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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899416/clinical-features-fungal-load-coinfections-histological-skin-changes-and-itraconazole-treatment-response-of-cats-with-sporotrichosis-caused-by-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#1
Elaine Waite de Souza, Cintia de Moraes Borba, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Ingeborg Maria Langohr, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Camila Rocha da Cunha, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Luisa Helena Monteiro de Miranda, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes
Zoonotic sporotrichosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis is usually severe in cats. This study investigated the associations between clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and response to itraconazole in cats with sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. Fifty-two cats with skin lesions and a definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis were treated with itraconazole for a maximum period of 36 weeks. The animals were submitted to clinical examination and two subsequent collections of samples from the same skin lesion for fungal diagnosis and histopathology, as well as serology for feline immunodeficiency (FIV) and leukaemia (FeLV) viruses...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861472/histone-modulation-blocks-treg-induced-foxp3-binding-to-the-il-2-promoter-of-virus-specific-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells-from-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-cats
#2
Mukta Nag, Yan Wang, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
CD8⁺ T cells are critical for controlling HIV infection. During the chronic phase of lentiviral infection, CD8⁺ T cells lose their proliferative capacity and exhibit impaired antiviral function. This loss of CD8⁺ T cell function is due, in part, to CD4⁺CD25⁺ T regulatory (Treg) cell-mediated suppression. Our research group has demonstrated that lentivirus-activated CD4⁺CD25⁺ Treg cells induce the repressive transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) in autologous CD8⁺ T cells following co-culture...
May 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857485/absence-of-a3z3-related-hypermutations-in-the-env-and-vif-proviral-genes-in-fiv-naturally-infected-cats
#3
Lucía Cano-Ortiz, Dennis Maletich Junqueira, Juliana Comerlato, André Zani, Cristina Santos Costa, Paulo Michel Roehe, Ana Cláudia Franco
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) proteins comprise an important family of restriction factors that produce hypermutations on proviral DNA and are able to limit virus replication. Vif, an accessory protein present in almost all lentiviruses, counteracts the antiviral A3 activity. Seven haplotypes of APOBEC3Z3 ( A3Z3 ) were described in domestic cats (hap I⁻VII), and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that these proteins reduce infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)...
May 31, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851314/pneumatosis-of-the-intestines-colon-and-liver-in-a-young-cat
#4
Kristen M Hutchinson, Kelly Tart, Kari L Anderson, Lisa L Powell
To describe a case of naturally occurring pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli and emphysematous hepatitis in a cat. A 9-month-old, indoors-only, female spayed, domestic medium hair cat presented for vomiting, open-mouth breathing and acute collapse. The initial physical examination identified moderate to severe hypothermia [35°C (95°F)], obtunded mentation, weak femoral pulses, tachycardia (heart rate 240 beats per min), pale pink mucous membranes and significant splenomegaly on abdominal palpation...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847554/generation-of-transgenic-chickens-expressing-the-human-erythropoietin-hepo-gene-in-an-oviduct-specific-manner-production-of-transgenic-chicken-eggs-containing-human-erythropoietin-in-egg-whites
#5
Mo Sun Kwon, Bon Chul Koo, Dohyang Kim, Yu Hwa Nam, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Teoan Kim
The transgenic chicken has been considered as a prospective bioreactor for large-scale production of costly pharmaceutical proteins. In the present study, we report successful generation of transgenic hens that lay eggs containing a high concentration of human erythropoietin (hEPO) in the ovalbumin. Using a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based pseudotyped lentivirus vector enveloped with G glycoproteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, the replication-defective vector virus carrying the hEPO gene under the control of the chicken ovalbumin promoter was microinjected to the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs (stage X)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802262/corneal-biomechanical-properties-are-associated-with-the-activity-and-prognosis-of-angioid-streaks
#6
Shotaro Asano, Kosuke Nakajima, Kana Kure, Keiko Azuma, Kimiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Murata, Tatsuya Inoue, Ryo Obata, Ryo Asaoka
The aim of the current study is to investigate corneal biomechanical properties in detail using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and Corvis ST (CST) tonometry and to analyze the association between corneal biomechanical properties and the frequency of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (FIV ) in AS eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Twenty-eight eyes of 15 patients with AS were enrolled. Mean age of AS patients was 67.9 ± 9.8 years. ORA and CST measurements were carried out, in addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examinations...
