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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651246/development-of-a-perfusion-platform-for-dynamic-cultivation-of-in-vitro-skin-models
#1
Kay Strüver, Wolfgang Friess, Sarah Hedtrich
Reconstructed skin models are suitable test systems for toxicity testing and for basic investigations on (patho-)physiological aspects of human skin. Reconstructed human skin, however, has clear limitations such as the lack of immune cells and a significantly weaker skin barrier function compared to native human skin. Potential reasons for the latter might be the lack of mechanical forces during skin model cultivation which is performed classically in static well-plate setups. Mechanical forces and shear stress have a major impact on tissue formation and, hence, tissue engineering...
June 27, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651184/computational-study-of-structural-optoelectronic-and-nonlinear-optical-properties-of-dynamic-solid-state-chalcone-derivatives
#2
Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry, Ahmad Irfan, Shabbir Muhammad, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi, R Ahmed, Zhang Jingping
In the present study, we use the state of art density functional theory (DFT) techniques to calculate the structural, optoelectronic and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for two novel chalcone derivatives. The geometrical structures of chalcone derivatives compound 1 and 2 are optimized using periodic boundary conditions (PBC) in solid-state phase as well as isolated single molecular geometry in the gas phase. The reasonable agreement is found among experimental, solid-state and gas phase single molecular geometries, which provide us, further confidence to explore the potential of above-entitled derivatives as good functional materials for electro-optical applications...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650586/a-complete-thermodynamic-analysis-of-enzyme-turnover-links-the-free-energy-landscape-to-enzyme-catalysis
#3
Hannah Bl Jones, Stephen A Wells, Erica J Prentice, Anthony Kwok, Liyin L Liang, Vickery L Arcus, Christopher R Pudney
Our understanding of how enzymes work is colored by static structure depictions where the enzyme scaffold is presented as either immobile, or in equilibrium between well-defined static conformations. Proteins however exhibit a large degree of motion over a broad range of timescales and magnitudes and this is defined thermodynamically by the enzyme free energy landscape (FEL). The role and importance of enzyme motion is extremely contentious. Much of the challenge is in the experimental detection of so called 'conformational sampling' involved in enzyme turnover...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650034/the-sandpile-revisited-computer-assisted-determination-of-constitutive-relations-and-the-breaking-of-scaling
#4
H George E Hentschel, Prabhat K Jaiswal, Chandana Mondal, Itamar Procaccia, Jacques Zylberg
We revisit the problem of the stress distribution in a frictional sandpile with both normal and tangential (frictional) inter-granular forces, under gravity, equipped with a new numerical method of generating such assemblies. Numerical simulations allow a determination of the spatial dependence of all the components of the stress field, principle stress axis, angle of repose, as a function of systems size, the coefficient of static friction and the frictional interaction with the bottom surface. We compare these results with the predictions of a theory based on continuum equilibrium mechanics...
June 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649973/on-the-geometric-phenomenology-of-static-friction
#5
Shankar Ghosh, A P Merin, Nitin Nitsure
In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649283/clinically-evident-tophi-are-associated-with-reduced-muscle-force-in-the-foot-and-ankle-in-people-with-gout-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Sarah Stewart, Nicola Dalbeth, Simon Otter, Peter Gow, Sunil Kumar, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle represent a common site for tophi in people with gout, yet it is unclear whether the presence of tophi is related to impaired muscle function. This study aimed to determine the association between foot and ankle tophi and muscle force in people with gout. METHODS: Participants with gout were stratified into two groups based on the presence of clinically-evident tophi affecting the foot or ankle on physical examination. Isometric muscle force for plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion was measured using static dynamometry...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649157/use-of-patient-specific-3d-printed-neurovascular-phantoms-to-evaluate-the-clinical-utility-of-a-high-resolution-x-ray-imager
#7
S V Setlur Nagesh, M Russ, C N Ionita, D Bednarek, S Rudin
Modern 3D printing technology can fabricate vascular phantoms based on an actual human patient with a high degree of precision facilitating a realistic simulation environment for an intervention. We present two experimental setups using 3D printed patient-specific neurovasculature to simulate different disease anatomies. To simulate the human neurovasculature in the Circle of Willis, patient-based phantoms with aneurysms were 3D printed using a Objet Eden 260V printer. Anthropomorphic head phantoms and a human skull combined with acrylic plates simulated human head bone anatomy and x-ray attenuation...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649045/roles-of-phytoplankton-and-macrophyte-derived-dissolved-organic-matter-in-sulfamethazine-adsorption-on-goethite
