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Ju-Han Liu, Yung-Yi Cheng, Chen-Hsi Hsieh, Tung-Hu Tsai
BACKGROUND: Commercial pharmaceutical herbal products have enabled people to take traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in a convenient and accessible form. However, the quantity and quality should be additionally inspected. To address the issue, a combination of chemical and physical inspection methods were developed to evaluate the amount of an herbal formula, Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (XSLJZT), in clinical TCM practice. METHODS: A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method with electrospray ionization was developed to measure the herbal biomarkers of guanosine, atractylenolide III, glycyrrhizic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, hesperidin, and oleanolic acid from XSLJZT...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Julian Böhnke, Holger Braunschweig, J Oscar C Jiménez-Halla, Ivo Krummenacher, Tom E Stennett
The heteroarene 1,4-bis(CAAC)-1,4-diborabenzene (1; CAAC = cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene) reacts with [(MeCN)3M(CO)3] (M = Cr, Mo, W) to yield half-sandwich complexes of the form [(η6-diborabenzene)M(CO)3] (M = Cr (2), Mo (3), W (4)). Investigation of the new complexes with a combination of X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations shows that ligand 1 is a remarkably strong electron donor. In particular, [(η6-arene)M(CO)3] complexes of this ligand display the lowest CO stretching frequencies yet observed for this class of complex...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Robert Walder, William J Van Patten, Ayush Adhikari, Thomas T Perkins
Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful technique to characterize the energy landscape of individual proteins, the mechanical properties of nucleic acids, and the strength of receptor-ligand interactions. Atomic-force-microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS benefits from ongoing progress in improving the precision and stability of cantilevers and the AFM itself. Underappreciated is that the accuracy of such AFM studies remains hindered by inadvertently stretching molecules at an angle while measuring only the vertical component of the force and extension, degrading both measurements...
December 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Wenqiang Gan, Tiegang Li, Jingyuan Ren, Chenghe Li, Ziliang Liu, Min Yang
Excessive mechanical stretch induces production of proinflammatory mediators in cardiac fibroblasts, which could act as inflammatory supporter cells in heart failure. Accumulation evidence and our previous studies suggest that serum-glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) contributes to cardiac remodeling and fibrosis, development of heart failure. However, the role and mechanism of SGK1 in mechanical stretch-induced inflammation of cardiac fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from wild-type (WT) and SGK1 knockout (SGK1-/-) mice were stimulated by 18% cyclic stretch, under static condition as the control...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Cameron J Mackie, Alessandra Candian, Xinchuan Huang, Elena Maltseva, Annemieke Petrignani, Jos Oomens, Wybren Jan Buma, Timothy J Lee, Alexander G G M Tielens
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be ubiquitous in a large variety of distinct astrophysical environments and are therefore of great interest to astronomers. The majority of these findings are based on theoretically predicted spectra, which make use of scaled DFT harmonic frequencies for band positions and the double harmonic approximation for intensities. However, these approximations have been shown to fail at predicting high-resolution gas-phase infrared spectra accurately, especially in the CH-stretching region (2950-3150 cm-1, 3 μm)...
December 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Roland Tolulope Loto
The synergistic properties of the combined admixture of benzenecarbonitrile and 5-bromovanillin (BNV) on the corrosion resistance of 1018 carbon steel in 1 M HCl was analysed with potentiodynamic polarization technique, weight loss method, micro-analytical studies and ATF-FTIR spectroscopy. Results obtained show the admixed organic compound was effective with optimal corrosion inhibition values of 99.33% and 90.34% at 1.25% BNV concentration from both electrochemical methods due to the effective inhibition action and passivation characteristics of the protonated inhibitor molecules in the acid solution...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laura Helena McArthur, Lanae Ball, Ariel C Danek, Donald Holbert
OBJECTIVES: To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. SETTING: University in Appalachia. PARTICIPANTS: Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Ya-Yan Tong, Heng Zhang, Liang-Liang Chang, Xiao-Peng Xuan
In this work, two 1-carboxymethyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromides (N-methylpyrrolidine betaine hydrobromides) with the stoichiometry of betaine:hydrobromic acid as 1:1 and 2:1, denoted as CMPRHBr-I and CMPRHBr-II, respectively, were prepared and crystallographically determined. The large difference in these two structures is the type of hydrogen bonds, resulting in the different thermal stability. A strong OH⋯Br hydrogen bond was observed in CMPRHBr-I, whereas O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bond in CMPRHBr-II. Both these two crystals can mutually transform by changing the pH value of the aqueous solution...
