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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356424/immune-variation-during-pregnancy-suggests-immune-component-specific-costs-of-reproduction-in-a-viviparous-snake-with-disparate-life-history-strategies
#1
Maria G Palacios, Anne M Bronikowski
Growing evidence suggests the existence of trade-offs between immune function and reproduction in diverse taxa. Among vertebrates, however, there is still a taxonomic bias toward studies in endotherms, particularly birds. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction entails immune-related costs in the viviparous garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, from populations that exhibit two life-history strategies, termed ecotypes, with contrasting paces of life. Between the two ecotypes, we predicted lower immune function in gravid than non-gravid females of both strategies, but with relatively larger immunity costs in the ecotype that generally invests more in current reproduction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356416/a-neuropathological-study-of-novel-rttn-gene-mutations-causing-a-familial-microcephaly-with-simplified-gyral-pattern
#2
Suzanne Chartier, Caroline Alby, Lucile Boutaud, Sophie Thomas, Nadia Elkhartoufi, Jelena Martinovic, Josseline Kaplan, Alexandra Benachi, Didier Lacombe, Pascale Sonigo, Séverine Drunat, Michel Vekemans, Joël Agenor, Férechté Encha Razavi, Tania Attie-Bitach
BACKGROUND: The RTTN gene encodes Rotatin, a large centrosomal protein involved in ciliary functions. RTTN mutations have been reported in seven families and are associated with two phenotypes: polymicrogyria associated with seizures and primary microcephaly associated with primordial dwarfism. CASE: A targeted exome sequencing of morbid genes causing cerebral malformations identified novel RTTN compound heterozygous mutations in a family where three pregnancies were terminated because a severe fetal microcephaly was diagnosed...
January 22, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356206/survey-of-diagnostic-and-treatment-practices-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-europe-part-2-progressive-ms-paediatric-ms-pregnancy-and-general-management
#3
Oscar Fernández, Mario Delvecchio, Gilles Edan, Sten Fredrikson, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Eva Havrdova, Ludwig Kappos, Carlo Pozzilli, Per Soelberg Soerensen, Björn Tackenberg, Patrick Vermersch, Giancarlo Comi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The European Charcot Foundation supported development of a set of surveys to understand current practice patterns for diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Europe. Part 2 of the report summarises survey results related to secondary progressive MS (SPMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), pregnancy, paediatric MS and overall patient management. METHODS: A steering committee of MS neurologists developed case- and practice-based questions for two sequential surveys distributed to MS neurologists throughout Europe...
January 21, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356122/monitoring-changes-in-back-fat-thickness-and-its-effect-on-the-restoration-of-ovarian-activity-and-fertility-in-bos-indicus-cows
#4
B R Díaz, C S Galina, I Rubio, M Corro, J L Pablos, A Orihuela
With the objective of testing the hypothesis if animals with a stable layer of body fat (FAT) during the peripartum have a better chance of becoming pregnant after calving, fifty-nine multiparous Brahman cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were used. Animals averaged four parturitions and were stocked at a rate of 1.25 animal units per hectare and divided into two groups depending on the time postpartum (dpp) that the intravaginal releasing device CIDR was inserted; Group 1 (<30 dpp; n = 30) received the implant at 25...
January 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356088/exposure-of-the-developing-heart-to-diabetic-environment-and-early-cardiac-assessment-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Mehmet R Asoglu, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Ozhan M Turan, Sifa Turan
Hyperglycemia during organogenesis is associated with an increased risk of congenital cardiac defects (CHDs). The pathophysiology leading to CHDs is not completely uncovered. However, elevated oxidative stress is considered to be the primary trigger that causes CHDs in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Maternal diabetes has been found to increase the risk for all types of CHDs. Diabetes may also impact the fetal cardiac performance at all gestational ages. Early detection of CHDs has certain advantages, such as making early decision about termination of pregnancy, enabling early genetic testing, and early reassurance if scan is normal...
January 21, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356072/flash-forward-a-review-of-flash-glucose-monitoring
#6
REVIEW
L Leelarathna, G Wilmot
The FreeStyle Libre flash glucose monitor became available on prescription (subject to local health authority approval) in all four nations of the UK from November 2017, a watershed moment in the history of diabetes care. Calibration free, the FreeStyle Libre is a disc worn on the arm for 14 days which is designed largely to replace the recommended 4-10 painful finger-stick blood glucose tests required each day for the self-management of diabetes. This review discusses clinical data from randomized and observational studies, considers device accuracy metrics and deliberates its popularity and the potential challenges that this new device brings to diabetes care in the UK...