May 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794987/multiple-independent-t-cell-lymphomas-arising-in-an-experimentally-fiv-infected-cat-during-the-terminal-stage-of-infection
#7
Brian G Murphy, Christina Eckstrand, Diego Castillo, Andre Poon, Molly Liepnieks, Kristy Harmon, Peter Moore
Our laboratory has serially reported on the virologic and immunopathologic features of a cohort of experimental feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats for more than eight years. At 8.09 years post infection (PI), one of these animals entered the terminal stage of infection, characterized by undulating hyperthermia, progressive anorexia, weight loss, and pancytopenia; the animal was not responsive to therapeutic interventions, necessitating euthanasia six weeks later (8.20 years PI). Subsequent analyses indicated that neoplastic lymphocytes infiltrated multiple cervical lymph nodes and a band-like region of the mucosal lamina propria within a segment of the intestine...
May 24, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789450/lessons-learned-in-developing-a-commercial-fiv-vaccine-the-immunity-required-for-an-effective-hiv-1-vaccine
#8
REVIEW
Bikash Sahay, Janet K Yamamoto
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine called Fel-O-Vax® FIV is the first commercial FIV vaccine released worldwide for the use in domestic cats against global FIV subtypes (A⁻E). This vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype (A plus D) FIV-infected cells, whereas its prototype vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype whole viruses. Both vaccines in experimental trials conferred moderate-to-substantial protection against heterologous strains from homologous and heterologous subtypes. Importantly, a recent case-control field study of Fel-O-Vax-vaccinated cats with outdoor access and ≥3 years of annual vaccine boost, resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 56% in Australia where subtype-A viruses prevail...
May 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772771/a-novel-hepadnavirus-identified-in-an-immunocompromised-domestic-cat-in-australia
#9
Mahdis Aghazadeh, Mang Shi, Vanessa R Barrs, Alicia J McLuckie, Scott A Lindsay, Barbara Jameson, Bronte Hampson, Edward C Holmes, Julia A Beatty
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae , tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772651/properties-and-functions-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-gag-domains-in-virion-assembly-and-budding
#10
REVIEW
Silvia A González, José L Affranchino
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important cat pathogen worldwide whose biological and pathophysiological properties resemble those of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Therefore, the study of FIV not only benefits its natural host but is also useful for the development of antiviral strategies directed against HIV-1 infections in humans. FIV assembly results from the multimerization of a single but complex viral polypeptide, the Gag precursor. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current knowledge of the proteins encoded by the FIV pol , env , rev , vif, and orf-A genes, and then we will describe and discuss in detail the critical roles that each of the FIV Gag domains plays in virion morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769087/replacement-of-feline-foamy-virus-bet-by-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-vif-yields-replicative-virus-with-novel-vaccine-candidate-potential
#11
Carmen Ledesma-Feliciano, Sarah Hagen, Ryan Troyer, Xin Zheng, Esther Musselman, Dragana Slavkovic Lukic, Ann-Mareen Franke, Daniel Maeda, Jörg Zielonka, Carsten Münk, Guochao Wei, Sue VandeWoude, Martin Löchelt
BACKGROUND: Hosts are able to restrict viral replication to contain virus spread before adaptive immunity is fully initiated. Many viruses have acquired genes directly counteracting intrinsic restriction mechanisms. This phenomenon has led to a co-evolutionary signature for both the virus and host which often provides a barrier against interspecies transmission events. Through different mechanisms of action, but with similar consequences, spumaviral feline foamy virus (FFV) Bet and lentiviral feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif counteract feline APOBEC3 (feA3) restriction factors that lead to hypermutation and degradation of retroviral DNA genomes...
May 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736270/fiv-vaccine-with-receptor-epitopes-results-in-neutralizing-antibodies-but-does-not-confer-resistance-to-challenge
#12
Craig Miller, Mauren Emanuelli, Elizabeth Fink, Esther Musselman, Ryan Mackie, Ryan Troyer, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and utilizes parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry. The FIV surface glycoprotein (SU) is an important target for induction of neutralizing antibodies, and autoantibodies to the FIV binding receptor (CD134) block infection ex vivo; thus highlighting the potential for immunotherapies which utilize anti-receptor antibodies to block viral infection. To determine whether vaccination with CD134-SU complexes could induce protection against FIV infection, cats ( n  = 5 per group) were immunized with soluble CD134, recombinant FIV-SU protein, and/or CD134+SU complexes...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710792/epigenetic-modulation-of-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-function-in-lentivirus-infections-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Mukta Nag, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
CD8⁺ T cells are critical for controlling viremia during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These cells produce cytolytic factors and antiviral cytokines that eliminate virally- infected cells. During the chronic phase of HIV infection, CD8⁺ T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity and antiviral functions. These dysfunctional cells are unable to clear the productively infected and reactivated cells, representing a roadblock in HIV cure. Therefore, mechanisms to understand CD8⁺ T cell dysfunction and strategies to boost CD8⁺ T cell function need to be investigated...