November 28, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Julie M Ellis, Yvonne Wells, June Su Ming Ong
OBJECTIVES: The project aimed to evaluate a pain management program (PMP) using non-pharmacological approaches at five residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Australia. METHODS: The PMP involved a physiotherapist implementing four sessions per week of treatments (massage therapy, TENS, exercises and stretching, or combinations of these). Ninety-five participants were recruited (average age, 83 years; SD = 7.6; 38% men, 62% women; 56% with dementia). Sessions lasted approximately 10 minutes, and residents' levels of pain were recorded using a 5-point scale before and after each treatment...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
Kirstin D Doney, Dongfeng Zhao, Harold H Linnartz
We present a combined experimental and ab initio study on the jet-cooled high- resolution infrared spectra of the ν1 (acetylenic stretch) fundamental band for three isotopologues of propyne: 13CH312C≡12CH, 12CH313C≡12CH, and 12CH312C≡13CH. The experimental spectra are recorded in natural abundance using a continuous supersonic expansion of regular propyne diluted in argon and helium, in combination with continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). The fully rotationally resolved K' = 0 and 1 subbands of all three mono-substituted 13C isotopologues have been measured near 3330 cm-1, and their spectroscopic analysis is presented here for the first time...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Vincent Deguin, Joëlle Mascetti, Aude Simon, Nadia Ben Amor, Christian Aupetit, Sandra Latournerie, Jennifer Anna Noble
The photochemistry of Fe:H2O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H2O to H2, while in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterisation of binary systems of atomic iron with H2O in cryogenic argon matrices. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Elliot M Ross, Julian G Mapp, Theodore T Redman, Derek J Brown, Chetan U Kharod, David A Wampler
BACKGROUND: The "Stop the Bleed" campaign in the United States advocates for nonmedical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control and that "bleeding control kits" be available in high-risk areas. However, it is not clear which tourniquets are most effective in the hands of laypersons. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this pilot study was to determine which tourniquet type was the most intuitive for a layperson to apply correctly. METHODS: This project is a randomized study derived from a "Stop the Bleed" education initiative conducted between September 2016 and March 2017...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hyunwoo Yuk, Xuanhe Zhao
Direct ink writing (DIW) has demonstrated great potential as a multimaterial multifunctional fabrication method in areas as diverse as electronics, structural materials, tissue engineering, and soft robotics. During DIW, viscoelastic inks are extruded out of a 3D printer's nozzle as printed fibers, which are deposited into patterns when the nozzle moves. Hence, the resolution of printed fibers is commonly limited by the nozzle's diameter, and the printed pattern is limited by the motion paths. These limits have severely hampered innovations and applications of DIW 3D printing...
December 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Peter Grimmer, Jacob Notbohm
The extracellular matrix provides macroscale structure to tissues and microscale guidance for cell contraction, adhesion, and migration. The matrix is composed of a network of fibers, which each deform by stretching, bending, and buckling. Whereas the mechanics has been well characterized in uniform shear and extension, the response to more general loading conditions remains less clear, because the associated displacement fields cannot be predicted a priori. Studies simulating contraction, such as due to a cell, have observed displacements that propagate over a long range, suggesting mechanisms such as reorientation of fibers toward directions of tensile force and nonlinearity due to buckling of fibers under compression...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
U Jacovella, C J Stein, M Grütter, L Freitag, C Lauzin, M Reiher, F Merkt
The pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectrum of C2H6 has been recorded in the region of the adiabatic ionization threshold. The partially rotationally resolved spectrum indicates the existence of several vibronic states of C2H6+ with less than 600 cm-1 of internal excitation. The analysis of the rotational structures assisted by ab initio calculations enabled the determination of the adiabatic ionization energy of C2H6 and the investigation of the structure and dynamics of C2H6+ at low energies...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Erdem Atalay, Bedrettin Akova, Hakan Gür, Ufuk Sekir
The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE) and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises)...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shogo Sakai, Hironori Fujishita, Toshiki Kobayashi, Makoto Asaeda, Kazuhiko Hirata, Yukio Mikami, Hiroaki Kimura
This study aimed to clarify the acute effects of static stretching (SS) and cyclic stretching (CS) on muscle stiffness and hardness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) by using ultrasonography, range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint and ankle plantar flexor. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to SS, CS and control conditions. Each session consisted of a standard 5-minute cycle warm-up, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions in another day: (a) 2 minutes static stretching, (b) 2 minutes cyclic stretching, (c) control...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Mark D Bishop, Steven Z George
Objective: To determine the extent to which changes in knee range of motion (ROM) after a stretching program are related to sensory factors at the time of testing and the amount of force used during the measurement of ROM, rather than changes in soft-tissue properties. Design: Randomized, single-blind design. Participants were randomly assigned to a control or stretching group. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Forty-four healthy volunteers (22...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Rachel Howard-Till, Josef Loidl
Condensin is a protein complex with diverse functions in chromatin packaging and chromosome condensation and segregation. We studied condensin in the evolutionarily distant protist model Tetrahymena, which features non-canonical nuclear organization and divisions. In Tetrahymena, the germline and soma are partitioned into two different nuclei within a single cell. Consistent with their functional specializations in sexual reproduction and gene expression, condensins of the germline nucleus and the polyploid somatic nucleus are composed of different subunits...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Naël Osmani, Julien Pontabry, Jordi Comelles, Nina Fekonja, Jacky G Goetz, Daniel Riveline, Elisabeth Georges-Labouesse, Michel Labouesse
Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are epithelial-specific cell-matrix adhesions, which stably anchor the intracellular keratin network to the extracellular matrix. Although their main role is to protect the epithelial sheet from external mechanical strain, how HDs respond to mechanical stress remains poorly understood. Here we identify a pathway essential for HD remodeling, and outline its role with respect to α6β4 integrin recycling. We find that α6β4 integrin chains localize to the plasma membrane, caveolae and Arf6+ endocytic compartments...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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