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Mild traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#1
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633999/characteristics-of-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample-recruited-using-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#2
John Bernstein, Matthew Calamia
BACKGROUND: Several barriers exist in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current study is the first to examine whether crowdsourcing, which has been used in other clinical populations, is useful in the recruitment of those with mTBI. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, is a useful tool in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and to examine the injury and psychological characteristics of individuals who report a history of mTBI...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630809/technical-report-of-the-use-of-a-novel-eye-tracking-system-to-measure-impairment-associated-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Michael Kelly
This technical report details the results of an uncontrolled study of EyeGuide Focus, a 10-second concussion management tool which relies on eye tracking to determine the potential impairment of visual attention, an indicator often of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Essentially, people who can visually keep steady and accurate attention on a moving object in their environment likely suffer from no impairment. However, if after a potential mTBI event, subjects cannot keep attention on a moving object in a normal way as demonstrated on their previous healthy baseline tests...
May 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629990/employment-stability-in-veterans-and-service-members-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-va-traumatic-brain-injury-model-systems-study
#4
Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Mary Jo Pugh, Bridget A Cotner, Marc A Silva, Adam Haskin, Xinyu Tang, Marie E Saylors, Risa Nakase-Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To examine incidence and predictors of employment stability in Veterans and Military Service Members (V/SM) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who return to work. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Four Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers (PRCs). PARTICIPANTS: 110 V/SM with mild (26%), moderate (22%), or severe (52%) TBI enrolled in the VA PRC TBI Model Systems database within 2 years of injury who were discharged between January 2009 and June 2015...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628541/apathy-due-to-injury-of-the-prefrontocaudate-tract-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
In this study, we report on a patient who developed apathy resulting from injury to the prefrontocaudate tract following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was observed on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 46-year-old female patient was involved in a bus accident. Her history included intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left putamen 4 years ago before the head trauma, and her family reported that she had fully recovered. She developed apathy after the TBI, worsening over time. Decreased neural connectivity of the left caudate nucleus (CN) to the left upper medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) resulting from the ICH was observed on the pre-TBI-DTT, whereas on the post-TBI-DTT (28 months after TBI), the neural connectivity of the left CN to the left upper medial PFC was increased, whereas that to the left lower medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex was decreased...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#6
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627447/pain-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-psychological-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Samar Khoury, Rodrigo Benavides
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the cause for long-term disability in more than 3 million patients in the US alone, with chronic pain being the most frequently reported complain. To date, predisposing mechanisms for chronic pain in TBI patients are largely unknown. Psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety following TBI are commonly reported comorbidities to post-traumatic pain. Long term consequences can be debilitating and affect quality of life even when the injury is mild...
June 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623327/exendin-4-attenuates-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-cognitive-impairments-losses-of-synaptophysin-and-in-vitro-tbi-induced-hippocampal-cellular-degeneration
#8
Lital Rachmany, David Tweedie, Vardit Rubovitch, Yazhou Li, Harold W Holloway, Dong Seok Kim, Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Bruce A Citron, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig, Chaim G Pick
Mild blast traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) induced lasting cognitive impairments in novel object recognition and less severe deficits in Y-maze behaviors. B-TBI significantly reduced the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) protein staining in cortical (CTX) and hippocampal (HIPP) tissues. Treatment with exendin-4 (Ex-4) delivered by subcutaneous micro-osmotic pumps 48 hours prior to or 2 hours immediately after B-TBI prevented the induction of both cognitive deficits and B-TBI induced changes in SYP staining. The effects of a series of biaxial stretch injuries (BSI) on a neuronal derived cell line, HT22 cells, were assessed in an in vitro model of TBI...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620825/flow-cytometric-characterization-of-t-cell-subsets-and-microglia-after-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#9
Ruojing Bai, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Shan Huang, Xintong Ge, Fanglian Chen, Ping Lei
Although, there is growing awareness in the progressive neurodegeneration of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, changes of immune reactions remain equivocal at best. Thus, in a clinically relevant rat repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) model, some immunologic cells (T cell subsets, microglia) in the injured brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In the injured brain, CD3(+) T cells showed a bimodal increase during 42 days post-injury (dpi). CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells firstly increased and then decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells had reversed tendency...
June 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619545/blast-related-disinhibition-and-risk-seeking-in-mice-and-combat-veterans-potential-role-for-dysfunctional-phasic-dopamine-release
#10
A G Schindler, J S Meabon, K F Pagulayan, R C Hendrickson, K D Meeker, M Cline, G Li, C Sikkema, C W Wilkinson, D P Perl, M R Raskind, E R Peskind, J J Clark, D G Cook
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by exposure to high explosives has been called the "signature injury" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is a wide array of chronic neurological and behavioral symptoms associated with blast-induced mTBI. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we used a battlefield-relevant mouse model of blast-induced mTBI and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to investigate whether the mesolimbic dopamine system contributes to the mechanisms underlying blast-induced behavioral dysfunction...
