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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164327/macular-retinoschisis-in-eyes-with-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-vitrectomy-and-natural-course
#1
Tadanobu Yoshikawa, Chihiro Yamanaka, Takamasa Kinoshita, Shohei Morikawa, Nahoko Ogata
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of vitrectomy in resolving the macular retinoschisis in an eye with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and also to determine the natural course of macular retinoschisis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of patients who were diagnosed with macular retinoschisis and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Fourteen eyes of 13 patients were studied. Patients with high myopia, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and the pit macular syndrome were excluded...
November 21, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134339/feline-immudeficiency-virus-subtypes-b-and-a-in-cats-from-s%C3%A3-o-luis-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#2
Nathálya Dos S Martins, Ana Paula de S Rodrigues, Luciana A da Luz, Luana da L Dos Reis, Renata M de Oliveira, Rudson A de Oliveira, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva, Jenner Karlisson P Dos Reis, Ferdinan A Melo
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is distributed worldwide, with prevalence rates varying between 2.5% and 44%. FIV causes immunosuppression, with depletion of TCD4(+) lymphocytes, with the majority of clinical signs caused by secondary and opportunistic infections. Blood samples were collected from nine domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from the city of São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. All samples were positive in a rapid immunochromatographic test (SNAP® Combo FeLV Ag/FIV Antibody Test) and in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#3
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120364/crystal-structure-of-the-full-length-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-capsid-protein-shows-an-n-terminal-%C3%AE-hairpin-in-the-absence-of-n-terminal-proline
#4
Christelle Folio, Natalia Sierra, Marie Dujardin, Guzman Alvarez, Christophe Guillon
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA) drives the assembly of the viral particle, which is a critical step in the viral replication cycle. Here, the first atomic structure of full-length FIV CA to 1.67 Å resolution is determined. The crystallized protein exhibits an original tetrameric assembly, composed of dimers which are stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge induced by the crystallogenesis conditions...
November 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056740/the-use-of-recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-new-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Solange Gil
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats...
October 27, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056701/prevalence-of-selected-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-agents-in-dogs-and-cats-on-the-pine-ridge-reservation
#6
A Valeria Scorza, Michael R Lappin
The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats) were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh)] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp)] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32) were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056675/felis-catus-gammaherpesvirus-1-dnaemia-in-whole-blood-from-therapeutically-immunosuppressed-or-retrovirus-infected-cats
#7
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Bethany Wilson, Mark E Westman, Julia A Beatty
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57)...
March 14, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056673/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-neuropathogenesis-a-model-for-hiv-induced-cns-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Rick B Meeker, Lola Hudson
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because of the similarities to HIV infection and disease, FIV has provided a useful model for both in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS infection, inflammation and pathology...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056671/micro-rna-10a-is-increased-in-feline-t-regulatory-cells-and-increases-foxp3-protein-expression-following-in-vitro-transfection
#9
Yan Wang, Mukta Nag, Joanne L Tuohy, Jonathan E Fogle
CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented that lentivirus-activated Treg cells exhibit heightened Foxp3 expression when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Our hypothesis was that lentivirus-induced micro-RNAs (miRNAs) contribute to heightened Treg cell suppressor function by stabilizing Foxp3 expression...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056666/the-comparative-value-of-feline-virology-research-can-findings-from-the-feline-lentiviral-vaccine-be-translated-to-humans
#10
REVIEW
Margaret J Hosie, Navapon Techakriengkrai, Paweł M Bęczkowski, Matthew Harris, Nicola Logan, Brian J Willett
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a commercial vaccine is registered for prevention in either human or veterinary medicine. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of protection induced by lentivirus vaccines at the population level and might contribute to the development of efficacious HIV vaccines...
