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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734171/muscle-synergies-reveal-impaired-trunk-muscle-coordination-strategies-in-individuals-with-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Matija Milosevic, Hikaru Yokoyama, Murielle Grangeon, Kei Masani, Milos R Popovic, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Dany H Gagnon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in paralysis of trunk muscles, which can affect sitting balance. The objective of this study was to analyze trunk muscle coordination of individuals with thoracic SCI and compare it to able-body individuals. A total of 27 individuals were recruited and subdivided into: (a) high thoracic SCI; (b) low thoracic SCI; and (c) able-body groups. Participants were seated and asked to lean their trunk in eight directions while trunk muscle activity was recorded. Muscle coordination was assessed using the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) method to extract muscle modules, which are the synergistic trunk muscle activations, and their directional activation patterns...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731885/effectiveness-of-a-posterior-shoulder-stretching-program-on-university-level-overhead-athletes-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Judy C Chepeha, David J Magee, Martin Bouliane, David Sheps, Lauren Beaupre
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a posterior shoulder stretch was effective in increasing internal rotation (IR) and horizontal adduction (HAd) range of motion (ROM) in overhead athletes identified as having reduced mobility. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (parallel design). SETTING: University-based sports medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven university-level athletes in volleyball, swimming, and tennis, with IR ROM deficits ≥15°, were randomized into intervention or control groups...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731882/the-effect-on-bone-outcomes-of-home-based-exercise-intervention-for-prostate-cancer-survivors-receiving-androgen-deprivation-therapy-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Soo Hyun Kim, Do Hwan Seong, Sang Min Yoon, Young Deuk Choi, Eunju Choi, Youngkyu Song, Hosook Song
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment-induced bone loss has important long-term effects in prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but little is known about preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a 6-month home-based exercise intervention in PCSs. METHODS: In this pilot, randomized controlled trial, 51 men (mean age, 70.8 years) were randomized to a 6-month home-based exercise intervention for preventing osteoporosis group (n = 26) or an exercise placebo intervention of stretching exercise group (n = 25)...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731322/large-scale-stretchable-semi-embedded-copper-nanowires-transparent-conductive-films-by-electrospinning-template
#4
Xia Yang, Xiaotian Hu, Qingxia Wang, Jian Xiong, Hanjun Yang, Xiangchuan Meng, Licheng Tan, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
With recent emergence of wearable electronic devices, the flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes are the core components to realize innovative devices. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) network is commonly chosen because of its high conductivity and transparency. However, the junction resistances and low aspect ratios still limit its further stretchable performance. Herein, a large-scale stretchable semi-embedded CuNWs transparent conductive film (TCFs) was fabricated by electrolessly depositing Cu on the electrospun poly (4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) polymer template semi-embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731145/piezo1-protein-induces-the-apoptosis-of-human-osteoarthritis-derived-chondrocytes-by-activating-caspase-12-the-signaling-marker-of-er-stress
#5
Xiao-Fei Li, Zhao Zhang, Zhu-Ke Chen, Zhao-Wei Cui, Hai-Ning Zhang
The present study was carried out to determine whether the mechanically activated cation channel Piezo1 protein plays a role as a signaling pathway which causes the apoptosis of human chondrocytes. The chondrocytes were isolated, cultured, and then subjected to mechanical stretch force for 0, 2, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. The expression levels of Piezo1 and the apoptosis-related protein caspase-12 were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as the apoptosis-related genes, B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD)...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731051/neurotropic-melanoma-an-analysis-of-the-clinicopathological-features-management-strategies-and-survival-outcomes-for-671-patients-treated-at-a-tertiary-referral-center
#6
Alexander H R Varey, Chris Goumas, Angela M Hong, Graham J Mann, Gerald B Fogarty, Jonathan R Stretch, Robyn P M Saw, Andrew J Spillane, Kerwin F Shannon, Kenneth J Lee, Michael J Quinn, John F Thompson, Richard A Scolyer
Neurotropic cutaneous melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype that invades nerves and is often associated with desmoplastic melanoma. Limited data suggest that it has a greater propensity to recur locally, but it is unknown whether its behavior differs from that of other melanoma subtypes, including desmoplastic melanoma. We investigated clinicopathological predictors of outcome in a cohort of 671 patients with neurotropic melanoma to develop evidence-based management recommendations. Patients with primary neurotropic melanoma diagnosed from 1985 to 2013 were identified from the Melanoma Institute Australia database, along with a control cohort of 718 non-neurotropic melanoma patients...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730804/wearable-and-transparent-capacitive-strain-sensor-with-high-sensitivity-based-on-patterned-ag-nanowire-networks
#7
Seung-Rok Kim, Jin-Hoon Kim, Jin-Woo Park
In this study, a transparent and stretchable thin-film capacitive strain sensor based on patterned Ag nanowire networks (AgNWs) was successfully fabricated. The AgNWs were patterned using a capillary force lithography (CFL) method and were embedded onto the surface of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The strain (ε) sensitivity of the capacitive strain sensor was controlled and enhanced by patterning the AgNWs into electrodes with an interdigitated shape. Interdigitated capacitive strain sensor (ICSS) is expected to have -1...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730360/characterization-of-extracellular-polymeric-substance-eps-fractions-produced-by-microcystis-aeruginosa-under-the-stress-of-linoleic-acid-sustained-release-microspheres
#8
Lixiao Ni, Danye Li, Shiyi Rong, Lili Su, Wei Zhou, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Shiyin Li, Kumud Acharya
This paper focuses on the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are composed of soluble EPS (SL-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS), and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa under the stress of linoleic acid (LA) and LA sustained-release microspheres. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry were used to characterize three forms of EPS while the content of polysaccharide and protein was tested, respectively...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730072/effects-of-lens-extirpation-with-anterior-vitrectomy-on-vitreous-three-dimensional-mesh-structure
#9
Yan Zhao, Long-Fang Zhou, Hong Yang
AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I) included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729509/experimentally-realized-mechanochemistry-distinct-from-force-accelerated-scission-of-loaded-bonds
#10
Sergey Akbulatov, Yancong Tian, Zhen Huang, Timothy J Kucharski, Qing-Zheng Yang, Roman Boulatov
Stretching polymer chains accelerates dissociation of a variety of internal covalent bonds, to an extent that correlates well with the force experienced by the scissile bond. Recent theory has also predicted scenarios in which applied force accelerates dissociation of unloaded bonds and kinetically strengthens strained bonds. We report here unambiguous experimental validation of this hypothesis: Detailed kinetic measurements demonstrate that stretching phosphotriesters accelerates dissociation of the unloaded phosphorus-oxygen bond orthogonal to the pulling axis, whereas stretching organosiloxanes inhibits dissociation of the aligned loaded silicon-oxygen bonds...
