient feedback...
November 20, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156447/pd-1-blockade-in-advanced-nsclc-a-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#4
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Keith M Kerr, Rolf Stahel
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156423/under-pressure-evolutionary-engineering-of-yeast-strains-for-improved-performance-in-fuels-and-chemicals-production
#5
REVIEW
Robert Mans, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk
Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155979/epigenetic-editing-of-the-dlg4-psd95-gene-improves-cognition-in-aged-and-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#6
Fernando J Bustos, Estibaliz Ampuero, Nur Jury, Rodrigo Aguilar, Fahimeh Falahi, Jorge Toledo, Juan Ahumada, Jaclyn Lata, Paula Cubillos, Berta Henríquez, Miguel V Guerra, Jimmy Stehberg, Rachael L Neve, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Ursula Wyneken, Marco Fuenzalida, Steffen Härtel, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Lorena Varela-Nallar, Marianne G Rots, Martin Montecino, Brigitte van Zundert
The Dlg4 gene encodes for post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), a major synaptic protein that clusters glutamate receptors and is critical for plasticity. PSD95 levels are diminished in ageing and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. The epigenetic mechanisms that (dys)regulate transcription of Dlg4/PSD95, or other plasticity genes, are largely unknown, limiting the development of targeted epigenome therapy. We analysed the Dlg4/PSD95 epigenetic landscape in hippocampal tissue and designed a Dlg4/PSD95 gene-targeting strategy: a Dlg4/PSD95 zinc finger DNA-binding domain was engineered and fused to effector domains to either repress (G9a, Suvdel76, SKD) or activate (VP64) transcription, generating artificial transcription factors or epigenetic editors (methylating H3K9)...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155970/cognitive-function-coping-and-depressive-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-with-sickle-cell-disease
#7
Kemar V Prussien, Michael R DeBaun, Janet Yarboi, Heather Bemis, Colleen McNally, Ellen Williams, Bruce E Compas
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive functioning, coping, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Method: Forty-four children (M age = 9.30, SD = 3.08; 56.8% male) with SCD completed cognitive assessments measuring working memory (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition) and verbal comprehension (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155818/snail1-mediated-downregulation-of-foxa-proteins-facilitates-the-inactivation-of-transcriptional-enhancer-elements-at-key-epithelial-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#8
Sabine Jägle, Hauke Busch, Vivien Freihen, Sven Beyes, Monika Schrempp, Melanie Boerries, Andreas Hecht
Phenotypic conversion of tumor cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) requires massive gene expression changes. How these are brought about is not clear. Here we examined the impact of the EMT master regulator SNAIL1 on the FOXA family of transcription factors which are distinguished by their particular competence to induce chromatin reorganization for the activation of transcriptional enhancer elements. We show that the expression of SNAIL1 and FOXA genes is anticorrelated in transcriptomes of colorectal tumors and cell lines...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155789/efficient-generation-and-editing-of-feeder-free-ipscs-from-human-pancreatic-cells-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#9
Anjali Nandal, Barbara Mallon, Bhanu P Telugu
Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of the body. The pluripotent cells are thus coveted for research in regenerative medicine and are currently in clinical trials for eye diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, and other disorders. The potential to differentiate into specialized cell types coupled with the recent advances in genome editing technologies including the CRISPR/Cas system have provided additional opportunities for tailoring the genome of iPSC for varied applications including disease modeling, gene therapy, and biasing pathways of differentiation, to name a few...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155579/catalytic-conversion-of-carbohydrates-to-initial-platform-chemicals-chemistry-and-sustainability
#10
László T Mika, Edit Cséfalvay, Áron Németh
The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs)...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155548/site-selective-rna-splicing-nanozyme-dnazyme-and-rtcb-conjugates-on-a-gold-nanoparticle
#11
Jessica R Petree, Kevin Yehl, Kornelia Galior, Roxanne Glazier, Brendan Deal, Khalid Salaita
Modifying RNA through either splicing or editing is a fundamental biological process for creating protein diversity from the same genetic code. Developing novel chemical biology tools for RNA editing has potential to transiently edit genes and to provide a better understanding of RNA biochemistry. Current techniques used to modify RNA include the use of ribozymes, adenosine deaminase and tRNA endonucleases. Herein, we report a nanozyme that is capable of splicing of virtually any RNA stem-loop. This nanozyme is comprised of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with three enzymes: two catalytic DNA strands with ribonuclease function and an RNA ligase...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155433/-neuroanatomy-of-the-visual-pathway
#12
Stephan Heermann
Precise knowledge of the neuroanatomy of the visual system including the perception of visual stimuli in the retina, the transmission of visual information to other areas of the central nervous system and the processing of visual information, are most important for diagnostics of diseases, which are affecting this system. Such knowledge allows, even after just a clinical examination, already a quite precise localisation of potential lesions. The aim of this article is to illustrate the neuroanatomy of the visual system with the focus on the visual pathway and the processing of visual information...
