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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640821/noise-reduction-in-single-time-frame-optical-dna-maps
#1
Paola C Torche, Vilhelm Müller, Fredrik Westerlund, Tobias Ambjörnsson
In optical DNA mapping technologies sequence-specific intensity variations (DNA barcodes) along stretched and stained DNA molecules are produced. These "fingerprints" of the underlying DNA sequence have a resolution of the order one kilobasepairs and the stretching of the DNA molecules are performed by surface adsorption or nano-channel setups. A post-processing challenge for nano-channel based methods, due to local and global random movement of the DNA molecule during imaging, is how to align different time frames in order to produce reproducible time-averaged DNA barcodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640774/the-difference-between-countermovement-and-squat-jump-performances-a-review-of-underlying-mechanisms-with-practical-applications
#2
Bas Van Hooren, Julia Zolotarjova
Van Hooren, B and Zolotarjova, J. The difference between countermovement and squat jump performances: a review of underlying mechanisms with practical applications. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2011-2020, 2017-Two movements that are widely used to monitor athletic performance are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Countermovement jump performance is almost always better than SJ performance, and the difference in performance is thought to reflect an effective utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636680/unifying-the-microscopic-picture-of-his-containing-turns-from-gas-phase-model-peptides-to-crystallized-proteins
#3
Woon Yong Sohn, Sana Habka, Eric Gloaguen, Michel Mons
The presence in crystallized proteins of a local anchoring between the side chain of a His residue, located in the central position of a γ- or β-turn, and its local main chain environment, was assessed by the comparison of protein structures with relevant isolated model peptides. Gas phase laser spectroscopy, combined with relevant quantum chemistry methods, was used to characterize the γ- and β-turn structures in these model peptides. A conformer-selective NH stretch infrared study provided evidence for the formation in vacuo of two types of short-range H-bonded motifs, labelled ε-6(δ) and δ-(δ)7/π(H), bridging the His side chain (in its gauche+ rotamer) to the neighbouring NH(i) and CO(i) sites of the backbone; each side chain-backbone motif was found to be specific of the tautomer (ε or δ) adopted by the His side chain in its neutral form...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636595/nlrp9b-inflammasome-restricts-rotavirus-infection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#4
Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah W Palm, Yi Yang, Hua Yu, Hua-Bing Li, Geng Wang, Xuqiu Lei, Marcel R de Zoete, Jun Zhao, Yunjiang Zheng, Haiwei Chen, Yujiao Zhao, Kellie A Jurado, Ningguo Feng, Liang Shan, Yuval Kluger, Jun Lu, Clara Abraham, Erol Fikrig, Harry B Greenberg, Richard A Flavell
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636316/a-novel-melamine-o-phthalaldehyde-covalent-organic-frameworks-nanaosheets-enhancement-flame-retardant-and-mechanical-performances-of-thermoplastic-polyurethanes
#5
Xiaowei Mu, Jing Zhan, Xiaming Feng, Bihe Yuan, Shuilai Qiu, Lei Song, Yuan Hu
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) nanosheets prepared from condensation reaction between melamine and o-phthalaldehyde are firstly prepared through ball milling and then incorporated into thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) by solution mixing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are applied to characterize COFs nanosheets. It is observed apparently from TEM image that COFs nanosheets are obtained...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636246/stretchable-electrochemical-sensor-for-inducing-and-monitoring-cell-mechanotransduction-in-real-time
#6
Yan-Ling Liu, Yu Qin, Zi-He Jin, Xue-Bo Hu, Miao-Miao Chen, Rong Liu, Christian Amatore, Wei-Hua Huang
Existing methods offer little direct and real-time information about stretch-triggered biochemical responses during cell mechanotransduction. Herein, we report a novel stretchable electrochemical sensor that takes advantage of a hierarchical percolation network of carbon nanotubes and gold nanotubes (CNTs- Au NTs). This hybrid nano-structure provides the sensor with excellent time-reproducible mechanical and electrochemical performances while granting very good cellular compatibility, making it perfectly apt to induce and monitor simultaneously transient biochemical signals...
