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Dysglycemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107491/association-of-in-hospital-mortality-and-dysglycemia-in-septic-patients
#1
Hsiao-Yun Chao, Peng-Hui Liu, Shen-Che Lin, Chun-Kuei Chen, Jih-Chang Chen, Yi-Lin Chan, Chin-Chieh Wu, Gerald N Blaney, Zhen-Ying Liu, Cho-Ju Wu, Kuan-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: The associations between dysglycemia and mortality in septic patients with and without diabetes are yet to be confirmed. Our aim was to analyze the association of diabetes and sepsis mortality, and to examine how dysglycemia (hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glucose variability) affects in-hospital mortality of patients with suspected sepsis in emergency department (ED) and intensive care units. METHODS: Clinically suspected septic patients admitted to ED were included, and stratified into subgroups according to in-hospital mortality and the presence of diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088892/interventions-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
Jose A Canas, Samuel S Gidding, Nelly Mauras
Despite recent advances in improved glycemic control, the magnitude of lifetime risk from premature cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes remains at least 10 fold higher than in the general population. The availability of lipoprotein fractionation has allowed the spotlight for this increased risk to shift from dysglycemia to diabetes-induced dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance. Interventions designed to simultaneously improve both factors can have distinct and additive effects on slowing the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions...
January 13, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081577/can-hba1c-be-used-to-screen-for-glucose-abnormalities-among-adults-with-severe-mental-illness
#3
A J Romain, E Letendre, Z Akrass, A Avignon, A D Karelis, A Sultan, A Abdel-Baki
Aim: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent among individuals with serious mental illness and increased by antipsychotic medication. Although widely recommended, many obstacles prevent these patients from obtaining a proper screening for dysglycemia. Currently, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels from the oral glucose tolerance test are used for screening prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate if HbA1c could be used as the only screening test among individuals with serious mental illness...
January 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062631/rule-in-and-rule-out-of-myocardial-infarction-using-cardiac-troponin-and-glycemic-biomarkers-in-patients-with-symptoms-suggestive-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#4
Colleen Shortt, Jinhui Ma, Natasha Clayton, Jonathan Sherbino, Richard Whitlock, Guillaume Pare, Stephen A Hill, Matthew McQueen, Shamir R Mehta, P J Devereaux, Andrew Worster, Peter A Kavsak
BACKGROUND: Early rule-in/rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is important for patient care and resource allocation. Given that dysglycemia is a strong risk factor for MI, we sought to explore and compare different combinations of cardiac troponin (cTn) cutoffs with glycemic markers for the early rule-in/rule-out of MI. METHODS: We included ED patients (n = 1137) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had cTnI, high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI), hs-cTnT, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) measurements...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062618/use-of-biomarkers-in-predicting-the-onset-monitoring-the-progression-and-risk-stratification-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin M Scirica
BACKGROUND: As the worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases, it is even more important to develop cost-effective methods to predict and diagnose the onset of diabetes, monitor progression, and risk stratify patients in terms of subsequent cardiovascular and diabetes complications. CONTENT: Nonlaboratory clinical risk scores based on risk factors and anthropomorphic data can help identify patients at greatest risk of developing diabetes, but glycemic indices (hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and oral glucose tolerance tests) are the cornerstones for diagnosis, and the basis for monitoring therapy...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045401/therapeutic-approaches-targeting-inflammation-for-diabetes-and-associated-cardiovascular-risk
#6
Allison B Goldfine, Steven E Shoelson
Obesity-related sub-acute chronic inflammation has been associated with incident type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Inflammation is increasingly considered to be a pathologic mediator of these commonly co-occurring diseases. A growing number of preclinical and clinical studies support the inflammatory hypothesis, but clinical trials to confirm the therapeutic potential to target inflammation to treat or prevent cardiometabolic conditions are still ongoing. There are multiple inflammatory signaling pathways...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039172/toward-defining-the-threshold-between-low-and-high-glucose-variability-in-diabetes
#7
Louis Monnier, Claude Colette, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sylvie Dejager, Eric Renard, Nicolas Molinari, David R Owens
OBJECTIVE: To define the threshold for excess glucose variability (GV), one of the main features of dysglycemia in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 376 persons with diabetes investigated at the University Hospital of Montpellier (Montpellier, France) underwent continuous glucose monitoring. Participants with type 2 diabetes were divided into several groups-groups 1, 2a, 2b, and 3 (n = 82, 28, 65, and 79, respectively)-according to treatment: 1) diet and/or insulin sensitizers alone; 2) oral therapy including an insulinotropic agent, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (group 2a), or sulfonylureas (group 2b); or 3) insulin...
