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Nondiabetic hypoglycemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779024/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-metformin-to-treat-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#1
Stephen L Seliger, Kaleab Z Abebe, Kenneth R Hallows, Dana C Miskulin, Ronald D Perrone, Terry Watnick, Kyongtae Tae Bae
BACKGROUND: Metformin inhibits cyclic AMP generation and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin pathways. Together these effects may reduce cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: A phase II, double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of 26 months duration. Participants will include nondiabetic adults (n = 96) aged 18-60 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥50 mL/min/1...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707584/rethinking-the-viability-and-utility-of-inhaled-insulin-in-clinical-practice
#2
REVIEW
Lutz Heinemann, Christopher G Parkin
Despite considerable advances in pharmacotherapy and self-monitoring technologies in the last decades, a large percentage of adults with diabetes remain unsuccessful in achieving optimal glucose due to suboptimal medication adherence. Contributors to suboptimal adherence to insulin treatment include pain, inconvenience, and regimen complexity; however, a key driver is hypoglycemia. Improvements in the PK/PD characteristics of today's SC insulins provide more physiologic coverage of basal and prandial insulin requirements than regular human insulin; however, they do not achieve the rapid on/rapid off characteristics of endogenously secreted insulin seen in healthy, nondiabetic individuals...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678347/the-incidence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-developing-symptoms-of-hypoglycemia-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
Clare J Lee, Todd T Brown, Michael Schweitzer, Thomas Magnuson, Jeanne M Clark
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery is an increasingly recognized metabolic complication associated with exaggerated secretion of insulin and gut hormones. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms (hypo-sx) after bariatric surgery and characteristics of those affected compared with those unaffected. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: We collected retrospective survey data from the patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single center...
January 31, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515276/effect-of-aluminum-chloride-on-blood-glucose-level-and-lipid-profile-in-normal-diabetic-and-treated-diabetic-rats
#4
Venugopala Rao Konda, Madhavi Eerike, R Prasanth Chary, Ruckmani Arunachalam, Venkata Ramana Yeddula, Vinayak Meti, T Sobita Devi
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#5
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190340/continuous-glucose-monitoring-for-hypoglycemia-avoidance-and-glucose-counterregulation-in-long-standing-type-1-diabetes
#6
Michael R Rickels, Amy J Peleckis, Cornelia Dalton-Bakes, Joseph R Naji, Nina A Ran, Huong-Lan Nguyen, Shannon O'Brien, Sanjian Chen, Insup Lee, Mark H Schutta
Context: Patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for severe hypoglycemia because of defects in glucose counterregulation and recognition of hypoglycemia symptoms, in part mediated through exposure to hypoglycemia. Objective: To determine whether implementation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) as a strategy for hypoglycemia avoidance could improve glucose counterregulation in patients with long-standing T1D and hypoglycemia unawareness...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640135/hospitalization-with-hypoglycemia-in-patients-without-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-study-using-a-national-inpatient-database-in-japan-2008-2012
#7
Akahito Sako, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hidetaka Hamasaki, Hisayuki Katsuyama, Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Atsushi Goto, Hidekatsu Yanai
We aimed to examine prevalence, patient characteristics, etiology, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients who had hypoglycemia without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, using a Japanese nationwide database.This was a retrospective observational study using a national database of acute-care inpatients in Japan. Nondiabetic patients aged ≥15 years who were hospitalized for hypoglycemia were eligible. We estimated the annual numbers of hospitalized cases in Japan. We also investigated the patient characteristics, and risk factors of in-hospital mortality...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549013/effect-of-preoperative-diabetes-management-on-glycemic-control-and-clinical-outcomes-after-elective-surgery
#8
Rajesh Garg, Brooke Schuman, Angela Bader, Shelley Hurwitz, Alexander Turchin, Patricia Underwood, Cheyenne Metzger, Raquel Rein, Meghan Lortie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative diabetes management can improve glycemic control and clinical outcomes after elective surgery. BACKGROUND: There is lack of data on the importance of diabetes treatment before elective surgery. Diabetes is often ignored before surgery and aggressively treated afterwards. METHODS: Patients with diabetes were identified and treated proactively before their scheduled surgeries...
