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Applied behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448374/characteristics-and-correlates-of-caregivers-perceptions-of-their-family-members-memory-loss
#1
Hairong Yu, Jennifer H Lingler, Susan M Sereika, Judith A Erlen
BACKGROUND: Understanding caregiver's perceptions of their family member's memory loss is a necessary step in planning nursing interventions to detect and address caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize caregivers' perceptions of their family members' memory loss and identify potential correlates within Leventhal's common sense model (CSM). METHODS: This secondary analysis used baseline data from a larger randomized controlled trial...
May 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447844/frontal-theta-band-oscillations-predict-error-correction-and-posterror-slowing-in-typing
#2
Çığır Kalfaoğlu, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Performance errors are associated with robust behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) effects. However, there is a debate about the nature of the relationship between these effects and implicit versus explicit error awareness. Our aim was to study the relationship between error related electrophysiological effects, such as spectral perturbations in fronto-medial theta band oscillations (FMT), and error awareness in typing. Typing has an advantage as an experimental paradigm in that detected errors are quickly and habitually signaled by the participant using backspace, allowing separation of detected from undetected errors without interruption in behavior...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447811/likelihood-based-parameter-estimation-and-comparison-of-dynamical-cognitive-models
#3
Heiko H Schütt, Lars O M Rothkegel, Hans A Trukenbrod, Sebastian Reich, Felix A Wichmann, Ralf Engbert
Dynamical models of cognition play an increasingly important role in driving theoretical and experimental research in psychology. Therefore, parameter estimation, model analysis and comparison of dynamical models are of essential importance. In this article, we propose a maximum likelihood approach for model analysis in a fully dynamical framework that includes time-ordered experimental data. Our methods can be applied to dynamical models for the prediction of discrete behavior (e.g., movement onsets); in particular, we use a dynamical model of saccade generation in scene viewing as a case study for our approach...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447810/surviving-blind-decomposition-a-distributional-analysis-of-the-time-course-of-complex-word-recognition
#4
Daniel Schmidtke, Kazunaga Matsuki, Victor Kuperman
The current study addresses a discrepancy in the psycholinguistic literature about the chronology of information processing during the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Form-then-meaning accounts of complex word recognition claim that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings, whereas form-and-meaning models posit that recognition of complex word forms involves the simultaneous access of morphological and semantic information. The study reported here addresses this theoretical discrepancy by applying a nonparametric distributional technique of survival analysis (Reingold & Sheridan, 2014) to 2 behavioral measures of complex word processing...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446497/best-but-oft-forgotten-practices-mediation-analysis
#5
Amanda J Fairchild, Heather L McDaniel
This contribution in the "Best (but Oft-Forgotten) Practices" series considers mediation analysis. A mediator (sometimes referred to as an intermediate variable, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint) is a third variable that explains how or why ≥2 other variables relate in a putative causal pathway. The current article discusses mediation analysis with the ultimate intention of helping nutrition researchers to clarify the rationale for examining mediation, avoid common pitfalls when using the model, and conduct well-informed analyses that can contribute to improving causal inference in evaluations of underlying mechanisms of effects on nutrition-related behavioral and health outcomes...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446196/self-reported-general-health-physical-distress-mental-distress-and-activity-limitation-by-us-county-1995-2012
#6
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Johan P Mackenbach, Frank J van Lenthe, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Metrics based on self-reports of health status have been proposed for tracking population health and making comparisons among different populations. While these metrics have been used in the US to explore disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position, less is known about how self-reported health varies geographically. This study aimed to describe county-level trends in the prevalence of poor self-reported health and to assess the face validity of these estimates...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446072/the-influence-of-force-direction-on-the-fracture-pattern-and-fracture-resistance-of-canine-teeth-in-dogs
#7
Stephanie Goldschmidt, Catherine Zimmerman, Caitlyn Collins, Scott Hetzel, Heidi-Lynn Ploeg, Jason W Soukup
Biomechanical studies of the elongated canine tooth of animals are few, and thus our understanding of mechanical and physical properties of animal teeth is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of force direction on fracture resistance and fracture pattern of canine teeth in an ex vivo dog cadaver model. Forty-five extracted canine teeth from laboratory beagle dogs were standardized by hard tissue volume and randomly distributed among 3 force direction groups. The teeth were secured within a universal testing machine and a load was applied at different directions based on testing group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445946/dose-invasive-apocrine-adenocarcinoma-has-worse-prognosis-than-invasive-ductal-carcinoma-of-breast-evidence-from-seer-database
#8
Ning Zhang, Hanwen Zhang, Tong Chen, Qifeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma (AAC) of breast is a rare histopathological subtype of breast carcinomas. We aim to investigate the different characteristics and prognostic outcomes between AAC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of breast cancer. RESULTS: AAC patients presented with older ages, more aggressive behaviors, lower ER and PR proportions, higher HER2 amplification rates and less application of breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy compared to IDC patients...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#9
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445551/pattern-classification-of-eeg-signals-reveals-perceptual-and-attentional-states
#10
Alexandra List, Monica D Rosenberg, Aleksandra Sherman, Michael Esterman
