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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820319/a-to-i-rna-editing-thinking-beyond-the-single-nucleotide
#1
Nabeel S Ganem, Ayelet T Lamm
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a conserved process, which is performed by ADAR enzymes. By changing nucleotides in coding regions of genes and altering codons, ADARs expand the cell's protein repertoire. This function of the ADAR enzymes is essential for human brain development. However, most of the known editing sites are in non-coding repetitive regions in the transcriptome and the purpose of editing in these regions is unclear. Recent studies, which have shown that editing levels of transcripts vary between tissues and developmental stages in many organisms, suggest that the targeted RNA and ADAR editing are both regulated...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820283/n-3-pufas-induce-inflammatory-tolerance-by-formation-of-keap1-containing-sqstm1-p62-bodies-and-activation-of-nfe2l2
#2
Jennifer Mildenberger, Ida Johansson, Ismail Sergin, Eli Kjøbli, Jan Kristian Damås, Babak Razani, Trude Helen Flo, Geir Bjørkøy
Inflammation is crucial in the defense against infections but must be tightly controlled to limit detrimental hyperactivation. Our diet influences inflammatory processes and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have known anti-inflammatory effects. The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is coordinated by macrophages and macroautophagy/autophagy has recently emerged as a cellular process that dampens inflammation. Here we report that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) transiently induces cytosolic speckles of the autophagic receptor SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) (described as SQSTM1/p62-bodies) in macrophages...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819307/crispr-cas9-editing-reveals-novel-mechanisms-of-clustered-microrna-regulation-and-function
#3
Lazaros Lataniotis, Andreas Albrecht, Fatma O Kok, Clinton A L Monfries, Lorena Benedetti, Nathan D Lawson, Simon M Hughes, Kathleen Steinhofel, Manuel Mayr, Anna Zampetaki
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. MiRNA families and clusters are two key features in miRNA biology. Here we explore the use of CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful tool to delineate the function and regulation of miRNA families and clusters. We focused on four miRNA clusters composed of miRNA members of the same family, homo-clusters or different families, hetero-clusters. Our results highlight different regulatory mechanisms in miRNA cluster expression...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819113/insights-into-the-role-of-endonuclease-v-in-rna-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Daniel García-Caballero, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Antonio M Estévez, Luis Miguel Ruíz-Pérez, Antonio E Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Inosine may arise in DNA as a result of oxidative deamination of adenine or misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate during replication. On the other hand, the occurrence of inosine in RNA is considered a normal and essential modification induced by specific adenosine deaminases acting on mRNA and tRNA. In prokaryotes, endonuclease V (EndoV) can recognize and cleave inosine-containing DNA. In contrast, mammalian EndoVs preferentially cleave inosine-containing RNA, suggesting a role in RNA metabolism for the eukaryotic members of this protein family...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818520/owlready-ontology-oriented-programming-in-python-with-automatic-classification-and-high-level-constructs-for-biomedical-ontologies
#5
Jean-Baptiste Lamy
OBJECTIVE: Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical domain. While many tools exist for the edition, alignment or evaluation of ontologies, few solutions have been proposed for ontology programming interface, i.e. for accessing and modifying an ontology within a programming language. Existing query languages (such as SPARQL) and APIs (such as OWLAPI) are not as easy-to-use as object programming languages are. Moreover, they provide few solutions to difficulties encountered with biomedical ontologies...
August 14, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818121/different-places-different-ideas-reimagining-practice-in-american-psychiatric-nursing-after-world-war-ii
#6
Kylie M Smith
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing...
January 1, 2018: Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818045/bmc-ecology-image-competition-2017-the-winning-images
#7
EDITORIAL
Christopher Foote, Chris T Darimont, Michel Baguette, Simon Blanchet, Luke M Jacobus, Dominique Mazzi, Josef Settele
For the fifth year, BMC Ecology is proud to present the winning images from our annual image competition. The 2017 edition received entries by talented shutterbug-ecologists from across the world, showcasing research that is increasing our understanding of ecosystems worldwide and the beauty and diversity of life on our planet. In this editorial we showcase the winning images, as chosen by our Editorial Board and guest judge Chris Darimont, as well as our selection of highly commended images. Enjoy!
August 18, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817813/the-effect-of-tegafur-uracil-on-survival-in-t-categories-as-defined-in-the-eighth-edition-of-the-tnm-classification-an-exploratory-analysis-of-postoperative-adjuvant-tegafur-uracil-on-survival-in-patients-with-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung
#8
Masahiro Tsuboi, Chikuma Hamada, Harubumi Kato, Mitsuo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Tegafur-uracil (UFT) improves survival in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma of the lung. We evaluated the effect of UFT on survival in maximum primary tumor diameter (T) categories as defined in the eighth edition of the TNM Classification (TNM8). METHODS: Tumors were subgrouped on the basis of T category (TNM8) as follows: T1a, T ≤1 cm; T1b, 1 < T ≤2 cm; T1c, 2 < T ≤3 cm; T2a, 3 < T ≤4 cm; T2b , 4 < T ≤5 cm; T3, 5 < T ≤7 cm...
