Read by QxMD icon Read

Diets that promote muscle growth

Beau D Reilly, Craig E Franklin
Bone mass and skeletal muscle mass are controlled by factors such as genetics, diet and nutrition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. Whereas increased mechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system stimulates an increase in the mass and strength of skeletal muscle and bone, reduced mechanical loading and disuse rapidly promote a decrease in musculoskeletal mass, strength and ultimately performance (i.e. muscle atrophy and osteoporosis). In stark contrast to artificially immobilised laboratory mammals, animals that experience natural, prolonged bouts of disuse and reduced mechanical loading, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in musculoskeletal performance...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
Yuh-Ching Twu, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yun-Lian Lin, Shih-Ming Hsu, Yuan-Hsi Wang, Chia-Yu Liao, Chung-Kwe Wang, Yu-Chih Liang, Yi-Jen Liao
In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
L Long, S G Wu, F Yuan, J Wang, H J Zhang, G H Qi
Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases...
October 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Pei-Yu Chen, Lingfeng Qin, Guangxin Li, George Tellides, Michael Simons
The conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative phenotype is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of this process to plaque growth has never been fully defined. In this study, we show that activation of SMC TGFβ signaling, achieved by suppression of SMC fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling input, induces their conversion to a contractile phenotype and dramatically reduces atherosclerotic plaque size. The FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk was observed in vitro and in vivo In vitro, inhibition of FGF signaling increased TGFβ activity, thereby promoting smooth muscle differentiation and decreasing proliferation...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Adel Pezeshki, Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nicholas J Yee, Prasanth K Chelikani
Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuehua Zhou, Pingqing Gu, Weijie Shi, Jingyun Li, Qun Hao, Xiaomei Cao, Qin Lu, Yu Zeng
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces metabolic syndrome, which is often characterized by insulin resistance (IR), in adults. Previous research has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a role in the target genes involved in this process, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined miRNA profiles using samples of skeletal muscles from both IUGR and control rat offspring whose mothers were fed either a protein-restricted diet or a diet which involved normal amounts of protein during pregnancy, respectively...
April 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Mark R Charbonneau, David O'Donnell, Laura V Blanton, Sarah M Totten, Jasmine C C Davis, Michael J Barratt, Jiye Cheng, Janaki Guruge, Michael Talcott, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga Ilkayeva, Chao Wu, Tedd Struckmeyer, Daniela Barile, Charles Mangani, Josh Jorgensen, Yue-mei Fan, Kenneth Maleta, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn, Christopher B Newgard, Carlito Lebrilla, David A Mills, Jeffrey I Gordon
Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month-old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO)...
February 25, 2016: Cell
Jinxue Ruan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jing Yuan, Leilei Xin, Jihan Xia, Nan Liu, Yulian Mu, Yaoxing Chen, Shulin Yang, Kui Li
Skeletal muscle is as an important regulator of blood glucose and glycolipid metabolism and is closely related to motor ability. The underlying mechanisms by which dietary ectopic lipids in skeletal muscle prevents muscle growth remain elusive. We utilized miniature Bama swine as a model to mimic human obesity using prolonged dietary induction. After 23 months on a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, metabolic disorders were induced in the animals, which exhibited increased body weight, extensive lipid deposition in the skeletal muscle and amyotrophy...
April 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Liping Ju, Wenxin Tong, Miaoyan Qiu, Weili Shen, Jichao Sun, Ying Chen, Zhen Li, Weiqing Wang, Jingyan Tian
Low birthweight is known to predict high risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood, while regular endurance exercises are believed sufficient to improve metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we established a mouse model to determine whether long-term exercise training could ameliorate catch-up growth, and we explored the possible underlying mechanisms. By restricting maternal food intake during the last week of gestation, we successfully produced low birthweight pups. Further, normal birthweight mice and low birthweight mice were randomly distributed into one of three groups receiving either a normal fat diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with exercise training...
2016: Endocrine Journal
Yi Lin, Jianglei Chen, Zhongjie Sun
Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The objective of this study is to investigate whether klotho gene deficiency affects high-fat diet (HFD)-induced arterial stiffening. Heterozygous Klotho-deficient (KL(+/-)) mice and WT littermates were fed on HFD or normal diet. HFD increased pulse wave velocity within 5 weeks in KL(+/-) mice but not in wild-type mice, indicating that klotho deficiency accelerates and exacerbates HFD-induced arterial stiffening. A greater increase in blood pressure was found in KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD...