December 30, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974345/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-metformin
#8
Hertzel C Gerstein, Guillaume Pare, Sibylle Hess, Rebecca J Ford, Jennifer Sjaarda, Kripa Raman, Matthew McQueen, ShunFu Lee, Heinz Haenel, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is a commonly used glucose-lowering drug. However, apart from glycemic measures, no biomarker for its presence or dose has been identified. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 237 biomarkers were assayed in baseline serum from 8,401 participants (2,317 receiving metformin) in the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial. Regression models were used to identify biomarkers for metformin use. RESULTS: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was strongly linked to metformin, such that the odds of metformin use per SD increase in level varied from 3...
December 14, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965206/prior-lactation-reduces-future-diabetic-risk-through-sustained-post-weaning-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity
#9
Harpreet Bajaj, Chang Ye, Anthony J Hanley, Phil W Connelly, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman, Ravi Retnakaran
Breastfeeding ≥12 months is recommended for optimal infant nutrition but may hold maternal benefits, as well. Indeed, lactation has been associated with lower long-term risk of diabetes in the mother but the mechanism by which it imparts sustained post-weaning effects on glucose tolerance remains unclear. In this context, we postulated that lactation potentially could induce post-weaning beneficial effects on glucose tolerance by modifying the natural history of insulin sensitivity and/or pancreatic beta-cell function over time...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931981/relative-contribution-of-muscle-and-liver-insulin-resistance-to-dysglycemia-in-postmenopausal-overweight-and-obese-women-a-monet-group-study
#10
Belinda Elisha, Emmanuel Disse, Katherine Chabot, Nadine Taleb, Denis Prud'homme, Sophie Bernard, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Jean-Philippe Bastard
OBJECTIVES: The relative contribution of muscle and liver insulin resistance (IR) in the development of dysglycemia and metabolic abnormalities is difficult to establish. The present study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of muscle IR vs. liver IR to dysglycemia in non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women and to determine differences in body composition and cardiometabolic indicators associated with hepatic or muscle IR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of 156 non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women...
December 5, 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919354/ldl-cholesterol-in-early-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors
#11
Jacob J Christensen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Kristin Godang, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland, Tore Henriksen, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Vast amounts of data show associations between maternal obesity, dysglycemia, diabetes, and undernutrition during pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease risk in offspring. However, elevated maternal LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has scarcely been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the associations between elevated maternal LDL-C in pregnancy and CVD risk factors in 6-to-13-year-old offspring...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917464/relation-of-dysglycemia-to-structural-brain-changes-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-cohort
#12
Christiane Reitz, Vanessa A Guzman, Atul Narkhede, Charles DeCarli, Adam M Brickman, José A Luchsinger
OBJECTIVES: Abnormally high glucose levels (dysglycemia) increase with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of dysglycemia clinical categories (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, known diabetes) with brain structure in older adults. We also assessed the relation between dysglycemia and cognitive performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882002/a-simple-integrated-primary-health-care-based-model-for-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-resource-limited-settings-in-pakistani-population
#13
Ali Jawa, Muhammad Zaman Khan Assir, Syed Hunain Riaz, Rashin Chaudhary, Farooq Awan, Javed Akram
OBJECTIVE: To find out prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in general population of three districts in Pakistan. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in three large districts of Pakistan namely Rawalpindi in Punjab, Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Hyderabad in Sindh between January 2013 and August 2015. Lady Health Workers identified individuals at high risk for diabetes based on pre-defined criteria. High risk population was tested for dysglycemia...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861820/periodontal-disease-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Ira B Lamster, Michael Pagan
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The components of MetS include dysglycemia, visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein) and hypertension. An association of periodontal disease and MetS has been suggested. This association is believed to be the result of systemic oxidative stress and an exuberant inflammatory response. When examined individually, the components of the MetS that are most closely related to the risk of periodontitis are dysglycemia and obesity, with lesser contributions by atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension...