November 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155071/structural-rearrangements-of-the-rna-polymerase-iii-machinery-during-trna-transcription-initiation
#13
REVIEW
Ewan Phillip Ramsay, Alessandro Vannini
RNA polymerase III catalyses the synthesis of tRNAs in eukaryotic organisms. Through combined biochemical and structural characterisation, multiple auxiliary factors have been identified alongside RNA Polymerase III as critical in both facilitating and regulating transcription. Together, this machinery forms dynamic multi-protein complexes at tRNA genes which are required for polymerase recruitment, DNA opening and initiation and elongation of the tRNA transcripts. Central to the function of these complexes is their ability to undergo multiple conformational changes and rearrangements that regulate each step...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154806/crispr-cas9-licensing-the-unlicensable
#14
REVIEW
Ulrich Storz
A new gene engineering technology has recently made it through the media, not only because of its technical advantages, but also because it is in the focus of an epic patent battle between two academic institutions. The technology bears the cryptic name "CRISPR Cas9", and allows the manipulation of genes (so called "gene editing") with so far unseen simplicity and efficacy. Dana Carroll of the University of Utah said for this reason that CRISPR Cas9 has brought about the "democratization of gene targeting"...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154601/on-studying-narcissism-in-personality-inventories-rather-than-the-narcissistic-personality-inventory-reply-to-miller-and-lynam-2017
#15
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Kristian E Markon
Miller and Lynam's (2017) commentary proved to be very helpful in clarifying that ralerting-CV and rcontrast-CV coefficient values reported in our study indicated that the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) yielded a trait profile much more closely aligned with expert ratings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition; DSM-IV) narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) than did other measures. The commentary gives us the opportunity to make it clear that our study was designed to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) domain and trait scales in profiling pathological narcissism...
November 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154600/a-passionate-call-for-dispassionate-conclusion-comment-on-fossati-et-al-2016
#16
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
In a recent article published by Fossati and colleagues (2016a, 2016b), the authors compared the empirical profiles derived from correlating measures of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) with a measure of the 25 personality disorder traits included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) to an expert-rated profile of NPD. The initial data, which included some mistakes, were interpreted as indicating comparable performance across all three self-report measures of narcissism and NPD, including two hotly debated measures, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI)...
November 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154591/the-impact-of-comorbid-diagnoses-on-the-course-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#17
Katherine M Fedele, Nicole L Johnson, Jennifer C Caldwell, Yuliya Shteynberg, Sarah E Sanders, Samantha C Holmes, Dawn M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to explore the impact of the comorbidities of substance use disorder (SUD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the trajectory of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a 6-month follow-up period in IPV survivors who seek shelter. Research has found significant comorbidity of SUD, MDD, and BPD with PTSD (see Green et al., 2006; Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995; Pagura et al...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153931/disturbances-in-oxygen-balance-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-risk-factor-for-postoperative-delirium
#18
Nina Smulter, Helena Claesson Lingehall, Yngve Gustafson, Birgitta Olofsson, Karl Gunnar Engström, Micael Appelblad, Staffan Svenmarker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery, specifically associated with the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Heart Centre, University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 142 patients aged 70 years and older scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with CPB. INTERVENTIONS: Risk factor analysis comprised information collected from the hospital clinical and CPB dedicated databases in addition to the medical chart...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153834/precise-editing-at-dna-replication-forks-enables-multiplex-genome-engineering-in-eukaryotes
#19
Edward M Barbieri, Paul Muir, Benjamin O Akhuetie-Oni, Christopher M Yellman, Farren J Isaacs
We describe a multiplex genome engineering technology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on annealing synthetic oligonucleotides at the lagging strand of DNA replication. The mechanism is independent of Rad51-directed homologous recombination and avoids the creation of double-strand DNA breaks, enabling precise chromosome modifications at single base-pair resolution with an efficiency of >40%, without unintended mutagenic changes at the targeted genetic loci. We observed the simultaneous incorporation of up to 12 oligonucleotides with as many as 60 targeted mutations in one transformation...
November 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153464/international-guideline-for-the-delineation-of-the-clinical-target-volumes-ctv-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
Anne W Lee, Wai Tong Ng, Jian Ji Pan, Sharon S Poh, Yong Chan Ahn, Hussain AlHussain, June Corry, Cai Grau, Vincent Grégoire, Kevin J Harrington, Chao Su Hu, Dora L Kwong, Johannes A Langendijk, Quynh Thu Le, Nancy Y Lee, Jin Ching Lin, Tai Xiang Lu, William M Mendenhall, Brian O'Sullivan, Enis Ozyar, Lester J Peters, David I Rosenthal, Yoke Lim Soong, Yungan Tao, Sue S Yom, Joseph T Wee
PURPOSE: Target delineation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) often proves challenging because of the notoriously narrow therapeutic margin. High doses are needed to achieve optimal levels of tumour control, and dosimetric inadequacy remains one of the most important independent factors affecting treatment outcome. METHOD: A review of the available literature addressing the natural behaviour of NPC and correlation between clinical and pathological aspects of the disease was conducted...
November 15, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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