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Mark E Westman, Richard Malik, Evelyn Hall, Matthew Harris, Margaret J Hosie, Jacqueline M Norris
OBJECTIVES: Recently, two point-of-care (PoC) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody test kits (Witness and Anigen Rapid) were reported as being able to differentiate FIV-vaccinated from FIV-infected cats at a single time point, irrespective of the gap between testing and last vaccination (0-7 years). The aim of the current study was to investigate systematically anti-FIV antibody production over time in response to the recommended primary FIV vaccination series. METHODS: First, residual plasma from the original study was tested using a laboratory-based ELISA to determine whether negative results with PoC testing were due to reduced as opposed to absent antibodies to gp40...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mojtaba Heydari, Hosein Heydari, Alireza Saadati, Mohammad Gharehbeglou, Javad Tafaroji, Abolfazl Akbari
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Medicine (TM) is popularly used for neonatal jaundice in Iran. OBJECTIVE: to provides evidence for characteristics of traditional medicine use in the treatment of neonatal jaundice in Qom, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field surveys were carried out during July 2015 - August 2015 in Qom through structured questionnaire in Persian from 212 parents of children with neonatal jaundice. All plant species recorded for the treatment of neonatal jaundice were sampled...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
M Gaddas, N Chaouache, M Ajina, Z Tabka, M Zaouali Ajina
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of initial androgenic statute of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (SOPK) on the expected results of in vitro fertilization (FIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is about an exploratory study carried out in 61 unfertile SOPK patients, having profited all from a cycle of FIV/ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection). We have divided our population in two groups according to their hormonal androgenic statute: groups with hyperandrogenism and without hyperandrogenism...
September 28, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Qinyong Gu, Zeli Zhang, Lucía Cano Ortiz, Ana Cláudia Franco, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk
: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif protein counteracts feline APOBEC3s (FcaA3s) restriction factors by inducing their proteasomal degradation. The functional domains in FIV Vif for interaction with FcaA3s are poorly understood. Here, we have identified several motifs in FIV Vif that are important for selective degradation of different FcaA3s. Cats (Felis catus) express three types of A3s: single-domain A3Z2, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3. We proposed that FIV Vif would selectively interact with the Z2 and the Z3 A3s...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Slaven Pikija, Jozef Magdic, David S Liebeskind, Arthur Karamyan, Nele Bubel, Mark R McCoy, Johann Sellner
Cerebral venous outflow may play a decisive role in acute ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the relation of cerebral sinus vein characteristics with clinical and imaging surrogates of early outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated cerebral vein characteristics in 212 patients with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive stroke confirmed by CT angiography CTA within 6 h from symptom onset. Readout parameters included volume and density of the sigmoid sinus (SS) and density of the superior sagittal sinus (SupSagS)...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Muskan Gupta, Gurcharan Kaur
BACKGROUND: Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation is a key factor underlying the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and also an important target for the development of the neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Conventionally, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed, but they are associated with long-term potential risks. Natural products are the cornerstone of modern therapeutics, and Ashwagandha is one such plant which is well known for its immunomodulatory properties in Ayurveda...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
M E Westman, R Malik, E Hall, M Harris, J M Norris
A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs')...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Christopher R M Asquith, Lidia S Konstantinova, Tuomo Laitinen, Marina L Meli, Antti Poso, Oleg A Rakitin, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Stephen T Hilton
A diverse library of 5-thieno-, 5-oxo-, and 5-imino-1,2,3-dithiazole derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for efficacy against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) as a model for HIV in cells. Several diverse compounds from this series displayed nanomolar activity and low toxicity, representing a potential new class of compounds for the treatment of FIV and HIV.
October 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
Friederike Austein, Christian Riedel, Tina Kerby, Johannes Meyne, Andreas Binder, Thomas Lindner, Monika Huhndorf, Fritz Wodarg, Olav Jansen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Computed tomographic perfusion represents an interesting physiological imaging modality to select patients for reperfusion therapy in acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of our study was to determine the accuracy of different commercial perfusion CT software packages (Philips (A), Siemens (B), and RAPID (C)) to predict the final infarct volume (FIV) after mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: Single-institutional computed tomographic perfusion data from 147 mechanically recanalized acute ischemic stroke patients were postprocessed...
