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Applied behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036201/impact-of-social-separation-during-pregnancy-on-the-manifestation-of-defensive-behaviors-related-to-generalized-anxiety-and-panic-throughout-offspring-development
#1
Flaviane Cristina de Brito Guzzo Soliani, Rafael Cabbia, Matheus Fitipaldi Batistela, Amarylis Garcia Almeida, Vinícius Dias Kümpel, Luiz Yamauchi Junior, Telma Gonçalves Carneiro Spera de Andrade
The multiple insecurities, anatomical, physiological and psychological changes arising from the gestational period can generate an overload of stress in the mother and cause disturbances in the offspring, affecting it throughout its development. The existing analysis linking prenatal stress and offspring's anxiety have divergent results, being limited as to gestational week, type of stressor and age of progeny's assessment. Social separation has been described as a stressor that causes increase in anxiety. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of social separation applied in one of the three gestational weeks of rat dams on the manifestation of the defensive behaviors related to generalized anxiety disorder and panic in the Elevated T Maze of the male progeny in three stages of development (1, 3 or 6 months of life)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035220/robot-training-with-vector-fields-based-on-stroke-survivors-individual-movement-statistics
#2
Zachary A Wright, Emily Lazzaro, Kelly O Thielbar, James L Patton, Felix C Huang
The wide variation in upper extremity motor impairments among stroke survivors necessitates more intelligent methods of customized therapy. However, current strategies for characterizing individual motor impairments are limited by the use of traditional clinical assessments (e.g. Fugl-Meyer) and simple engineering metrics (e.g. goal-directed performance). Our overall approach is to statistically identify the range of volitional movement capabilities, and then apply a robot-applied force vector field intervention that encourages under-expressed movements...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034462/a-model-based-cluster-analysis-of-maternal-emotion-regulation-and-relations-to-parenting-behavior
#3
Anne Shaffer, Monica Whitehead, Molly Davis, Diana Morelen, Cynthia Suveg
In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (Mage  = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks...
October 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032446/homogenization-analysis-of-invasion-dynamics-in-heterogeneous-landscapes-with-differential-bias-and-motility
#4
Brian P Yurk
Animal movement behaviors vary spatially in response to environmental heterogeneity. An important problem in spatial ecology is to determine how large-scale population growth and dispersal patterns emerge within highly variable landscapes. We apply the method of homogenization to study the large-scale behavior of a reaction-diffusion-advection model of population growth and dispersal. Our model includes small-scale variation in the directed and random components of movement and growth rates, as well as large-scale drift...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032223/glyphosate-and-roundup-%C3%A2-alter-morphology-and-behavior-in-zebrafish
#5
Daiane Bridi, Stefani Altenhofen, Jonas Brum Gonzalez, Gustavo Kellerman Reolon, Carla Denise Bonan
Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup(®). This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals...
October 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031976/understanding-protein-interface-interactions-of-a-fusion-protein-at-silicone-oil-water-interface-probed-by-sum-frequency-generation-vibrational-spectroscopy
#6
Yaoxin Li, Duohai Pan, Vishal Nashine, Smeet Deshmukh, Balvinder Vig, Zhan Chen
Protein adsorbed at the silicone oil-water interface can undergo a conformational change that has the potential to induce protein aggregation upon storage. Characterization of the protein structures at interface is therefore critical for understanding the protein-interface interactions. In this paper, we have applied sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for studying the secondary structures of a fusion protein at interface and the surfactant effect on protein adsorption to silicone oil-water interface...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031511/the-mechanical-fingerprint-of-murine-excisional-wounds
#7
Marco Pensalfini, Eric Haertel, Raoul Hopf, Mateusz Wietecha, Sabine Werner, Edoardo Mazza
A multiscale mechanics approach to the characterization of murine excisional wounds subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is presented. Local strain analysis at a physiological level of tension uncovers the presence of two distinct regions within the wound: i) a very compliant peripheral cushion and ii) a core area undergoing modest deformation. Microstructural visualizations of stretched wound specimens show negligible engagement of the collagen located in the center of a 7-day old wound; fibers remain coiled despite the applied tension, confirming the existence of a mechanically isolated wound core...