June 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616019/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-stabilization-for-regenerative-therapy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Mushfiquddin Khan, Hamza Khan, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called concussion, initiates sequelae leading to motor deficits, cognitive impairments and subtly compromised neurobehaviors. While the acute phase of TBI is associated with neuroinflammation and nitroxidative burst, the chronic phase shows a lack of stimulation of the neurorepair process and regeneration. The deficiency of nitric oxide (NO), the consequent disturbed NO metabolome, and imbalanced mechanisms of S-nitrosylation are implicated in blocking the mechanisms of neurorepair processes and functional recovery in the both phases...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611614/functional-and-structural-network-recovery-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-1-year-longitudinal-study
#12
Patrizia Dall'Acqua, Sönke Johannes, Ladislav Mica, Hans-Peter Simmen, Richard Glaab, Javier Fandino, Markus Schwendinger, Christoph Meier, Erika J Ulbrich, Andreas Müller, Hansruedi Baetschmann, Lutz Jäncke, Jürgen Hänggi
Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606925/polarity-of-varicosity-initiation-in-central-neuron-mechanosensation
#13
Yuanzheng Gu, Peter Jukkola, Qian Wang, Thomas Esparza, Yi Zhao, David Brody, Chen Gu
Little is known about mechanical regulation of morphological and functional polarity of central neurons. In this study, we report that mechanical stress specifically induces varicosities in the axons but not the dendrites of central neurons by activating TRPV4, a Ca(2+)/Na(+)-permeable mechanosensitive channel. This process is unexpectedly rapid and reversible, consistent with the formation of axonal varicosities in vivo induced by mechanical impact in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. In contrast, prolonged stimulation of glutamate receptors induces varicosities in dendrites but not in axons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606462/growing-literature-but-limited-evidence-a-systematic-review-regarding-prebiotic-and-probiotic-interventions-for-those-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-or-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Lisa A Brenner, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Adam S Hoffberg, Molly E Penzenik, Amy J Starosta, Theresa D Hernández, Daniel A Hadidi, Christopher A Lowry
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent among a wide-range of populations, including civilians, military personnel, and Veterans. TBI sequelae may be further exacerbated by symptoms associated with frequently occurring co-morbid psychiatric conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is particularly true among the population of military personnel from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan with a history of mild TBI (mTBI) and PTSD. The need for efficacious treatments for TBI and co-morbid PTSD is significant, and evidence-based interventions for these frequently co-occurring conditions are limited...
June 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604837/dynamic-changes-in-diffusion-measures-improve-sensitivity-in-identifying-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Alexander W Thomas, Richard Watts, Christopher G Filippi, Joshua P Nickerson, Trevor Andrews, Gregory Lieberman, Magdalena R Naylor, Margaret J Eppstein, Kalev Freeman
The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of axonal injury in the first week after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed a prospective cohort study of 20 patients presenting to the emergency department with mTBI, using 3.0T diffusion tensor MRI immediately after injury and again at 1 week post-injury. Corresponding data were acquired from 16 controls over a similar time interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and other diffusion measures were calculated from 11 a priori selected axon tracts at each time-point, and the change across time in each region was quantified for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602630/correlation-between-standardized-assessment-of-concussion-scores-and-small-world-brain-network-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Yan Yan, Jian Song, Guozheng Xu, Shun Yao, Chenglong Cao, Chang Li, Guibao Peng, Hao Du
This study investigated the characteristics of the small-world brain network architecture of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and a correlation between brain functional connectivity network properties in the resting-state fMRI and Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) parameters. The neurological conditions of 22 MTBI patients and 17 normal control individuals were evaluated according to the SAC. Resting-state fMRI was performed in all subjects 3 and 7days after injury respectively. After preprocessing the fMRI data, cortex functional regions were marked using AAL90 and Dosenbach160 templates...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601422/exposure-to-surgery-and-anesthesia-after-concussion-due-to-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Arnoley S Abcejo, Rodolfo Savica, William L Lanier, Jeffrey J Pasternak
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of surgical and anesthetic procedures in patients recently diagnosed as having a concussion due to mild traumatic brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study patients presented to a tertiary care center after a concussion due to mild traumatic brain injury from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2015, and underwent a surgical procedure and anesthesia support under the direct or indirect care of a physician anesthesiologist. RESULTS: During the study period, 1038 patients met all the study inclusion criteria and subsequently received 1820 anesthetics...
June 7, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599608/a-brain-electrical-activity-eeg-based-biomarker-of-functional-impairment-in-traumatic-head-injury-a-multisite-validation-trial
#18
Daniel Hanley, Leslie S Prichep, Neeraj Badjatia, Jeff Bazarian, RIchard P Chiacchierini, Kenneth C Curley, John S Garrett, Elizabeth B Jones, Rosanne Naunheim, Brian J O'Neil, John O'Neill, Wright David, J Stephen Huff
The potential clinical utility of a novel quantitative EEG-based Brain Function Index (BFI) as a measure of the presence and severity of functional brain injury was studied as part of an independent prospective validation trial. The BFI was derived using EEG features associated with functional brain impairment reflecting current consensus on the physiology of concussive injury. 720 adult patients (18-85 years) evaluated within 72 hours of sustaining a closed head injury were enrolled at 11 US Emergency Departments...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595478/validating-multidimensional-outcome-assessment-using-the-tbi-common-data-elements-an-analysis-of-the-track-tbi-pilot-sample
#19
Lindsay D Nelson, Jana Ranson, Adam R Ferguson, Joseph Giacino, David O Okonkwo, Alex Valadka, Geoffrey Manley, Michael McCrea
The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) is often the primary outcome measure in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the GOSE's capture of global function outcome has several strengths, concerns have been raised about its limited ability to identify mild disability and failure to capture the full scope of problems patients exhibit after TBI. This analysis examined the convergence of disability ratings across a multidimensional set of outcome domains in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595276/premorbid-iq-predicts-postconcussive-symptoms-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans-with-mtbi
#20
Jada J Stewart-Willis, Daniel Heyanka, Zoe Proctor-Weber, Heather England, Maya Bruhns
Objective: Extant literature has demonstrated that symptoms of postconcussive syndrome (PCS) persist well beyond the expected 3-month post-injury recovery period in a minority of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Suboptimal performance on validity measures and pre- and post-injury psychosocial stressors - rather than actual mTBI or current cognitive functioning - have been identified as predictors of chronic PCS. Whether premorbid IQ has any influence on chronic PCS has been understudied, in the context of established psychogenic etiologies...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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