June 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635275/infrared-determination-of-the-protonation-state-of-a-key-histidine-residue-in-the-photosynthetic-water-oxidizing-center
#7
Shin Nakamura, Takumi Noguchi
Photosynthetic water oxidation is performed at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II (PSII). The protonation structures of amino acid residues and water molecules around the Mn4CaO5 cluster are crucial in water oxidation reactions. In this study, we determined the protonation state of a key His residue in water oxidation, D1-H337, which is directly hydrogen bonded with the oxygen atom of the Mn4CaO5 cluster, using polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Flash-induced polarized ATR-FTIR difference spectra upon the S1→S2 transition of oriented PSII membranes showed broad negative and positive features around 2600 and 2900 cm-1, respectively, with large dichroic ratios, accompanied with several minor peaks attributable to the Fermi resonance of a His NH vibration...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634828/donation-and-back-donation-analyzed-through-a-charge-transfer-model-based-on-density-functional-theory
#8
Ulises Orozco-Valencia, José L Gázquez, Alberto Vela
The net charge transfer process that occurs between two species, A and B, interacting with each other, may be decomposed into two processes: one in which A receives charge from B, which can be identified as the electrophilic channel for A or the nucleophilic channel for B, and a second in which A donates charge to B, which can be identified as the nucleophilic channel for A or the electrophilic channel for B. By determining the amount of charge associated with both processes through the minimization of the interaction energy associated with each case, the expressions for the amount of charge involved in each case can be expressed in terms of the directional chemical potentials and the hardnesses of the interacting species...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634300/understanding-the-mechanical-response-of-double-stranded-dna-and-rna-under-constant-stretching-forces-using-all-atom-molecular-dynamics
#9
Alberto Marin-Gonzalez, J G Vilhena, Ruben Perez, Fernando Moreno-Herrero
Multiple biological processes involve the stretching of nucleic acids (NAs). Stretching forces induce local changes in the molecule structure, inhibiting or promoting the binding of proteins, which ultimately affects their functionality. Understanding how a force induces changes in the structure of NAs at the atomic level is a challenge. Here, we use all-atom, microsecond-long molecular dynamics to simulate the structure of dsDNA and dsRNA subjected to stretching forces up to 20 pN. We determine all of the elastic constants of dsDNA and dsRNA and provide an explanation for three striking differences in the mechanical response of these two molecules: the threefold softer stretching constant obtained for dsRNA, the opposite twist-stretch coupling, and its nontrivial force dependence...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633774/treatment-of-chronic-plantar-fasciitis-with-noninvasive-interactive-neurostimulation-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Cristina Razzano, Stefano Carbone, Massimiliano Mangone, M Raffaella Iannotta, Alessandro Battaglia, Valter Santilli
The initial treatment of plantar fasciitis should be conservative, with most cases responding to standard physiotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), heel pads, and stretching. In cases of chronic refractory symptoms, more invasive treatment could be necessary. Noninvasive interactive neurostimulation (NIN) is a form of electric therapy that works by locating areas of lower skin impedance. The objective of the present prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate whether the use of NIN for chronic plantar fasciitis could result in greater improvement in a foot functional score, lower levels of reported pain, reduced patient consumption of NSAIDs, and greater patient satisfaction compared with electric shockwave therapy in patients without a response to standard conservative treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633478/efficacy-of-3d-transoesophageal-echocardiography-for-transcatheter-device-closure-of-atrial-septal-defect-without-balloon-sizing
#11
Jeong Yoon Jang, Ran Heo, Min Soo Cho, Jaeseok Bae, Jung Ae Hong, Sahmin Lee, Jung-Min Ahn, Duk-Woo Park, Dae-Hee Kim, Duk-Hyun Kang, Jae-Kwan Song, Jong-Min Song
Aims: Using balloon sizing to determine device size may cause complications and increase procedure time in performing transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). We aimed to validate the clinical utility of a formula using measurements from 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) images in performing the procedure without balloon sizing. Methods and results: We enrolled 248 consecutive patients with ASD in a prospective registry. In the first tier (n = 53), we determined the device size before the procedure using our formula and performed balloon sizing during the procedure to verify our decision...