January 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356036/dnah6-is-a-novel-candidate-gene-associated-with-sperm-head-anomaly
#7
L Li, Y-W Sha, X Xu, L-B Mei, P-P Qiu, Z-Y Ji, S-B Lin, Z-Y Su, C Wang, C Yin, P Li
Globozoospermia and acephalic spermatozoa are two rare sperm head anomalies associated with male infertility. Combination of the two phenotypes in the same patient is extremely rare, so the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Here, we report a 35-year-old infertile male, who presented with 30% of sperm-lacked heads and 69% of sperm round-headed or small-headed with neck thickening in his ejaculate. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis identified compound heterozygous variants within the DNAH6 gene...
January 22, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355951/evaluation-of-outpatient-acupuncture-for-relief-of-pregnancy-related-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Barbara Buchberger, Laura Krabbe
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a non-pharmacological option to relieve pregnancy-related complaints. OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise the best available evidence for the use of acupuncture in outpatient care. SEARCH STRATEGY: The MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched for English-language and German-language papers published from January 1980 to March 2017 using search terms related to pregnancy combined with 'acupuncture'...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355916/ghosts-of-mother-s-past-previous-maternal-stress-leads-to-altered-maternal-behavior-following-a-subsequent-pregnancy-in-rats
#9
Janice M Kan, Rick Richardson
A rodent model was used to explore whether mothers that experienced a postnatal stressor in the past (i.e., daily separations from her previous litter) exhibited altered maternal behavior during a typical, subsequent rearing experience. Stress-naïve female rats were bred and then separated from their pups (maternal separation) or remained with their pups (standard-rearing). After those pups were weaned, mothers were bred again with all pups from the subsequent litter being standard-reared. In the first week of life, various maternal behaviors directed towards these subsequent offspring were observed, including levels of nursing and pup retrieval...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355902/maternal-breast-and-body-symmetry-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-condition
#10
Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Bogusław Pawłowski
OBJECTIVES: Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is hypothesized to reflect the level of an individual's developmental instability, and therefore genetic quality. As a potential signal of biological condition, female body (including breast) symmetry was shown to be perceived as more attractive in mate choice context. If symmetry reflects a woman's genetic quality, it is possible that FA, similarly to other maternal anthropometric cues of biological condition (e.g., body height or waist-to-hip ratio), may be also related to her offspring condition...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355899/care-of-pregnant-women-with-decreased-fetal-movements-update-of-a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-australia-and-new-zealand
#11
Lisa M Daly, Glenn Gardener, Victoria Bowring, Wendy Burton, Yogesh Chadha, David Ellwood, Frederik Frøen, Adrienne Gordon, Alexander Heazell, Kassam Mahomed, Susan McDonald, Jane E Norman, Jeremy Oats, Vicki Flenady
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth and the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand (PSANZ) have recently partnered in updating an important clinical practice guideline, Care of pregnant women with decreased fetal movements. This guideline offers 12 recommendations and a suggested care pathway, with the aim to improve the quality of care for women reporting decreased fetal movements through an evidence-based approach. Adoption of the guideline by clinicians and maternity hospitals could result in earlier identification of higher-risk pregnancies, improved perinatal health outcomes for women and their babies, and reduced stillbirth rates...
January 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355895/is-ultrasound-measured-fetal-biometry-predictive-of-intrapartum-caesarean-section-for-failure-to-progress
#12
Jenny M Yang, Jon A Hyett, Kevin Mcgeechan, Hala Phipps, Bradley S de Vries
BACKGROUND: There are global concerns regarding excessive caesarean rates, which could be reduced by identification of risk factors leading to preventative measures such as induction of labour. AIMS: This study aims to describe the association between antenatal ultrasound and emergency caesarean section for: (i) failure to progress; (ii) other indications; and (iii) any indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women who had an ultrasound in pregnancy between 36(+0/7) to 38(+6/7) weeks at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital from January 2005 to June 2009 were included...
January 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355892/the-effect-of-ethnicity-on-the-performance-of-protein-creatinine-ratio-in-the-prediction-of-significant-proteinuria-in-pregnancies-at-risk-of-or-with-established-hypertension-an-implementation-audit-and-cost-implications
#13
Sadia Bhatti, Mark Cordina, Leonie Penna, Roy Sherwood, Tracy Dew, Nikos A Kametas
INTRODUCTION: The replacement of 24-hour urine collection by protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia has been recently recommended. However, the literature is conflicting and there are concerns on the impact of demographic characteristics on the performance of PCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an implementation audit of the introduction of PCR in a London Tertiary obstetric unit. The performance of PCR in the prediction of proteinuria ≥300mg/day was assessed in 476 women with suspected pre-eclampsia who completed a 24-hour urine collection and an untimed urine sample for PCR calculation...