August 18, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#9
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816916/developmental-screening-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease-disease-related-risk-and-screening-outcomes-in-4-year-olds
#10
Jeffrey Schatz, Alyssa Schlenz, Laura Reinman, Kelsey Smith, Carla W Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Studies of early child development in sickle cell disease (SCD) have found modest associations between disease-related risks and developmental status in infants and toddlers, but such associations are evident by early elementary school. We screened 4-year-old children with SCD using 2 screening strategies to assess if biomedical risk factors for neurologic disease are related to developmental screening outcomes at this intermediate age. METHODS: Seventy-seven 4-year-old children with SCD (M = 4...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816237/genetics-human-genome-editing-in-heart-disease
#12
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816123/genome-editing-science-ethics-and-public-engagement
#13
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815907/t7-rna-polymerase-driven-inducible-cell-lysis-for-dna-transfer-from-escherichia-coli-to-bacillus-subtilis
#14
Mario Juhas, James W Ajioka
The majority of the good DNA editing techniques have been developed in Escherichia coli; however, Bacillus subtilis is better host for a plethora of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications. Reliable and efficient systems for the transfer of synthetic DNA between E. coli and B. subtilis are therefore of the highest importance. Using synthetic biology approaches, such as streamlined lambda Red recombineering and Gibson Isothermal Assembly, we integrated genetic circuits pT7L123, Repr-ts-1 and pLT7pol encoding the lysis genes of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and lambda, the thermosensitive repressor and the T7 RNA polymerase into the E...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815851/basics-of-genome-editing-technology-and-its-application-in-livestock-species
#15
REVIEW
Bjoern Petersen
In the last decade, the research community has witnessed a blooming of targeted genome editing tools and applications. Novel programmable DNA nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) possess long recognition sites and are capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These DNA nucleases mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815710/sexualities-contemporary-psychoanalytic-perspectives-edited-by-alessandra-lemma-and-paul-lynch
#16
Aaron H Esman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815705/on-the-birth-and-development-of-psychoanalytic-field-theory-part-1
#17
Martin A Silverman
Defining Psychoanalysis: Achieving a Vernacular Expression, by Ian Miller. London: Karnac, 2016. 116 pp. The Pioneers of Psychoanalysis in South America: An Essential Guide, edited by Nydia Lisman-Pieczanski and Alberto Pieczanski. London/New York: Routledge, 2015. 537 pp. Reading Italian Psychoanalysis, edited by Franco Borgogno, Alberto Luchetti, and Luisa Marino Coe. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 738 pp.
July 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815663/who-2016-classification-of-gliomas
#18
Pieter Wesseling, David Capper
Gliomas are the most frequent intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system and encompass two principle subgroups: diffuse gliomas and gliomas showing a more circumscribed growth pattern ('non-diffuse gliomas'). In the revised 4th edition of the WHO Classification of CNS tumors published in 2016, classification of especially diffuse gliomas has fundamentally changed: for the first time a large subset of these tumours is now defined based on presence/absence of IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Following this approach, the diagnosis of (anaplastic) oligoastrocytoma can be expected to largely disappear...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815621/red-blood-cell-sedimentation-of-apheresis-granulocytes
#19
Michelle A Lodermeier, Karen M Byrne, Willy A Flegel
Sedimentation of Apheresis Granulocyte components removes red blood cells. It is used to increase the blood donor pool when blood group-compatible donors cannot be recruited for a patient because of a major ABO incompatibility or incompatible red blood cell antibodies in the recipient. Because granulocytes have little ABO and few other red blood cell antigens on their membrane, such incompatibility lies mostly with the contaminating red blood cells. Video Clip S1 shows the process of red blood cell sedimentation of an Apheresis Granulocyte component...
August 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815504/purification-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-zinc-finger-recombinases
#20
Femi J Olorunniji, Susan J Rosser, W Marshall Stark
Zinc finger recombinases (ZFRs) are designer site-specific recombinases that have been adapted for a variety of genome editing purposes. Due to their modular nature, ZFRs can be customized for targeted sequence recognition and recombination. There has been substantial research on the in vivo properties and applications of ZFRs; however, in order to fully understand and customize them, it will be necessary to study their properties in vitro. Experiments in vitro can allow us to optimize catalytic activities, improve target specificity, measure and minimize off-target activity, and characterize key steps in the recombination pathway that might be modified to improve performance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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