Pattern classification techniques have been widely used to differentiate neural activity associated with different perceptual, attentional, or other cognitive states, often using fMRI, but more recently with EEG as well. Although these methods have identified EEG patterns (i.e., scalp topographies of EEG signals occurring at certain latencies) that decode perceptual and attentional states on a trial-by-trial basis, they have yet to be applied to the spatial scope of attention toward global or local features of the display...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444842/microwave-assisted-preparation-of-poly-ionic-liquid-modified-polystyrene-magnetic-nanospheres-for-phthalate-esters-extraction-from-beverages
#11
Gehui Liu, Ping Su, Lian Zhou, Yi Yang
The fabrication of novel poly(ionic liquid)-modified polystyrene magnetic nanospheres by a one-pot mini-emulsion copolymerization reaction was achieved through an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic behavior of the as-prepared magnetic materials were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, etc. The magnetic materials were utilized as sorbents for the extraction of phthalate esters from beverage samples followed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443682/abandonment-of-dogs-and-cats-public-opinions-as-population-management-indicators
#12
Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Evelyn Nestori Chiozzotto, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia, Marcos Amaku, Fernando Ferreira
This study involved characterizing public opinions on selected issues related to the abandonment of dogs and cats in Votorantim, São Paulo, Brazil. This goal was achieved by applying multiple correspondence analysis to answers recorded in questionnaires of a population-based survey. The results suggest that the tolerance of potentially problematic behaviors did not depend on the specific kind of behavior, at least among the behaviors evaluated. The opinions given for the most frequent fate of the companion animals did not depend on the species, and those who considered abandonment to be one of the most frequent fates tended to also consider abandonment as a solution to problematic behaviors...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443654/quantifying-the-self-assembly-behavior-of-anisotropic-nanoparticles-using-liquid-phase-transmission-electron-microscopy
#13
Binbin Luo, John W Smith, Zihao Ou, Qian Chen
For decades, one of the overarching objectives of self-assembly science has been to define the rules necessary to build functional, artificial materials with rich and adaptive phase behavior from the bottom-up. To this end, the computational and experimental efforts of chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and biologists alike have built a body of knowledge that spans both disciplines and length scales. Indeed, today control of self-assembly is extending even to supramolecular and molecular levels, where crystal engineering and design of porous materials are becoming exciting areas of exploration...
April 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443037/analyzing-dyadic-sequence-data-research-questions-and-implied-statistical-models
#14
Peter Fuchs, Fridtjof W Nussbeck, Nathalie Meuwly, Guy Bodenmann
The analysis of observational data is often seen as a key approach to understanding dynamics in romantic relationships but also in dyadic systems in general. Statistical models for the analysis of dyadic observational data are not commonly known or applied. In this contribution, selected approaches to dyadic sequence data will be presented with a focus on models that can be applied when sample sizes are of medium size (N = 100 couples or less). Each of the statistical models is motivated by an underlying potential research question, the most important model results are presented and linked to the research question...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443012/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-subserves-precise-motor-timing-in-professional-drummers
#15
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441570/neural-indices-of-phonemic-discrimination-and-sentence-level-speech-intelligibility-in-quiet-and-noise-a-p3-study
#16
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang, Peggy B Nelson, Boxiang Wang, Hui Zou
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response...
April 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440581/the-toxicity-of-silver-to-soil-organisms-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-silver-nitrate-in-biosolids-amended-field-soil
#17
Alexander H Jesmer, Jessica R Velicogna, Dina M Schwertfeger, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag(+) ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using silver-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag(+) in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO3 soil extracts while exposure to dispersible AgNP was verified by single particle-ICP-MS and TEM-EDS analysis...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439231/informing-the-structure-of-executive-function-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-data
#18
Róisín McKenna, T Rushe, Kate A Woodcock
The structure of executive function (EF) has been the focus of much debate for decades. What is more, the complexity and diversity provided by the developmental period only adds to this contention. The development of executive function plays an integral part in the expression of children's behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional capabilities. Understanding how these processes are constructed during development allows for effective measurement of EF in this population. This meta-analysis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the structure of executive function in children...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439162/evaluating-the-effect-of-minimizing-screws-on-stabilization-of-symphysis-mandibular-fracture-by-3d-finite-element-analysis
#19
Ghias Kharmanda, Mohamed-Yaser Kharma
PURPOSE: The objective of this work is to integrate structural optimization and reliability concepts into mini-plate fixation strategy used in symphysis mandibular fractures. The structural reliability levels are next estimated when considering a single failure mode and multiple failure modes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed in order to evaluate the ability of reducing the negative effect due to the stabilization of the fracture...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439075/switch-from-ambient-to-focal-processing-mode-explains-the-dynamics-of-free-viewing-eye-movements
#20
Junji Ito, Yukako Yamane, Mika Suzuki, Pedro Maldonado, Ichiro Fujita, Hiroshi Tamura, Sonja Grün
Previous studies have reported that humans employ ambient and focal modes of visual exploration while they freely view natural scenes. These two modes have been characterized based on eye movement parameters such as saccade amplitude and fixation duration, but not by any visual features of the viewed scenes. Here we propose a new characterization of eye movements during free viewing based on how eyes are moved from and to objects in a visual scene. We applied this characterization to data obtained from freely-viewing macaque monkeys...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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