May 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503657/an-amylin-analog-used-as-a-challenge-test-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Haihao Zhu, Robert A Stern, Qiushan Tao, Alexandra Bourlas, Maritza D Essis, Meenakshi Chivukula, James Rosenzweig, Devin Steenkamp, Weiming Xia, Gustavo A Mercier, Yorghos Tripodis, Martin Farlow, Neil Kowall, Wei Qiao Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical studies demonstrate the potential of amylin in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to lay the foundation for repurposing the amylin analog and a diabetes drug, pramlintide, for AD in humans. METHODS: We administered a single subcutaneous injection of 60 μg of pramlintide to nondiabetic subjects under fasting conditions. RESULTS: None of the participants developed hypoglycemia after the injection of pramlintide...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405576/evaluation-of-anti-diabetic-activity-of-ahpl-aytab-0513-tablet-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#10
Sanjay U Nipanikar, Soham S Chitlange, Dheeraj Nagore
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease associated with several complications leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Limitations and drawbacks of the conventional treatment generate need for safer, effective complimentary therapies to prevent complications, and maintain normoglycemic status. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to to evaluate antidiabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA[s]), and combination of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet and OHA(s) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats...
January 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345539/admission-glucose-and-in-hospital-mortality-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-or-without-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Shi Zhao, Karthik Murugiah, Na Li, Xi Li, Zi-Hui Xu, Jing Li, Chen Cheng, Hong Mao, Nicholas S Downing, Harlan M Krumholz, Li-Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia on admission has been found to elevate risk for mortality and adverse clinical events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but there are evidences that the relationship of blood glucose and mortality may differ between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Prior studies in China have provided mixed results and are limited by statistical power. Here, we used data from a large, nationally representative sample of patients hospitalized with AMI in China in 2001, 2006, and 2011 to assess if admission glucose is of prognostic value in China and if this relationship differs depending on the presence or absence of diabetes...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345434/effect-of-diabetes-treatment-related-attributes-on-costs-to-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-real-world-population
#12
Jie Meng, Roman Casciano, Yi-Chien Lee, Lee Stern, Dmitry Gultyaev, Liyue Tong, Brice Kitio-Dschassi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results in a substantial economic burden on patients, health care systems, and society. Most literature assessing the cost of T2DM focuses on the long-term complications of the disease, the association between glucose control and cost, and patient characteristics resulting in poor and costly outcomes. However, it is likely that attributes specific to diabetes therapy can affect the use of costly resources. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of diabetes treatment-related attributes, such as improved efficacy, adherence, and reduced risk for hypoglycemia, on costs to T2DM patients...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217599/glycosylated-hemoglobin-values-in-nondiabetic-pregnant-women-in-the-third-trimester-and-adverse-fetal-outcomes-an-observational-study
#13
P Shobha, Sherly Mathen, Joison Abraham
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to estimate the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for a safe fetal outcome and to estimate the relation between this level and various adverse fetal outcomes. Materials and. METHODOLOGY: Primigravidas who are diagnosed as not having gestational diabetes mellitus as per the glucose challenge test done at 24 weeks with a cutoff value up to 140 mg/dl are followed up at 30-34 weeks for the estimation of HbA1c in the blood and further till the time of delivery and postnatal period for the fetal outcomes...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217510/a-retrospective-study-on-epidemiology-of-hypoglycemia-in-emergency-department
#14
Juvva Gowtham Kumar, K P P Abhilash, Rama Prakasha Saya, Neeha Tadipaneni, J Maheedhar Bose
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137792/cardiac-autonomic-regulation-and-repolarization-during-acute-experimental-hypoglycemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
Elaine Chow, Alan Bernjak, Emma Walkinshaw, Alexandra Lubina-Solomon, Jenny Freeman, Ian A Macdonald, Paul J Sheridan, Simon R Heller
Hypoglycemia is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in trials of intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We previously observed an increase in arrhythmias during spontaneous prolonged hypoglycemia in patients with T2DM. We examined changes in cardiac autonomic function and repolarization during sustained experimental hypoglycemia. Twelve adults with T2DM and 11 age- and BMI-matched control participants without diabetes underwent paired hyperinsulinemic clamps separated by 4 weeks...
