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Applied behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095421/approximate-inference-for-time-varying-interactions-and-macroscopic-dynamics-of-neural-populations
#1
Christian Donner, Klaus Obermayer, Hideaki Shimazaki
The models in statistical physics such as an Ising model offer a convenient way to characterize stationary activity of neural populations. Such stationary activity of neurons may be expected for recordings from in vitro slices or anesthetized animals. However, modeling activity of cortical circuitries of awake animals has been more challenging because both spike-rates and interactions can change according to sensory stimulation, behavior, or an internal state of the brain. Previous approaches modeling the dynamics of neural interactions suffer from computational cost; therefore, its application was limited to only a dozen neurons...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095002/the-personality-context-of-relational-aggression-a-five-factor-model-profile-analysis
#2
Kathleen W Reardon, Jennifer L Tackett, Don Lynam
Relational aggression (RAgg) is a form of behavior intended to damage the victim's social status or interpersonal relationships through the use of purposeful interpersonal manipulation or social exclusion (Archer & Coyne, 2005). RAgg is impairing, stable, and largely defined by dysfunctional patterns of interpersonal interactions-all of which invokes comparisons to personality and, more specifically, personality pathology. Leveraging research using the Five Factor Model (FFM) in personality disorder (PD) work, the present study aims to understand the personality context of RAgg by applying this FFM profile approach in 2 ways: (a) by compiling a personality profile of RAgg based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and (b) by compiling a personality profile of RAgg based on expert ratings (N = 19)...
January 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091784/recognition-of-d-penicillamine-using-schiff-base-centered-fluorescent-organic-nanoparticles-and-application-to-medicine-analysis
#3
Prasad G Mahajan, Govind B Kolekar, Shivajirao R Patil
Schiff base centered fluorescent organic compound 1,1'-[(1E,2E)-hydrazine-1,2-diylidenedi(E)methylylidene]- dinaphthalen-2-ol (HN) was synthesized followed by spectral characterization viz., NMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy. The fluorescent nanoparticles of HN prepared using reprecipitation method shows red shifted aggregation induced enhanced emission (AIEE) with respect to HN solution in acetone. The average particle size of nanoparticles (HNNPs) is of 67.2 nm shows sphere shape morphology. The surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) used to stabilize HNNPs induces positive charge surface with zeta potential of 11...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091599/a-comprehensive-numerical-model-for-simulating-fluid-transport-in-nanopores
#4
Yuan Zhang, Wei Yu, Kamy Sepehrnoori, Yuan Di
Since a large amount of nanopores exist in tight oil reservoirs, fluid transport in nanopores is complex due to large capillary pressure. Recent studies only focus on the effect of nanopore confinement on single-well performance with simple planar fractures in tight oil reservoirs. Its impacts on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries have not been reported. In this study, a numerical model was developed to investigate the effect of confined phase behavior on cumulative oil and gas production of four horizontal wells with different fracture geometries...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090606/hierarchical-span-based-conditional-random-fields-for-labeling-and-segmenting-events-in-wearable-sensor-data-streams
#5
Roy J Adams, Nazir Saleheen, Edison Thomaz, Abhinav Parate, Santosh Kumar, Benjamin M Marlin
The field of mobile health (mHealth) has the potential to yield new insights into health and behavior through the analysis of continuously recorded data from wearable health and activity sensors. In this paper, we present a hierarchical span-based conditional random field model for the key problem of jointly detecting discrete events in such sensor data streams and segmenting these events into high-level activity sessions. Our model includes higher-order cardinality factors and inter-event duration factors to capture domain-specific structure in the label space...