April 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678936/effect-of-stroke-thrombolysis-predicted-by-distal-vessel-occlusion-detection
#14
Wolfgang G Kunz, Matthias P Fabritius, Wieland H Sommer, Christopher Höhne, Pierre Scheffler, Lukas T Rotkopf, Wolfgang P Fendler, Bastian O Sabel, Felix G Meinel, Franziska Dorn, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Maximilian F Reiser, Kolja M Thierfelder
OBJECTIVE: Among ischemic stroke patients with negative CT angiography (CTA), we aimed to determine the predictive value of enhanced distal vessel occlusion detection using CT perfusion postprocessing (waveletCTA) for the treatment effect of IV thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS: Patients were selected from 1,851 consecutive patients who had undergone CT perfusion. Inclusion criteria were (1) significant cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficit, (2) no occlusion on CTA, and (3) infarction confirmed on follow-up...
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677149/prior-puma-lentivirus-infection-modifies-early-immune-responses-and-attenuates-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cats
#15
Wendy S Sprague, Ryan M Troyer, Xin Zheng, Britta A Wood, Martha Macmillian, Scott Carver, Susan VandeWoude
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4⁺ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677122/applications-of-the-fiv-model-to-study-hiv-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642583/feline-apobec3s-barriers-to-cross-species-transmission-of-fiv
#17
REVIEW
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Daniela Marino, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Il-Keun Kong, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk
The replication of lentiviruses highly depends on host cellular factors, which defines their species-specific tropism. Cellular restriction factors that can inhibit lentiviral replication were recently identified. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was found to be sensitive to several feline cellular restriction factors, such as apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) and tetherin, but FIV evolved to counteract them. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which feline APOBEC3 restriction factors inhibit FIV replication and discuss the molecular interaction of APOBEC3 proteins with the viral antagonizing protein Vif...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627794/association-of-follow-up-infarct-volume-with-functional-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-pooled-analysis-of-seven-randomized-trials
#18
Anna M M Boers, Ivo G H Jansen, Ludo F M Beenen, Thomas G Devlin, Luis San Roman, Ji Hoe Heo, Marc Ribó, Scott Brown, Mohammed A Almekhlafi, David S Liebeskind, Jeanne Teitelbaum, Hester F Lingsma, Wim H van Zwam, Patricia Cuadras, Richard du Mesnil de Rochemont, Marine Beaumont, Martin M Brown, Albert J Yoo, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Bijoy K Menon, Geoffrey A Donnan, Jean Louis Mas, Yvo B W E M Roos, Catherine Oppenheim, Aad van der Lugt, Richard J Dowling, Michael D Hill, Antoni Davalos, Thierry Moulin, Nelly Agrinier, Andrew M Demchuk, Demetrius K Lopes, Lucia Aja Rodríguez, Diederik W J Dippel, Bruce C V Campbell, Peter J Mitchell, Fahad S Al-Ajlan, Tudor G Jovin, Jeremy Madigan, Gregory W Albers, Sebastien Soize, Francis Guillemin, Vivek K Reddy, Serge Bracard, Jordi Blasco, Keith W Muir, Raul G Nogueira, Phil M White, Mayank Goyal, Stephen M Davis, Henk A Marquering, Charles B L M Majoie
BACKGROUND: Follow-up infarct volume (FIV) has been recommended as an early indicator of treatment efficacy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Questions remain about the optimal imaging approach for FIV measurement. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of FIV with 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and investigate its dependency on acquisition time and modality. METHODS: Data of seven trials were pooled. FIV was assessed on follow-up (12 hours to 2 weeks) CT or MRI...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611801/a-naturally-occurring-feline-apobec3-variant-that-loses-anti-lentiviral-activity-by-lacking-two-amino-acid-residues
#19
Yoriyuki Konno, Shumpei Nagaoka, Izumi Kimura, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, Ryuichi Kumata, Jumpei Ito, So Nakagawa, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) is a mammalian protein that restricts lentiviral replication. Various polymorphisms of mammalian APOBEC3 genes have been observed in humans, Old World monkeys and domestic cats; however, the genetic diversity of APOBEC3 genes in other mammals remains unaddressed. Here we identify a novel haplotype of the feline APOBEC3Z3 gene, an APOBEC3 gene that restricts feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication, in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599561/concomitant-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-fiv-and-mycoplasma-haemofelis-in-a-barn-cat
#20
Alejandra Ceballos-Vasquez
A 5-year-old male barn cat was presented with lethargy and excessive bleeding following castration. The patient developed hemolytic anemia and diagnostic tests revealed infection with feline immunodeficiency virus and Mycoplasma haemofelis. This case serves as a reminder of the importance of testing for infectious diseases and educating owners on feline infectious disease prevention and management.
March 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
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