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Marina Parca Cavelagna Teixeira, Tatiana Peloso Reis Queiroga, Maria Dos Anjos Mesquita
Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio...
July 2016: Einstein
Flavia Westphal, Suzete Maria Fustinoni, Vânia Lopes Pinto, Patrícia de Souza Melo, Anelise Riedel Abrahão
Objective: To identify the profile of women seen in a Fetal Medicine unit, diagnosed with fetal abnormality incompatible with neonatal survival in their current pregnancy, and to check the association of gestational age upon diagnosis with the option of pregnancy termination. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Outpatients Clinic of a university hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, using medical records of pregnant women with fetus presenting abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival...
July 2016: Einstein
Margaret Loyet, Amy McLean, Karen Graham, Cheryl Antoine, Kathy Fossick
BACKGROUND: Women carrying a fetus with a suspected or known fetal anomaly have complex needs such as emotional and informational support and help with the logistical aspects of arranging care and treatment from numerous specialists. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE FOR WOMEN CARRYING A FETUS WITH A SUSPECTED OR KNOWN FETAL ANOMALY:: Our fetal care team was initiated in 2012 to meet the needs of this high-risk pregnant population. The fetal care team nurse coordinator supports the woman and her family through all aspects of care during the pregnancy and neonatal period including scheduling appointments with multiple specialists, being there with her as a support person, keeping her updated, making sure she has accurate information about the fetal diagnosis, and helping her to navigate the complex healthcare system...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
R Askerov
High incidence of missed abortion induces to search for its causes. Apart from genetic and anatomic uterine factors, the state of the decidual endometrium and implantation zone of chorionic structures of the gestational sac are of particular interest. Direct visualization of the intact decidual endometrium is possible with embryoscopy, however, there is lack of presented data of normal and pathological signs of the endometrium during pregnancy. This paper describes the changes of the endometrium in missed abortion obtained by hysteroscopy in 160 women with nonprogressive pregnancy after ART protocols...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
G Chistyakova, I Gazieva, I Remizova, L Ustyantseva, V Lyapunov, S Bychkova
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 (+) CD95(+)-cells and cytokine-producing CD4 (+) IFN-γ(+)-, CD4 (+) IL-4(+ )-lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
E A Devyatova, K A Tsaturova, E V Vartanyan
Many of the uterine infertility factors are associated with chronic endometritis. Its prevalence reaches 92.6%. Quality of endometrial transformation during the "implantation window" is the basis of successful fertility. In our retrospective comparative study of 101 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, the efficacy of transvaginal Doppler ultrasound (TVDUS) in predicting successful implantation was evaluated. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age younger than 41 years and good quality of embryos. Exclusion criteria were as follows: 41 and older age, poor quality of embryos and uterine cavity lesions...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
A M Kurmanova, G M Kurmanova, V N Lokshin
The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the structure of reproductive system pathology; disorders of reproductive function in the form of pregnancy loss and infertility are detected in each second case. Depression of T-cell immunity in the immune status is observed in the patients with intact reproductive function. When miscarriage was in past medical history then divergent changes subpopulations of lymphocytes are found...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
N Aleksandrova, E Shubina, A Ekimov, T Kodyleva, I Mukosey, N Makarova, E Kulakova, L Levkov, D Trofimov, G Sukhikh
Chromosomal aneuploidies are known for being the main cause of abnormal development of embryos with normal morphology, their implantation failure and early reproductive losses in IVF treatments. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) allows selecting embryos with normal chromosomal content and increases IVF treatment efficiency due to higher implantation rates and less frequent early pregnancy losses. New technologies used for PGS allow making genome-wide analysis of the presence of all chromosomes in embryos...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
V Muller, M Makhmadalieva, I Kogan, I Fedorova, E Lesik, E Komarova, L Dzhemlikhanova, D Niauri, A Gzgzyan, E Ailamazyan
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) has been reported to occur in 1.4-5.4% of all clinical pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET). Data on factors associated with abnormal embryo implantation following assisted conception are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine whether there is an association between the day (cleavage-stage, D3, versus blastocyst, D5) or the type (fresh versus frozen/thawed) of ET and EP rate...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
N V Bashmakova, N B Davydenko, G B Malgina, N V Putilova
AIM: The aim of this research was to have a thorough study of predictors of critical states during pregnancy after assisted reproductive technologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 303 patients with "near-miss," out of which 37 are pregnancy cases after ART (the main group) and 265 are spontaneous pregnancy cases (the control group). RESULTS: Pregnancy after ART constituted 12.3% of all critical states. In the main group (10...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Veronica T Boyle, Eric B Thorstensen, David Mourath, M Beatrix Jones, Lesley M E McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Philip N Baker
Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Controversy remains as findings have been inconsistent between disparate populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pregnancy outcomes in a large, prospective pregnancy cohort. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks of gestation from 1710 New Zealand women participating in a large, observational study...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Marta Ferro, Hada C Macher, Pilar Noguerol, Pilar Jimenez-Arriscado, Patrocinio Molinero, Juan M Guerrero, Amalia Rubio
Fetal and Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a condition which could occur when pregnant women develop an alloimmunization against paternally inherited antigens of the fetal platelets. Approximately 80 % of FNAIT cases are caused by anti-HPA-1a, about 15 % by anti-HPA-5b and 5 % by other HPA antibodies. Only 2 % of the total population is HPA-1a negative (HPA-1b1b). The HPA-1a allele differs by one single nucleotide from HPA-1b allele, yet it represents around 27 % of total severe thrombocytopenias...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chia Lin Chang, Chia Yu Chang, Da Xian Lee, Po Jen Cheng
Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that affects 2-8 % of pregnancies. This disorder can lead to seizure, multi-organ failure and maternal death. The best approach to prevent pre-eclampsia-associated adverse outcomes is to be able to prevent pre-eclampsia as early as possible. Unfortunately, current diagnostic methods are ineffective at predicting the risk of pre-eclampsia during early pregnancy. In humans, low levels of a group of placenta-derived Pregnancy Specific Glycoproteins (PSGs) have been associated with intrauterine growth retardation and pre-eclampsia and there is a significant enrichment of cases with deletions in the PSG gene locus in pre-eclampsia patients...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Qing-Zhen Xie, Wang-Ming Xu, Qian-Rong Qi, Zeng-Li Luo, Lan Dong
Genital tract infections with ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. UU and CT infections are considered to be the leading cause for infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, little is known about the specific effect of cervical UU and CT infections on the etiology of female infertility, as well as the pregnancy outcomes of the patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET)...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Emily L Tuthill, Jennifer A Pellowski, Sera L Young, Lisa M Butler
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) provides infants with optimal nutrition, and together with appropriate antiretroviral therapy has also been shown to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 45 to less than 1 %. However, rates of EBF are particularly low in South Africa, where rates of HIV are some of the highest in the world. Although perinatal depression has been identified as a potential barrier to EBF, little is known about its impact on EBF among HIV-infected women. A cohort study was conducted as part of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the effect of an Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills-based intervention promoting EBF among South African women living with HIV in their third trimester (28-42 weeks) of pregnancy...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Ian Brockington
A study of several hundred recurrent puerperal psychoses shows that about half of those with known onset recur in the same phase of reproduction, and half have onsets in different phases. Onsets in the same phase are especially a feature of prepartum psychosis and are the strongest indication of a specific trigger operating during pregnancy. Onsets in different phases provide a prima facie case for links between 'puerperal psychosis' and other reproductive onsets. They suggest that the 'picture puzzle' is not just about early onset puerperal psychosis, but a group of related reproductive triggers...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
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