June 2016: Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Machine Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088935/status-of-ocular-trauma-in-hospitalized-patients-in-kashan-2011-as-a-sample-of-industrial-city
#6
Mehdi Shaeri, Alireza Moravveji, Mohammad-Reza Fazel, Fatemeh Rangraz Jeddi
PURPOSE: Ocular trauma is the third leading cause of hospitalization in ophthalmology patients, imposing direct and indirect physical and psychological costs on society. This study aims to investigate the status of ocular trauma in hospitalized patients in the industrialized city of Kashan in 2011. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive applied study was conducted in 2012 on patients hospitalized for ocular trauma. Data, including age, gender, occupation, education, timing of admission following accident, location of accident, type of injury, damaging instrument, and type of trauma, were collected using a questionnaire designed by a trained nurse, and analyzed using SPSS-16 software by means of means ± standard deviation, frequency, and percentage for descriptive data and t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Chi-square and Fisher exact test for analysis at significance level of p < 0...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088071/discrete-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-damping-analysis-of-connective-tissues-and-the-biomechanics-of-stretching
#7
Behzad Babaei, Aaron J Velasquez-Mao, Stavros Thomopoulos, Elliot L Elson, Steven D Abramowitch, Guy M Genin
The time- and frequency-dependent properties of connective tissue define their physiological function, but are notoriously difficult to characterize. Well-established tools such as linear viscoelasticity and the Fung quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model impose forms on responses that can mask true tissue behavior. Here, we applied a more general discrete quasi-linear viscoelastic (DQLV) model to identify the static and dynamic time- and frequency-dependent behavior of rabbit medial collateral ligaments. Unlike the Fung QLV approach, the DQLV approach revealed that energy dissipation is elevated at a loading period of ∼10s...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087598/bayesian-network-inference-modeling-identifies-trib1-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cell-cycle-progression-and-survival-in-cancer-cells
#8
Rina Gendelman, Heming Xing, Olga K Mirzoeva, Preeti Sarde, Christina Curtis, Heidi Feiler, Paul McDonagh, Joe W Gray, Iya Khalil, W Michael Korn
Molecular networks governing cellular responses to targeted therapies are complex dynamic systems with non-intuitive behaviors. Here we applied a novel computational strategy to infer probabilistic causal relationships between network components based on gene expression. We constructed a model comprised of an ensemble of networks using multidimensional data from cell line models of cell cycle arrest caused by inhibition of MEK1/2. Through simulation of reverse-engineered Bayesian network modeling, we generated predictions of G1-S transition...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087173/at-the-heart-of-the-problem-a-person-centred-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-alcohol-consumption-and-cardio-vascular-events
#9
Valéria Lima Passos, Sven Klijn, Kevin van Zandvoort, Latifa Abidi, Paul Lemmens
INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE). OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081001/how-assembly-matters-to-catalysis-and-thermal-conductivity-mediated-by-cuo-nanoparticles
#10
Ahmed Mohsen Ismail, Mahmoud Mohamed Emara, Taher Salah El Din Kassem, Mahmoud Ahmed Moussa
CuO nanostructures (NSs) of different morphologies were prepared, applied as catalysts for the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (PSCB), and applied for thermally-conductive nanofluids. Both size and shape of the prepared NSs ranged from 5 to 1000 nm, and from nanodots (NDs) to spindle nano-aggregates (NAs), respectively. The catalytic activity of these NSs towards the PSCB was followed up by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), where they increased the percentage of total weight loss, and lowered the decomposition temperatures of PSCB...
January 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079810/risk-of-vertebral-compression-fractures-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-a-finite-element-study
#11
D Anitha, Baum Thomas, Kirschke S Jan, Karupppasamy Subburaj
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model to predict vertebral bone strength in vitro using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, to serve as a complementing tool to assess fracture risk. In addition, it also aims to differentiate MM patients with and without vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) by performing FE analysis on vertebra segments (T1-L5) obtained from in vivo routine MDCT imaging scans. MDCT-based FE models were developed from the in vitro vertebrae samples and were then applied to the in vivo vertebrae segments of MM patients (n = 4) after validation...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#12
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078495/economic-context-and-hiv-vulnerability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-in-urban-slums-in-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis-based-on-scarcity-theory
#13
Larissa Jennings, Muthoni Mathai, Sebastian Linnemayr, Antonio Trujillo, Margaret Mak'anyengo, Brooke E E Montgomery, Deanna L Kerrigan
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology...