January 21, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355889/laeverin-protein-expression-in-normal-and-preeclamptic-placentas-using-tissue-microarray-analysis
#14
Mona Nystad, Vasilis Sitras, Cecilie Valborg Nordbakken, Mona Irene Pedersen, Ganesh Acharya
INTRODUCTION: Laeverin is a placenta-specific protein that is normally expressed in the plasma membrane of human trophoblasts. In previous studies, we showed higher expression levels of laeverin gene in preeclamptic compared to normal placentas and found that laeverin protein was ectopically expressed in the cytoplasma of the preeclamptic placentas. Our objective was to investigate laeverin protein expression in normal and preeclamptic placentas combining immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence...
January 21, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355887/accuracy-of-fetal-fibronectin-for-assessing-preterm-birth-risk-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Francois Dos Santos, Jahnavi Daru, Ewelina Rogozińska, Natalie A M Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Fetal fibronectin (fFN) is a validated test for assessing risk of preterm birth for women presenting with symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of fFN to detect the risk of preterm birth in asymptomatic women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches were conducted to identify studies where fFN was performed in asymptomatic women beyond 22 weeks' gestation. EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINHAL, AMED and BNI were searched between 2005 and 2017. Studies before 2005 were identified from a published systematic review...
January 21, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355662/biotherapeutics-in-non-clinical-development-strengthening-the-interface-between-safety-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-manufacturing
#16
Peter Ulrich, Guenter Blaich, Andreas Baumann, Rajni Fagg, Adam Hey, Andrea Kiessling, Sven Kronenberg, Rikke Hvid Lindecrona, Silke Mohl, Wolfgang F Richter, Jay Tibbitts, Flavio Crameri, Lucinda Weir
Biological drugs comprise a wide field of different modalities with respect to structure, pharmacokinetics and pharmacological function. Considerable non-clinical experience in the development of proteins (e.g. insulin) and antibodies has been accumulated over the past thirty years. In order to improve the efficacy and the safety of these biotherapeutics, Fc modifications (e.g. Fc silent antibody versions), combinations (antibody-drug conjugates, protein-nanoparticle combinations), and new constructs (darpins, fynomers) have been introduced...
January 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355608/genetic-risk-factors-in-thrombotic-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-systematic-review-with-bioinformatic-analyses
#17
REVIEW
Md Asiful Islam, Shahad Saif Khandker, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune multifactorial disorder. Genetics is believed to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of APS, especially in thrombosis development and pregnancy morbidity. In the last 20 years, extensive research on genetic contribution on APS indicates that APS is a polygenic disorder, where a number of genes are involved in the development of its clinical manifestations. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the genetic risk factors in thrombotic primary APS...
January 17, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355600/mechanisms-of-canalicular-transporter-endocytosis-in-the-cholestatic-rat-liver
#18
Gisel S Miszczuk, Ismael R Barosso, María Cecilia Larocca, Julieta Marrone, Raúl A Marinelli, Andrea C Boaglio, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma, Fernando A Crocenzi
Impaired canalicular secretion due to increased endocytosis and intracellular retention of canalicular transporters such as BSEP and MRP2 is a main, common pathomechanism of cholestasis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms governing this process are unknown. We characterized this process in estradiol 17 β-d-glucuronide (E17G)-induced cholestasis, an experimental model which partially mimics pregnancy-induced cholestasis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or K+ depletion, but not the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors filipin and genistein, prevented E17G-induced endocytosis of BSEP and MRP2, and the associated impairment of activity of these transporters in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC)...
January 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355552/maternal-hypertension-and-feto-placental-growth-restriction-is-reversed-by-sildenafil-evidence-of-independent-effects-of-circulating-nitric-oxide-levels
#19
Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, José Sérgio Possomato-Vieira, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Carlos Alan Dias-Junior
Sildenafil has shown nitric oxide (NO)-independent pleiotropic effects, however the mechanisms involved are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of sildenafil against hypertension in pregnancy and feto-placental growth restriction induced by NO inhibition, and if sodium nitrite-derived NO formation influences sildenafil effects. We evaluated the plasmatic levels of NO metabolites, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase, which are involved in endothelial dysfunction during hypertension in pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355492/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-patterns-of-long-acting-reversible-contraceptive-use-in-the-united-states-2011-2015
#20
Renee D Kramer, Jenny A Higgins, Amy L Godecker, Deborah B Ehrenthal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether demographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive health characteristics affect long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use differently by race-ethnicity. Results may inform the dialogue on racial pressure and bias in LARC promotion. STUDY DESIGN: Data derived from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Our study sample included 9321 women aged 15-44. Logistic regression analyses predicted current LARC use (yes vs...
January 17, 2018: Contraception
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