January 28, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037051/t-regulatory-cell-induced-foxp3-binds-the-il2-ifn%C3%AE-and-tnf%C3%AE-promoters-in-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-from-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-cats
#11
Yan Wang, Mukta Nag, Joanne L Tuohy, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling viremia during AIDS lentiviral infections. However, for most HIV-infected individuals, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibit loss of polyfunctionality, including loss of IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS lentiviral persistence, our laboratory has demonstrated that FIV-activated Treg cells target CD8(+) T cells, leading to a reduction in IL2 and IFNγ production. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Treg cells induce expression of the repressive transcription factor, Foxp3, in CD8(+) T cells...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987024/urban-landscapes-can-change-virus-gene-flow-and-evolution-in-a-fragmentation-sensitive-carnivore
#12
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963205/first-nearly-complete-genome-sequence-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-from-brazil
#13
Sueli A Taniwaki, João P Araújo, Paulo E Brandão
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has worldwide distribution; nevertheless, only a few FIV genomes from domestic cats are available. This is the first report of a nearly complete genome of FIV from a Brazilian cat (8,967 nucleotides [nt]), including the entire coding region and the 3' untranslated region.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#14
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919546/phylodynamics-of-the-brazilian-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#15
Lucía Cano-Ortiz, Dennis Maletich Junqueira, Juliana Comerlato, Cristina Santos Costa, André Zani, Naila Blatt Duda, Caroline Tochetto, Raissa Nunes Dos Santos, Fernanda Vieira Amorim da Costa, Paulo Michel Roehe, Ana Cláudia Franco
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918382/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-fiv-and-felv-infection-in-two-shelters-in-the-united-kingdom-2011-2012
#16
Jenny Stavisky, Rachel Sarah Dean, Michael Henry Molloy
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infections in cats presented to two RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) animal rehoming centres and to identify risk factors for infection. All cats presented at each centre between August 2011 and August 2012 were subjected to a patient-side test for FeLV/FIV on entry. Kittens under three months and cats euthanased within a short time of presentation were excluded from the study...
October 28, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915995/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-feline-hemoplasmas-in-wild-felid-species-in-iran-in-the-middle-east
#17
Fereshteh Ghazisaeedi, Nahid Atyabi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Saeid Tabatabaei, Iraj Ashrafi Tamai, Iman Memarian, Séverine Tasker
Three feline hemoplasma species exist in felids: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. The aims of the study were to determine the presence of, and molecularly characterize, any hemoplasmas in wild felids, including the endangered Persian leopard in Iran, the Middle East. Blood samples were collected from 19 wild felids, including three Persian leopards. Using species-specific hemoplasma PCRs and ELISA serological testing for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two Persian leopards were found to be infected with 'Ca...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905885/long-term-correction-of-hemophilia-a-mice-following-lentiviral-mediated-delivery-of-an-optimized-canine-factor-viii-gene
#18
J M Staber, M J Pollpeter, C-G Anderson, M Burrascano, A L Cooney, P L Sinn, D T Rutkowski, W C Raschke, P B McCray
Current therapies for hemophilia A include frequent prophylactic or on-demand intravenous factor treatments which are costly, inconvenient and may lead to inhibitor formation. Viral vector delivery of factor VIII (FVIII) cDNA has the potential to alleviate the debilitating clotting defects. Lentiviral-based vectors delivered to murine models of hemophilia A mediate phenotypic correction. However, a limitation of lentiviral-mediated FVIII delivery is inefficient transduction of target cells. Here, we engineer a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) -based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoprotein to mediate efficient gene transfer to mouse hepatocytes...
September 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873590/in-silico-analysis-and-molecular-docking-study-of-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptides-from-smooth-hound-viscera-protein-hydrolysates-fractionated-by-ultrafiltration
#19
Ola Abdelhedi, Rim Nasri, Letica Mora, Mourad Jridi, Fidel Toldrá, Moncef Nasri
Smooth-hound viscera hydrolysates (SHVHs) were prepared by treatment with Neutrase (SHVH-N) and Purafect (SHVH-P). Hydrolysates were then separated according to their molecular weight, using the ultra-filtration membrane system, into 5 fractions (≥50, 50-5, 5-3, 3-1 and ≤1kDa). Fractions showed different amino acid compositions and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potentials. The SHVH-P-FV (≤1kDa) and SHVH-N-FIV (3-1kDa) fractions showed the best ACE-inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 53...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840782/comparison-of-three-blood-transfusion-guidelines-applied-to-31-feline-donors-to-minimise-the-risk-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections
#20
Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Stefania Lauzi, Arianna Miglio, Mauro Coletti, Andrea Arbia, Saverio Paltrinieri, Maria Teresa Antognoni
Objectives The increased demand for animal blood transfusions creates the need for an adequate number of donors. At the same time, a high level of blood safety must be guaranteed and different guidelines (GLs) deal with this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of different GLs in preventing transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI) in Italian feline blood donors. Methods Blood samples were collected from 31 cats enrolled as blood donors by the owners' voluntary choice over a period of approximately 1 year...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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