#8
Leilei Bai, Chicheng Cao, Chunliu Wang, Changhui Wang, Hui Zhang, Helong Jiang
Phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (PDOM) and macrophyte-derived dissolved organic matter (MDOM) exist ubiquitously in eutrophic freshwater lakes. To understand the heterogeneous roles of individual fluorescent DOM components in the adsorption of antibiotics onto sediment minerals, the adsorptive fractionation of DOM on goethite (α-FeOOH) and its interaction with sulfamethazine (SMT) were investigated using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649015/on-command-on-off-switching-of-progenitor-cell-and-cancer-cell-polarized-motility-and-aligned-morphology-via-a-cytocompatible-shape-memory-polymer-scaffold
#9
Jing Wang, Andy Quach, Megan E Brasch, Christopher E Turner, James H Henderson
In vitro biomaterial models have enabled advances in understanding the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture in the control of cell motility and polarity. Most models are, however, static and cannot mimic dynamic aspects of in vivo ECM remodeling and function. To address this limitation, we present an electrospun shape memory polymer scaffold that can change fiber alignment on command under cytocompatible conditions. Cellular response was studied using the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 and the murine mesenchymal stem cell line C3H/10T1/2...
June 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648329/biomechanical-properties-of-3-dimensional-printed-volar-locking-distal-radius-plate-comparison-with-conventional-volar-locking-plate
#10
Sung-Jae Kim, Young-Hoon Jo, Wan-Sun Choi, Chang-Hun Lee, Bong-Gun Lee, Joo-Hak Kim, Kwang-Hyun Lee
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. METHODS: For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647883/casper-computer-aided-segmentation-of-imperceptible-motion-a-learning-based-tracking-of-an-invisible-needle-in-ultrasound
#11
Parmida Beigi, Robert Rohling, Septimiu E Salcudean, Gary C Ng
PURPOSE: This paper presents a new micro-motion-based approach to track a needle in ultrasound images captured by a handheld transducer. METHODS: We propose a novel learning-based framework to track a handheld needle by detecting microscale variations of motion dynamics over time. The current state of the art on using motion analysis for needle detection uses absolute motion and hence work well only when the transducer is static. We have introduced and evaluated novel spatiotemporal and spectral features, obtained from the phase image, in a self-supervised tracking framework to improve the detection accuracy in the subsequent frames using incremental training...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647260/numerical-simulation-of-flow-hydrodynamics-of-struvite-pellets-in-a-liquid-solid-fluidized-bed
#12
Xin Ye, Dongyuan Chu, Yaoyin Lou, Zhi-Long Ye, Ming Kuang Wang, Shaohua Chen
Phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite has been aroused in recent decades for its dual advantages in eutrophication control and resource protection. The usage of the struvite products is normally determined by the size which is largely depended on the hydrodynamics. In this study, flow behavior of struvite pellets was simulated by means of Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model combining with kinetic theory of granular flow in a liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor (FBR). A parametric study including the mesh size, time step, discretization strategy, turbulent model and drag model was first developed, followed by the evaluations of crucial operational conditions, particle characteristics and reactor shapes...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646903/human-adipose-tissue-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-act-differentially-on-lung-mechanics-and-inflammation-in-experimental-allergic-asthma
#13
Ligia Lins de Castro, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Patricia Albuquerque Garcia Redondo, Tatiana Paula Teixeira Ferreira, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marco Aurélio Martins, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be difficult to treat due to its complex pathophysiology. Most current drugs focus on controlling the inflammatory process, but are unable to revert the changes of tissue remodeling. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are effective at reducing inflammation and tissue remodeling; nevertheless, no study has evaluated the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) on established airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646694/elimination-of-signals-tilting-caused-by-b0-field-inhomogeneity-using-2d-lineshape-reference-deconvolution
#14
Kirill F Sheberstov, Dmitry O Sinitsyn, Dmitry A Cheshkov, Damien Jeannerat
