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Alessandra Gasior, Giulia Brisighelli, Karen Diefenbach, Victoria Alison Lane, Carlos Reck, Richard J Wood, Marc Levitt
Introduction Functional constipation is a common problem in children. It usually can be managed with laxatives but a small subset of patients develop intolerable cramps and need to be temporarily treated with enemas. The senior author has previously reported: 1) open sigmoid resection as a surgical option, but this did not sufficiently reduce the laxative need, then 2) a transanal approach (with resection of rectosigmoid), but this led to a high rate of soiling due to extensive stretching of the anal canal and loss of the rectal reservoir...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jaber Zafari, Fatemeh Javani Jouni, Ali Ahmadvand, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Malihe Soodi, Rezvan Zendehdel
A model was set up to predict the differentiation patterns based on the data extracted from FTIR spectroscopy. For this reason, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs). Changes in cellular macromolecules in the time of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96h of differentiation, as different steps of the differentiation procedure were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Also, the expression of pluripotency (Oct-4, Nanog and c-Myc) and specific genes (Mvh, Stella and Fragilis) were investigated by real-time PCR...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Essam Hammam, Jalal Basahi, Iqbal Ismail, Ibrahim Hassan, Talal Almeelbi
The excited state hydrogen bonding dynamics of BBVN in hydrogen donating methanol solvent was explored at the TD-BMK/cc-pVDZ level of theory with accounting for the bulk environment effects at the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The heteroatoms of the BBVN laser dye form hydrogen bonds with four methanol molecules. In the formed BBVN-(MeOH)4 complex, the A-type hydrogen bond (N…HO), of an average strength of 25kJmol(-1), is twofold stronger than the B-type (O…HO) one. Upon photon absorption, the total HB binding energy increases from 78...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
François Seghers, Xavier Yerna, Nadège Zanou, Olivier Devuyst, Rudi Vennekens, Bernd Nilius, Philippe Gailly
The renin - angiotensin system is a crucial blood pressure regulation system. It consists of a hormonal cascade where the rate-limiting enzyme is renin, which is secreted in blood flow by renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells in response to low pressure in the renal afferent arteriole. In contrast, an increase in blood pressure results in a decreased renin secretion. This is accompanied by a transitory increase in [Ca(2+) ]i of JG cells. The inverse relationship between [Ca(2+) ]i and renin secretion has been called the "calcium paradox" of renin release...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Danielle T Gescheit, Rob Duffield, Melissa Skein, Neil Brydon, Stuart J Cormack, Machar Reid
Elite tennis is characterised by repeated bouts of up to 5-set match play, yet little is known about the technical requirements of shots played. This study therefore investigated technical performance changes over consecutive days of prolonged, simulated tennis match play. A total of 7 well-trained men tennis players performed 4 consecutive days of competitive 4-h match play. Matches were notated to determine between-day changes in groundstroke and serve performance, as well as point and match durations. Changes ≥75% likely to exceed the smallest important effect size (0...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Long Liang, Christopher Jones, Shaohua Chen, Bo Sun, Yang Jiao
Collagen networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the transmission of forces generated by contractile cells in 3D collagen-I networks. Specifically, the graph (bond-node) representations of collagen networks with collagen concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mg ml(-1) are derived from confocal microscopy data and used to model the network microstructure. Cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes of the network, representing the focal adhesion sites...
October 25, 2016: Physical Biology
Ho Young Kim, Jae-Won Lee, Hye Min Oh, Kang-Jun Baeg, Sunshin Jung, Ho-Soon Yang, Wonki Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Keun Soo Kim, Seung Yol Jeong, Joong Tark Han, Mun Seok Jeong, Geon-Woong Lee, Hee Jin Jeong
Despite recent progress in producing flexible and stretchable electronics based on two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, their intrinsic properties are often degraded by the presence of polymeric residues that remain attached to the 2D nanosheet surfaces following fabrication. Further breakthroughs are therefore keenly awaited to obtain clean surfaces compatible with flexible applications. Here we report a method that allows the 2D nanosheets to be intrinsically integrated onto flexible substrates. The method involves thermal decomposition of polymeric residues by microwave-induced ultrafast heating of the surface without affecting the underlying flexible substrate...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kim J Brolin Ribacke, Dell D Saulnier, Anneli Eriksson, Johan von Schreeb
Significant efforts were invested in halting the recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Now, studies are emerging on the magnitude of the indirect health effects of the outbreak in the affected countries, and the aim of this study is to systematically assess the results of these publications. The methodology for this review adhered to the Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews. A total of 3354 articles were identified for screening, and while 117 articles were read in full, 22 studies were included in the final review...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexandre Marcio Marcolino, Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves, Bruna Gabriela Oliveira, Aline Aguiar Alexandre, Guilherme Corsatto, Rafael Inacio Barbosa, Marisa de Cássia Registro Fonseca
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization with movement and kinesiotherapy in the treatment of patients with lateral epicondylosis. METHODS: This cases series included eight volunteers who had chronic lateral epicondylosis. The patients were treated with stretching, massage deep transverse at the lateral epicondyle and mobilization with movement associated with eccentric exercise. The mobilization with movement that consisted of a force of lateral glide of the proximal forearm...