November 9, 2016: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849287/effects-of-comprehensive-cardiac-rehabilitation-on-functional-capacity-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-brazilians-assisted-by-public-health-care-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Gabriela S S Chaves, Gabriela L M Ghisi, Sherry L Grace, Paul Oh, Antonio L Ribeiro, Raquel R Britto
Background: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading burden of disease worldwide. Moreover, CVD-related death rates are considered an epidemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research shows that cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participation reduces death and improves disability and quality of life. Given the growing epidemic of CVD in LMICs and the insufficient evidence about CR programs in these countries, a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) in Latin America is warranted. Objective: To investigate the effects of comprehensive CR on functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors...
October 27, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832860/adiponectin-administration-prevents-weight-gain-and-glycemic-profile-changes-in-diet-induced-obese-immune-deficient-rag1-mice-lacking-mature-lymphocytes
#16
Xiaowen Liu, Nikolaos Perakakis, Huizhi Gong, John P Chamberland, Mary T Brinkoetter, Ole-Petter R Hamnvik, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. METHODS: We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826600/a-prospective-study-of-renal-transplant-recipients-a-fall-in-insulin-secretion-underpins-dysglycemia-after-renal-transplantation
#17
David Langsford, Varuni Obeyesekere, Sara Vogrin, Jessie Teng, Richard J MacIsaac, Glenn Ward, Frank Alford, Karen M Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Dysglycemia (encompassing impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus) arising after renal transplantation is common and confers a significant cardiovascular mortality risk. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of posttransplant dysglycemia is not well described. The aim of this study was to prospectively and comprehensively assess glucose handling in renal transplant recipients from before to 12 months after transplantation to determine the underpinning pathophysiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intravenous and oral glucose tolerance testing was conducted before and at 3 and 12 months posttransplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822442/cardiovascular-risk-factor-screening-and-management-of-obese-patients-at-an-outpatient-pediatric-cardiology-center
#18
Margaret Greco, Arun Sood, Soyang Kwon, Adolfo J Ariza
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate documentation of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and obesity management by pediatric cardiologists. STUDY DESIGN: Review of medical records of obese (≥95th body mass index percentile) 2-17 year-old children presenting to outpatient pediatric cardiology over 1 year. Subjects were categorized as: heart disease (HD) with increased risk for atherosclerosis; HD with average risk for atherosclerosis; or no HD. Data were evaluated on documentation of the assessment of seven CV risk factors [including recognition of elevated blood pressure (BP)] and management of obesity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815221/poor-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-enhances-functional-and-compositional-alterations-of-small-dense-hdl3c
#19
Leonardo Gomez Rosso, Marie Lhomme, Tomas Meroño, Ana Dellepiane, Patricia Sorroche, Lyamine Hedjazi, Emile Zakiev, Vasily Sukhorukov, Alexander Orekhov, Julieta Gasparri, M John Chapman, Fernando Brites, Anatol Kontush
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) possesses multiple biological activities; small, dense HDL3c particles displaying distinct lipidomic composition exert potent antiatherogenic activities which can be compromised in dyslipidemic, hyperglycemic insulin-resistant states. However, it remains indeterminate (i) whether such functional HDL deficiency is related to altered HDL composition, and (ii) whether it originates from atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, or both. In the present work we analyzed compositional characteristics of HDL subpopulations and functional activity of small, dense HDL3c particles in treatment-naïve patients with well-controlled (n=10) and poorly-controlled (n=8) type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in normolipidemic age- and sex-matched controls (n=11)...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801918/diabetes-and-bmi-health-equity-through-early-intervention-on-dysglycemia-and-how-providers-can-help
#20
Dora M Dumont, Lanette Baker, Elise George, Nancy Sutton
Like most states in the U.S., Rhode Island's rate of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is rising as its population has both aged and become heavier. Risk of both BMI>=30 and DM has risen across almost all demographics, but disparities continue to exist in both conditions. We analyzed state health survey data to assess race/ethnicity-stratified DM and BMI and the age-adjusted rate of DM by weight status relative to the late 1990s. The prevalence of obesity increased across almost all demographic groups relative to 15 years ago, but the rise was greatest among non-Hispanic whites...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
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