January 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077965/distinct-profiles-of-reactive-and-proactive-aggression-in-adolescents-associations-with-cognitive-and-affective-empathy
#14
Felix Euler, Célia Steinlin, Christina Stadler
BACKGROUND: Aggression comprises a heterogeneous set of behavioral patterns that aim to harm and hurt others. Empathy represents a potential mechanism that inhibits aggressive conduct and enhances prosocial behavior. Nevertheless, research results on the relationship between empathy and aggression are mixed. Subtypes of aggressive behavior, such as reactive and proactive aggression might be differently related to empathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interrelations of cognitive and affective empathy with reactive and proactive aggression...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077345/tips-and-traps-lessons-from-codesigning-a-clinician-e-monitoring-tool-for-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#15
Frederick Sundram, Susan J Hawken, Karolina Stasiak, Mathijs Fg Lucassen, Theresa Fleming, Matthew Shepherd, Andrea Greenwood, Raechel Osborne, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) is an acceptable and promising treatment modality for adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression. Many cCBT programs are standalone packages with no way for clinicians to monitor progress or outcomes. We sought to develop an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) tool in consultation with clinicians and adolescents to allow clinicians to monitor mood, risk, and treatment adherence of adolescents completing a cCBT program called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts)...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075433/effects-of-morphine-butorphanol-and-levomethadone-in-different-doses-on-thermal-nociceptive-thresholds-in-horses
#16
Paula Dönselmann Im Sande, Klaus Hopster, Sabine Kästner
OBJECTIVE: Various opioids are available for use in equine medicine. Studies directly comparing their analgesic effects and side effects are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the antinociceptive effect and the duration of analgesia of two different doses of morphine, butorphanol and levomethadone in horses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight adult, healthy horses were used for this randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded cross-over trail. Each horse received placebo (P = 0...
January 11, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#17
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072852/efficacy-of-peer-education-for-adopting-preventive-behaviors-against-head-lice-infestation-in-female-elementary-school-students-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Mahdi Moshki, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Mehdi Mojadam
BACKGROUND: Pediculosis is a common parasitic infestation in students worldwide, including Iran. This condition is more prevalent in populous and deprived communities with poor personal hygiene. This study sought to assess the efficacy of peer education for adopting preventive behaviors against pediculosis in female elementary school students based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: A total of 179 female fifth grade students were selected using multistage random sampling and were randomly allocated to control and intervention groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072701/pathophysiology-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-study-of-visual-search-combined-with-overactive-performance-monitoring
#19
Qingxiao Liu, Bo Tan, Jing Zhou, Zhong Zheng, Ling Li, Yanchun Yang
Based on both functional and structural studies of excessive activity, fronto-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits have been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD refractory to medication and therapy remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate neuroanatomical abnormalities of the whole brain and to evaluate visual processing in patients with refractory OCD.This study was comprised of 2 experiments...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072489/development-and-application-of-sub-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-particle-co2-based-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry-for-comprehensive-analysis-of-lipids-in-cottonseed-extracts
#20
Carolina Salazar, Michael D Jones, Drew Sturtevant, Patrick J Horn, Janna Crossley, Khadiza Zaman, Kent D Chapman, Mark Wrona, Giorgis Isaac, Norman Smith, Vladimir Shulaev
RATIONALE: Refined cottonseed oil has widespread applications in the food and chemical industries. Although the major lipids comprising cottonseed oil (triacylglycerols) are well known, there are many diverse lipid species in cotton seeds that occur at much lower levels and have important nutritional or anti-nutritional properties. METHODS: The lipid technical samples were prepared in chloroform. The biological samples were extracted using a mixture of isopropanol:chloroform:H2 O (2:1:0...
January 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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