July 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728817/piezo2-in-cutaneous-and-proprioceptive-mechanotransduction-in-vertebrates
#11
E O Anderson, E R Schneider, S N Bagriantsev
Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727289/strategy-for-the-separation-of-concentrated-samples-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#12
Shuang Liang, Xia Fu, Hongting Xiao, Tianxiang Li, Jun Xu, Yong Zhang
The use of concentrated samples is usually avoided during conventional separations since utilization of concentrated samples normally compromises the quality of separation. However, in case of the detection of low-abundance components, highly concentrated samples are necessary which leads to an extremely high concentration for high-abundant components. This will make the separation difficult due to the serious longitudinal dispersion. Here we developed a method to separate high concentration of components based on the modified capillary electrophoresis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726900/potential-energy-surface-stationary-points-and-dynamics-of-the-f-ch3i-double-inversion-mechanism
#13
Yong-Tao Ma, Xinyou Ma, Anyang Li, Hua Guo, Li Yang, Jiaxu Zhang, William L Hase
Direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the SN2 double inversion mechanism SN2-DI, with retention of configuration, for the F(-) + CH3I reaction. Previous simulations identified a transition state (TS) structure, i.e. TS0, for the SN2-DI mechanism, including a reaction path. However, intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations from TS0 show it is a proton transfer (PT) TS connected to the F(-)HCH2I SN2 pre-reaction complex and the FHCH2I(-) proton transfer post-reaction complex. Inclusion of TS0 in the SN2-DI mechanism would thus involve non-IRC atomistic dynamics...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726897/ultrafast-structural-dynamics-of-photoexcited-adenine
#14
Sayan Mondal, Mrinalini Puranik
We report deep UV initiated excited state dynamics of the canonical nucleobase adenine (Ade) through Resonance Raman (RR) intensity analysis. RR spectra of Ade at excitation wavelengths throughout the Bb absorption band in the 210-230 nm wavelength range are measured and subsequently converted to scattering cross-sections. The time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) formalism has been employed for self-consistent simulations of the resulting wavelength dependent Raman excitation profiles (REP) and absorption spectrum of Ade...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724944/non-mono-exponential-analysis-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-treatment-monitoring-in-prostate-cancer-bone-metastases
#15
Carolin Reischauer, René Patzwahl, Dow-Mu Koh, Johannes M Froehlich, Andreas Gutzeit
Diffusion-weighted imaging quantified using the mono-exponential model has shown great promise for monitoring treatment response in prostate cancer bone metastases. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate whether non-mono-exponential diffusion models better describe the water diffusion properties and may improve treatment response assessment. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of 12 treatment-naïve patients with 34 metastases acquired before and at one, two, and three months after initiation of antiandrogen treatment are analysed using the mono-exponential, the intravoxel incoherent motion, the stretched exponential, and the statistical model...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#16
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#17
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723790/relationship-of-medial-gastrocnemius-relative-fascicle-excursion-and-ankle-joint-power-and-work-performance-during-gait-in-typically-developing-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Teresa Martín Lorenzo, Gustavo Albi Rodríguez, Eduardo Rocon, Ignacio Martínez Caballero, Sergio Lerma Lara
Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723241/the-effects-of-stretch-activation-on-ionic-selectivity-of-the-trek-2-k2p-k-channel
#19
Ehsan Nematian-Ardestani, Viwan Jarerattanachat, Prafulla Aryal, Mark S P Sansom, Stephen J Tucker
The TREK-2 (KCNK10) K2P potassium channel can be regulated by variety of polymodal stimuli including pressure. In a recent study, we demonstrated that this mechanosensitive K(+) channel responds to changes in membrane tension by undergoing a major structural change from its 'down' state to the more expanded 'up' state conformation. These changes are mostly restricted to the lower part of the protein within the bilayer, but are allosterically coupled to the primary gating mechanism located within the selectivity filter...
July 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723187/wearable-flexible-and-stretchable-glove-biosensor-for-on-site-detection-of-organophosphorus-chemical-threats
#20
Rupesh K Mishra, Lee J Hubble, Aida Martín, Rajan Kumar, Abbas Barfidokht, Jayoung Kim, Mustafa M Musameh, Ilias L Kyratzis, Joseph Wang
A flexible glove-based electrochemical biosensor with highly stretchable printed electrode system has been developed as a wearable point-of-use screening tool for defense and food security applications. This disposable-mechanically robust "lab-on-a-glove" integrates a stretchable printable enzyme-based biosensing system and active surface for swipe sampling on different fingers, and is coupled with a compact electronic interface for electrochemical detection and real-time wireless data transmission to a smartphone device...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
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