2016: SpringerPlus
Eoghan M Cunnane, John J E Mulvihill, Hilary E Barrett, Mairead M Hennessy, Eamon G Kavanagh, Michael T Walsh
This study compares the mechanical properties of excised carotid and femoral human plaques and also develops a predictor of these properties based on plaque composition. Circumferential planar tension tests were performed on 24 carotid and 16 femoral plaque samples. Composition was characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Stretch at failure, strength, and stiffness are significantly higher in the carotid group (P=.012, P<.001 and P=.002, respectively). The ratio of calcified to lipid plaque content demonstrates the strongest correlation with the stretch at failure and strength (R(2)=...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Simon T Thompson, H Henry Lamb, Bernard Delley, Stefan Franzen
Tetraamminepalladium(II) perrhenate, a double complex salt, has significant utility in PdRe catalyst preparation; however, the vibrational spectra of this readily prepared compound have not been described in the literature. Herein, we present the infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of tetraamminepalladium(II) perrhenate and several related compounds. The experimental spectra are complemented by an analysis of normal vibrational modes that compares the experimentally obtained spectra with spectra calculated using DFT (DMol(3))...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Coy P McNew, Negin Kananizadeh, Yusong Li, Eugene J LeBoeuf
Despite the prevalence of nonspherical colloidal particles, the role of particle shape in the transport of colloids is largely understudied. This study investigates the attachment of colloidal particles onto environmentally relevant surfaces while varying particle shape and ionic strength. Using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy measurements, the role of particle shape was elucidated and possible mechanisms discussed. The attachment of both spherical and stretched polystyrene colloidal particles onto a smooth alginate-coated silica surface showed qualitative agreement with DLVO theory...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Imran Ullah, Krishnendu Bhattacharyya, Sharidan Shafie, Ilyas Khan
Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method...
2016: PloS One
Yongwei Nie, Zhensong Zhang, Hanqiu Sun, Tan Su, Guiqing Li
Wide-baseline street image interpolation is useful but very challenging. Existing approaches either rely on heavyweight 3D reconstruction or computationally intensive deep networks. We present a lightweight and efficient method which uses simple homography computing and refining operators to estimate piecewise smooth homographies between input views. To achieve the goal, we show how to combine homography fitting and homography propagation together based on reliable and unreliable superpixel discrimination. Such a combination, other than using homography fitting only, dramatically increases the accuracy and robustness of the estimated homographies...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Hyun Jin Yang, Michael Trenary, Maki Kawai, Yousoo Kim
In contrast to conventional spectroscopic studies of adsorbates at high coverage that provide only spatially averaged information, we have characterized the laterally confined shuttling dynamics of a single molecule under the influence of intermolecular interactions by vibrational spectroscopy using a scanning tunneling microscope. The bridge sites on Pt(111) are only occupied by a CO molecule that is surrounded by four other CO molecules at on-top sites. The bridge-site CO undergoes laterally confined shuttling toward an adjacent on-top site to transiently occupy a metastable site, which is slightly displaced from the center of an on-top site through repulsive interaction with adjacent on-top CO molecules...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Miriam Rothdiener, Miriam Hegemann, Tatiana Uynuk-Ool, Brandan Walters, Piruntha Papugy, Phong Nguyen, Valentin Claus, Tanja Seeger, Ulrich Stoeckle, Karen A Boehme, Wilhelm K Aicher, Jan P Stegemann, Melanie L Hart, Bodo Kurz, Gerd Klein, Bernd Rolauffs
Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Douglas Powell, Anburaj Muthumani, RuiPing Xia
OBJECTIVE: Quantify the effect of a continuous compared to discontinuous movement trajectory on parkinsonian rigidity and reflex responses to passive stretch and shortening. METHODS: Eighteen participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) performed passive wrist flexion and extension movements through a 90° range of motion at 50 °/sec using continuous (CONT) and discontinuous (DISC) movement trajectories. Participants were tested in both the OFF-MED and ON-MED states...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Lena Diekmann, Marc Behrendt, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
BACKGROUND: Lactase phlorizin-hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane anchored type I glycoprotein of the intestinal epithelium that is composed of four homologous structural domains. The role of each distinct domain in the intramolecular organization and function of LPH is not completely understood. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the early events of LPH biosynthesis and trafficking by directed restructuring of the domain compositions. RESULTS: Removal of domain I (LPH∆1) results in a malfolded ER-localized protein...
October 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alexey Kamenskiy, Andreas Seas, Paul Deegan, William Poulson, Eric Anttila, Sylvie Sim, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart
Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded...
October 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Bogdan I Costescu, Sebastian Sturm, Frauke Gräter
Protein unfolding often does not obey a simple two-state behavior. Previous single molecule force spectroscopy studies demonstrated stretched exponential kinetics of protein unfolding under a constant pulling force, the molecular origin of which remains subject to debate. We here set out to extensively sample the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin and NuG2 by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both proteins show kinetics best fit by stretched exponentials, with stretching exponents similar to those found in experiments, even though static disorder is absent in our short MD simulations...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
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