October 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031391/a-dose-response-study-of-the-effect-of-prostaglandin-e2-on-thermal-nociceptive-sensitivity
#8
Anthony F Domenichiello, Breanne C Wilhite, Gregory S Keyes, Christopher E Ramsden
Inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis has been used to relieve pain for thousands of years. Today non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (which largely inhibit PG synthesis) are widely used to treat pain. Four main types of PGs (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2 and PGI2) are synthesized from arachidonic acid during inflammation and have been demonstrated to impact nociception. PGE2 has been the most studied and utilized for its pain producing properties and has been demonstrated to increase hypersensitivity in rodent nociceptive behavioral models when applied centrally and/or peripherally...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030034/a-novel-polyacrylamide-based-silica-stationary-phase-for-the-separation-of-carbohydrates-using-alcohols-as-the-weak-eluent-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography
#9
Jianfeng Cai, Lingping Cheng, Jianchao Zhao, Qing Fu, Yu Jin, Yanxiong Ke, Xinmiao Liang
A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared by a two-step synthesis method, immobilizing polyacrylamide on silica sphere particles. The stationary phase (named PA, 5μm dia) was evaluated using a mixture of carbohydrates in HILIC mode and the column efficiency reached 121,000Nm(-1). The retention behavior of carbohydrates on PA stationary phase was investigated with three different organic solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol and methanol) employed as the weak eluent. The strongest hydrophilicity of PA stationary phase was observed in both acetonitrile and methanol as the weak eluent, when compared with another two amide stationary phases...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029449/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#10
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#11
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#12
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026783/knowledge-and-practice-on-malaria-among-korean-soldiers-in-nearby-demilitarized-zone-in-south-korea
#13
Yeong Seon Hong, Dong-Kyu Lee, Jin-Han Yoon, Aeree Sohn
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for developing intervention and effective management for the prevention of malaria based on epidemiological analysis and assessment of Korean soldiers' knowledge on malaria and malaria preventive behavior. METHODS: The data were collected from 294 Korean soldiers nearby the demilitarized zone in Gyeonggi Province in 2016. Multiple regression analyses were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The level of education (β=...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026197/differences-in-tribological-behaviors-upon-switching-fixed-and-moving-materials-of-tribo-pairs-including-metal-and-polymer
#14
Aijie Xu, Pengyi Tian, Shizhu Wen, Fei Guo, Yueqiang Hu, Wenpeng Jia, Conglin Dong, Yu Tian
The coefficient of friction (COF) between two materials is usually believed to be an intrinsic property of the materials themselves. In this study, metals of stainless steel (304) and brass (H62), and polymers of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were tested on a standard ball-on-three-plates test machine. Significantly different tribological behaviors were observed when fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs (metal/polymer) were switched. As an example, under the same applied load and rotating speed, the COF (0...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025269/toward-a-qualitative-understanding-of-binge-watching-behaviors-a-focus-group-approach
#15
Maèva Flayelle, Pierre Maurage, Joël Billieux
Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023626/bayesian-variable-selection-for-multistate-markov-models-with-interval-censored-data-in-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study-of-smoking-cessation
#16
Matthew D Koslovsky, Michael D Swartz, Wenyaw Chan, Luis Leon-Novelo, Anna V Wilkinson, Darla E Kendzor, Michael S Businelle
The application of sophisticated analytical methods to intensive longitudinal data, collected with ecological momentary assessments (EMA), has helped researchers better understand smoking behaviors after a quit attempt. Unfortunately, the wealth of information captured with EMAs is typically underutilized in practice. Thus, novel methods are needed to extract this information in exploratory research studies. One of the main objectives of intensive longitudinal data analysis is identifying relations between risk factors and outcomes of interest...
October 11, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023540/emotional-and-tangible-social-support-in-a-german-population-based-sample-development-and-validation-of-the-brief-social-support-scale-bs6
#17
Manfred E Beutel, Elmar Brähler, Jörg Wiltink, Matthias Michal, Eva M Klein, Claus Jünger, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Maria Blettner, Karl Lackner, Stefan Nickels, Ana N Tibubos
Aim of the study was the development and validation of the psychometric properties of a six-item bi-factorial instrument for the assessment of social support (emotional and tangible support) with a population-based sample. A cross-sectional data set of N = 15,010 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) in 2007-2012 was divided in two sub-samples. The GHS is a population-based, prospective, observational single-center cohort study in the Rhein-Main-Region in western Mid-Germany. The first sub-sample was used for scale development by performing an exploratory factor analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022970/ms-all-strategy-for-comprehensive-quantitative-analysis-of-pegylated-doxorubicin-peg-and-doxorubicin-by-lc-high-resolution-q-q-tof-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-all-window-acquisition-of-all-fragment-ion-spectra
#18
Lei Yin, Chong Su, Tianming Ren, Xiangjun Meng, Meiyun Shi, J Paul Fawcett, Mengliang Zhang, Wei Hu, Jingkai Gu
The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic compounds (known as PEGylation) is one of the most promising techniques to improve the biological efficacy of small molecular weight drugs. After administration, PEGylated prodrugs can be metabolized into pharmacologically active compounds so that PEGylated drug, free drug and released PEG are present simultaneously in the body. Understanding the pharmacokinetic behavior of these three compounds is needed to guide the development of pegylated theranostic agents...
October 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022251/genetic-and-environmental-relationships-between-eating-behavior-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#19
Yun-Mi Song, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung
PURPOSE: To assess gender-specific genetic and environmental correlations between depressive and anxiety symptoms, and concurrent and follow-up eating behavior in Korean twins and their family members. METHODS: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms in subjects. To assess concurrent and follow-up relationships of the symptoms with eating behavior domains (restrained, emotional, and external eating), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to 2359 subjects at baseline (men, 48...
October 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022077/no-association-between-periodontitis-and-preterm-low-birth-weight-a-case-control-study
#20
Mariana Fampa Fogacci, Elaine de O C Cardoso, Davi da S Barbirato, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Carmelo Sansone
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. METHODS: This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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