September 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Hao Du, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xiaoqian Leng, Shuhuan Zhang, Jiang Luo, Zhigang Liu, Xingmei Qiao, Boyd Kynard, Qiwei Wei
Long lifespan and late maturation make it difficult to establish gamete maturity and breeding age of captive endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. This greatly handicaps timely breeding and future conservation stocking efforts. We used ultrasound imagery and sex steroids to determine the gender and gonadal maturity stage of captive Chinese sturgeon (age, 10∼17 years old). The echogenicity of the reproductive organs and the respective morphology of the gonads were described and two quantitative parameters po (proportion of the ovary to the entire reproductive organs) and d (thickness of the reproductive organs) were measured to characterize sex and maturity stage of Chinese sturgeon...
August 3, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ligang Yang, Zhixiu Song, Weixin Cao, Yanyan Wang, Huixia Lu, Fei Guo, Huijun Yang, Jianshuang Chen, Shaokang Wang, Guiju Sun
UNLABELLED: To investigate effects of diets with different fatty acid composition on serum lipid profiles, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function in mice fed high-fat diets. METHODS: Male KM mice were randomly divided into five groups and were fed normal control diet, high-fat lard diet, high-fat diets with n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios of 1:1, 5:1 nd 2:1 for fiv weeks, respectively. The levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ) iterlekin-6 (IL-6), alonildehyde (MDA), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor ncrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lipid lphaproxide (LPO), 8-iso postaglandin F2aalpha (8-iso-PGlphaF2u), oxidialphaed low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), free faty acid (FFA), E-selectin (ES) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Andrey Lima, Diogo C Haussen, Leticia C Rebello, Seena Dehkharghani, Jonathan Grossberg, Mikayel Grigoryan, Michael Frankel, Raul G Nogueira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the elderly encompasses approximately one-third of all AIS cases. Outcome data have been for the most part discouraging in this population. We aim to evaluate the outcomes in a large contemporary series of elderly patients treated with thrombectomy. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a single-center endovascular database for consecutive elderly (≥80 years) patients treated for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion AIS between September 2010 and April 2015...
July 26, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Helen F Titmarsh, Stephanie M Lalor, Severine Tasker, Emily N Barker, Jacqueline Berry, Danielle Gunn-More, Richard J Mellanby
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that can lead to a syndrome of acquired immune dysfunction. Infected cats often remain asymptomatic for several years before immune dysfunction leads to an increased risk for the development of systemic diseases, neoplasia and opportunistic infections. FIV is structurally related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the pathogenesis of FIV-related disease is similar to that seen in HIV-infected patients. Observational studies have documented an association between low plasma vitamin D and HIV infection...
October 2015: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G Bravo, Sander H J Smits, Holger Gohlke, Carsten Münk
BACKGROUND: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion called linker...
2016: Retrovirology
Matko Perharić, Marina Biđin, Vilim Starešina, Zoran Milas, Nenad Turk, Zrinka Štritof, Suzana Hađina, Josipa Habuš, Vladimir Stevanović, Vesna Mojčec-Perko, Snježana Kovač, Krešimir Martinković, Ljubo Barbić
This study was performed on 29 domestic cats with a variety of clinical signs, possibly related to FIV infection. Blood samples were tested by a rapid immunochromatographic (ICA) procedure for detection of FIV antibodies. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a portion of the proviral gag gene. All 11 positive PCR products were sequenced and compared with previously reported FIV sequences. Croatian proviral isolates that could be amplified were clustered within subtype B, and additional heterogeneity was confirmed by the formation of three separate clusters...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
Claudia González-Ortega, Patricia Cancino-Villarreall, Francisco Javier Anaya-Torres, Efrain Pérez-Peña, Antonio M Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Poor implantation rates continue to be the determinant factor for results in assisted reproductive techniques; many factors are thought to be involved including embryo quality, endometrial receptivity and embryo transfer. Assisted hatching has been proposed as a technique to improve implantation rates in selected groups of patients, especially with poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the laser assisted hatching performed with quarter technique in patients with poor prognosis...
November 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Elien Rl Taffin, Dominique Paepe, Liesbeth Fe Ghys, Katrien De Roover, Isabel Van de Maele, Jimmy H Saunders, Luc Duchateau, Sylvie Daminet
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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