June 19, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633380/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-related-phenol-compounds-redirect-the-amyloidogenic-aggregation-pathway-of-ataxin-3-towards-non-toxic-aggregates-and-prevent-toxicity-in-neural-cells-and-caenorhabditis-elegans-animal-model
#12
Cristina Visentin, Francesca Pellistri, Antonino Natalello, Jacopo Vertemara, Marcella Bonanomi, Elena Gatta, Amanda Penco, Annalisa Relini, Luca De Gioia, Cristina Airoldi, Maria E Regonesi, Paolo Tortora
The protein ataxin-3 (ATX3) triggers an amyloid-related neurodegenerative disease when its polyglutamine stretch is expanded beyond a critical threshold. We formerly demonstrated that the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could redirect amyloid aggregation of a full-length, expanded ATX3 (ATX3-Q55) towards non-toxic, soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates. Here, we have characterized other related phenol compounds, although smaller in size, i.e., (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGC), and gallic acid (GA)...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633117/breakup-characteristics-of-aqueous-droplet-with-surfactant-in-oil-under-direct-current-electric-field
#13
Xiaoming Luo, Haipeng Yan, Xin Huang, Donghai Yang, Jing Wang, Limin He
The breakup process of aqueous droplet with surfactant suspended in oil under direct current (DC) electric field is investigated in this paper. The characteristics of the breakup process, stretching, necking and breakup, are discussed quantitatively with the electric capillary number Ca and the dimensionless surfactant concentration C(∗) which is the ratio of surfactant concentration to the critical micelle concentration. The results show that the presence of surfactant reduces the steady deformation of droplet and significantly decelerates the stretching process, resulting from the redistribution of surfactant molecules within the oil/water interface...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632661/efficacy-and-limitations-of-conservative-treatment-for-painful-patella-partita-positioning-of-an-ultrasound-accelerated-fracture-healing-apparatus
#14
Natsuki Sugimura, Daisuke Hirose, Koji Aso, Masashi Izumi, Yusuke Okanoue, Kazuo Kitaoka, Masahiko Ikeuchi
OBJECTIVE: Generally, painful patella partita is conservatively treated, but the usefulness of a low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) healing apparatus is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of LIPUS for conservative treatment of painful patella partita. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects included 17 patients diagnosed with painful patella partita. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: those without pain at 6 months (responsive group) and those with pain that persisted for 6 months or longer (non-responsive group)...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632385/fatigue-resistant-bioinspired-composite-from-synergistic-two-dimensional-nanocomponents
#15
Sijie Wan, Qi Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Dechang Li, Baohua Ji, Lei Jiang, Qunfeng Cheng
Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#16
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632082/the-%C3%AE-helix-alignment-of-proteins-in-water-solution-toward-a-high-frequency-electromagnetic-field-a-ftir-spectroscopy-study
#17
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
The aim of this article was to study the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic waves at 1750 MHz on the Amide I and Amide II vibration bands of some proteins in bidistilled water solution by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) analysis. The proteins that were used for the experiment were hemoglobin, myoglobin, bovine serum albumin and lysozyme. The exposure system consisted of microwaves emitted by an operational mobile phone at the frequency at 1750 MHz at the average power density of 1 W/m(2)...
June 20, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631401/a-polyacrylamide-hydrogel-electrolyte-enabled-intrinsically-1000-stretchable-and-50-compressible-supercapacitor
#18
Yan Huang, Ming Zhong, Fukuan Shi, Xiaoying Liu, Zijie Tang, Yukun Wang, Yang Huang, Haoqing Hou, Xuming Xie, Chunyi Zhi
Stretchability and compressibility of supercapacitors constitute essential elements of modern electronics such as flexible and wearable devices. Widely-used polyvinyl alcohol-based electrolytes are neither very stretchable nor compressible, which fundamentally limit the realization of high stretchability and compressibility of supercapacitors. We present a new electrolyte that is intrinsically super-stretchable and compressible. Vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticle cross-linkers are introduced into polyacrylamide hydrogel backbones to promote dynamic crosslinking of the polymer networks...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631368/crispr-cas9-mediated-loss-of-fgf5-function-increases-wool-staple-length-in-sheep
#19
Wen-Rong Li, Chen-Xi Liu, Xue-Mei Zhang, Lei Chen, Xin-Rong Peng, San-Gang He, Jia-Peng Lin, Bin Han, Li-Qin Wang, Jun-Cheng Huang, Ming-Jun Liu
Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) regulates hair length in humans and a variety of other animals. To investigate whether FGF5 has similar effects in sheep, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate loss-of-function mutations with the FGF5 gene in Chinese Merino sheep. A total of 16 lambs were identified with genetic mutations within the targeting locus: 13 lambs had biallelic modifications and 3 lambs had monoallelic modifications. Characterization of the modifications revealed that 13 were frame shift mutations that led to premature termination; the other 3 were in-frame deletions...
June 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631145/biaxial-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-jugular-venous-valve-leaflet-tissues
#20
Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang, Jiaqi Lu
Venous valve incompetence has been implicated in diseases ranging from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) to intracranial venous hypertension. However, while the mechanical properties of venous valve leaflet tissues are central to CVI biomechanics and mechanobiology, neither stress-strain curves nor tangent moduli have been reported. Here, equibiaxial tensile mechanical tests were conducted to assess the tangent modulus, strength and anisotropy of venous valve leaflet tissues from bovine jugular veins. Valvular tissues were stretched to 60% strain in both the circumferential and radial directions, and leaflet tissue stress-strain curves were generated for proximal and distal valves (i...
June 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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