May 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920549/management-of-hypoglycemia-in-nondiabetic-palliative-care-patients-a-prognosis-based-approach
#16
REVIEW
Victor C Kok, Ping-Hsueh Lee
Hypoglycemia due to underlying terminal illness in nondiabetic end-of-life patients receiving palliative care has not been fully studied. For example, we do not have adequate information on the frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia in patients as occurs during the different stages of palliative care. Depending on the case-mix nature of the palliative care ward, at least 2% of palliative care patients may develop hypoglycemia near the end of life when the remaining life expectancy counts down in days. As many as 25%-60% of these patients will neither have autonomic response nor have neuroglycopenic symptoms during a hypoglycemic episode...
2016: Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821581/association-between-the-use-of-long-acting-insulin-and-hypoglycemia-in-nondiabetic-patients-in-the-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#17
Jordan Masse, Christopher Alan Giuliano, Sara Brown, Renee Alexander Paxton
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between long-acting insulin and hypoglycemia in nondiabetic surgical intensive care patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study evaluated glycemic control in nondiabetic critically ill surgical patients receiving long-acting insulin plus sliding scale versus those receiving sliding scale alone. Patients were matched based on sliding scale order and type of surgery. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who experienced hypoglycemia (glucose values <70 mg/dL)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571180/long-term-improvement-in-glucose-control-and-counterregulation-by-islet-transplantation-for-type-1-diabetes
#18
Michael R Rickels, Amy J Peleckis, Eileen Markmann, Cornelia Dalton-Bakes, Stephanie M Kong, Karen L Teff, Ali Naji
CONTEXT: Islet transplantation has been shown to improve glucose counterregulation and hypoglycemia symptom recognition in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) complicated by severe hypoglycemia episodes and symptom unawareness, but long-term data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term durability of glucose counterregulation and hypoglycemia symptom responses 18 months after intrahepatic islet transplantation and associated measures of glycemic control during a 24-month follow-up period...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488802/do-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-have-increased-prevalence-of-sleep-disorders
#19
Avital Adler, Michal-Yackobovitz Gavan, Riva Tauman, Moshe Phillip, Shlomit Shalitin
BACKGROUND: Sleep has been shown to impact glucose regulation, and may be altered in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE: To assess sleep characteristics in T1D patients and the possible association between sleep disturbances and diabetes-related variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in 154 young patients with T1D and 154 age-range-matched nondiabetic controls subjective sleep characteristics were assessed using validated questionnaires: Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale (ASWS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
September 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336358/risk-factors-for-spontaneously-self-reported-postprandial-hypoglycemia-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
Monica Nannipieri, Anna Belligoli, Daniela Guarino, Luca Busetto, Diego Moriconi, Roberto Fabris, Andrea Mari, Simona Baldi, Marco Anselmino, Mirto Foletto, Roberto Vettor, Ele Ferrannini
CONTEXT: Postprandial hypoglycemia (PPHG) is a recognized complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Data on PPHG after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are scant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors of PPHG in subjects spontaneously self-reporting PPHG after RYGB or LSG. Patients, Setting, and Intervention: Nondiabetic patients spontaneously self-reporting symptoms/signs of PPHG (PPHG group, 21 RYGB and 11 LSG) were compared in a case-control design with subjects who never experienced spontaneous or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced hypoglycemia over 24 months after surgery (No-PPHG group, 13 RYGB and 40 LSG)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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