An efficient approach for reference deconvolution of two-dimensional spectra aiming at the correction of static field inhomogeneity was established. In comparison to known techniques, a great improvement was achieved using the cross-section along the diagonal of the reference peak instead of its full 2D line shape. The method is termed pseudo-2D diagonal deconvolution. The approach developed allows suppressing the two-dimensional peaks tilting caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, while keeping the signal-to-noise ratio constant...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646454/the-oswestry-disability-index-confirmatory-factor-analysis-in-a-sample-of-35-263-verifies-a-one-factor-structure-but-practicality-issues-remain
#15
Charles Philip Gabel, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Meihua Qian, Rok Vengust, Ulrich Berlemann, Emin Aghayev, Markus Melloh
PURPOSE: To analyze the factor structure of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large symptomatic low back pain (LBP) population using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). METHODS: Analysis of pooled baseline ODI LBP patient data from the international Spine Tango registry of EUROSPINE, the Spine Society of Europe. The sample, with n = 35,263 (55.2% female; age 15-99, median 59 years), included 76.1% of patients with a degenerative disease, and 23...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646430/mechanical-strength-assessment-of-a-drilled-hole-in-the-contralateral-cortex-at-the-end-of-the-open-wedge-for-high-tibial-osteotomy
#16
Arnaud Diffo Kaze, Stefan Maas, Alexander Hoffmann, Dietrich Pape
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate, by means of finite element analysis, the effect of a drill hole at the end of a horizontal osteotomy to reduce the risk of lateral cortex fracture while performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The question was whether drilling a hole relieves stress and increases the maximum correction angle without fracture of the lateral cortex depending on the ductility of the cortical bone. METHODS: Two different types of osteotomy cuts were considered; one with a drill hole (diameter 5 mm) and the other without the hole...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645985/a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-interactive-web-based-intervention-cancercope
#17
Suzanne K Chambers, Lee Ritterband, Frances Thorndike, Lisa Nielsen, Joanne F Aitken, Samantha Clutton, Paul Scuffham, Philippa Youl, Bronwyn Morris, Peter Baade, Jeffrey Dunn
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 35% of patients with cancer experience clinically significant distress, and unmet psychological supportive care needs are prevalent. This study describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based psychological intervention for distressed patients with cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In phase I, the intervention was developed on an interactive web platform and pilot tested for acceptability using a qualitative methodology with 21 patients with cancer...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645665/experimental-evaluation-of-stress-distribution-with-narrow-diameter-implants-a-finite-element-analysis
#18
Sezgi Cinel, Ersan Celik, Elcin Sagirkaya, Onur Sahin
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Narrow diameter implants were developed to allow placement in narrow alveolar ridges. Clinicians may have concerns about the durability and function of such implants. PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stress values occurring on the implant and at the implant bone interface after the application of the static and dynamic forces on narrow diameter, titanium and titanium-zirconia implants in the maxillary and mandibular second premolar region...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645544/diagnostic-accuracy-of-eus-compared-with-mrcp-in-detecting-choledocholithiasis-a-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-test-accuracy-of-head-to-head-studies
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Yaghoobi, Yaser Meeralam, Khalil Al-Shammari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis of the choledocholithiasis with lack of a proper meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) using head-to-head comparison. Here, we aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of EUS and MRCP in detecting choledocholithiasis using appropriate methodology recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic literature search up to January 2017 was done by 2 reviewers for prospective cohort studies comparing EUS and MRCP to reference standard in detecting choledocholithiasis...
June 20, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645269/restricted-posture-in-dentistry-a-kinematic-analysis-of-orthodontists
#20
Daniela Ohlendorf, Christina Erbe, Imke Hauck, Jennifer Nowak, Ingo Hermanns, Dirk Ditchen, Rolf Ellegast, David A Groneberg
BACKGROUND: This study aims at identifying orthodontic activities with the highest frequency of unfavorable/awkward and static postures held over a period of more than 4 s based on kinematic analysis. Moreover, a separate analysis of static postures for orthodontic and non-orthodontic activities serves to evaluate the duration for which these particular postures are assumed. METHODS: In total, 21 (13f/8 m) orthodontists (age: 31.5 ± 3.8 years) participated in this study...
June 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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