March 2016: Hypertension
Ffolliott Martin Fisher, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone that is synthesized by several organs and regulates energy homeostasis. Excitement surrounding this relatively recently identified hormone is based on the documented metabolic beneficial effects of FGF21, which include weight loss and improved glycemia. The biology of FGF21 is intrinsically complicated owing to its diverse metabolic functions in multiple target organs and its ability to act as an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factor. In the liver, FGF21 plays an important role in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation both in the fasted state and in mice consuming a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet...
2016: Annual Review of Physiology
Steven L Roseno, Patrick R Davis, Lance M Bollinger, Jonathan J S Powell, Carol A Witczak, Jeffrey J Brault
BACKGROUND: A short-term high-fat diet impairs mitochondrial function and the ability of skeletal muscle to respond to growth stimuli, but it is unknown whether such a diet alters the ability to respond to atrophy signals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rapid weigh gain induced by a high-fat (HF) diet accelerates denervation-induced muscle atrophy. METHODS: Adult, male mice (C57BL/6) were fed a control or HF (60 % calories as fat) diet for 3 weeks (3wHF)...
2015: Nutrition & Metabolism
Yimin Jia, Haogang Song, Guichao Gao, Demin Cai, Xiaojing Yang, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine has been widely used in animal and human nutrition to promote muscle growth and performance, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation affects the metabolic characteristics of neonatal skeletal muscles. In the present study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets throughout gestation significantly upregulated the expression of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes (p < 0.05), including COX1, COX2, and ND5, in the muscle of newborn piglets, which was associated with enhanced mitochondrial COX enzyme activity (p < 0...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carolina Castro, Geneviève Corraze, Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Laurence Larroquet, Marianne Cluzeaud, Stéphane Panserat, Aires Oliva-Teles
Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch)...
October 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Huawei Li, Hongrong Wang, Lihuai Yu, Mengzhi Wang, Shimin Liu, Lisha Sun, Qing Chen
This study determined the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on growth performance, blood lipids, meat quality and expression of genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism in young lambs. A total of 24 Dorper × Hu lambs (about 20 kg body weight) were kept in individual pens and fed diets with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% RPC for 60 d. Supplementation of 0.25% RPC increased average daily gain of lambs, whereas treatments had no significant effect on feed intake. The pH values of meat were increased at 0...
2015: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Julianne Beam, Amy Botta, Jiayu Ye, Hesham Soliman, Brieanne J Matier, Mary Forrest, Kathleen M MacLeod, Sanjoy Ghosh
Controversy exists on the benefits versus harms of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA). Although n-6 PUFA demonstrates anti-atherosclerotic properties, survival following cardiac remodeling may be compromised. We hypothesized that n-6 PUFA like linoleic acid (LA) or other downstream PUFAs like γ-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid alter the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-collagen axis in the heart. Excess dietary LA increased the collagen I/III ratio in the mouse myocardium, leading to cardiac "stiffening" characterized by impaired transmitral flow indicative of early diastolic dysfunction within 5 weeks...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yanling Huang, Jian Yang, Fang Xiao, Karen Lloyd, Xi Lin
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental chromium (Cr) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers reared under heat stress. A total of 252 1-d-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate, CrPro; Cr picolinate, CrPic; Cr chloride, CrCl3) and two concentrations of added Cr (0...
March 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
M B Betancor, P F Almaida-Pagán, A Hernández, D R Tocher
Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL) and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, oxidative status (TBARS content and SOD activity) and mtDNA gene expression of muscle and liver were analyzed in zebrafish fed two diets with lipid supplied either by rapeseed oil (RO) or a blend 60:40 of RO and DHA500 TG oil (DHA)...
October 2015: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yimin Jia, Guichao Gao, Haogang Song, Demin Cai, Xiaojing Yang, Ruqian Zhao
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a maternal low-protein diet on transcriptional regulation of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in skeletal muscle of weaning piglets. METHODS: Sows were fed either a standard-protein (SP, 15 and 18 % crude protein) or a low-protein (LP, 50 % protein level of SP) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from male piglets at 28 days of age. The mRNA was determined by RT-PCR, and protein was measured by Western blot...
April 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"