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Diets that promote muscle growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933336/shp-1-activation-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-a-rodent-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#1
Weier Qi, Qian Li, Chong Wee Liew, Christian Rask-Madsen, Samuel M Lockhart, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Yu Xia, Xuanchun Wang, Mogher Khamaisi, Kevin Croce, George L King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879253/the-yin-yang-dynamics-of-dna-methylation-is-the-key-regulator-for-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-and-vascular-remodeling
#2
Jianhui Zhuang, Peipei Luan, Hailing Li, Kai Wang, Pei Zhang, Yawei Xu, Wenhui Peng
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation plays an important role in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of our study is to indicate the regulatory mechanisms of DNA methylation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its roles in atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In ApoE(-/-) mice fed a Western diet, DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesions (20...
November 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876617/canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-inflammation-in-the-nodose-ganglion-hypothalamus-and-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#3
Farhana Naznin, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tadashi Okada, Hironobu Tsubouchi, T M Zaved Waise, Kenji Arakawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875740/conditional-knockout-of-tfpi-1-in-vsmcs-of-mice-accelerates-atherosclerosis-by-enhancing-amot-yap-pathway
#4
Jiajun Xiao, Kaiyue Jin, Jiping Wang, Jing Ma, Jin Zhang, Nan Jiang, Huijun Wang, Xinping Luo, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang, Xiao Yang, Duan Ma
BACKGROUND: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) has multiple functions and its precise role and molecular mechanism during the development of atherosclerosis are not clear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect and molecular mechanism of TFPI-1 deficiency in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mouse model with a conditional knockout of TFPI-1 in VSMCs in an atherosclerosis-prone background (ApoE(-/-)) was generated...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865159/dietary-glutamine-supplementation-enhances-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mobilization-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-subjected-to-limb-ischemia
#5
Shiau-Tsz Su, Chiu-Li Yeh, Yu-Chen Hou, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with increased risk of vascular diseases. Tissue ischemia may occur with diabetic vascular complications. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a reparative response to ischemic injury. This study investigated the effects of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation on circulating EPC mobilization and expression of tissue EPC-releasing markers in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Diabetes was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin for 5 days...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847551/caspase-3-deletion-promotes-necrosis-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-apoe-knockout-mice
#6
Mandy O J Grootaert, Dorien M Schrijvers, Marthe Hermans, Viviane O Van Hoof, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
Apoptosis of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in advanced atherosclerotic plaques contributes to plaque progression and instability. Caspase-3, a key executioner protease in the apoptotic pathway, has been identified in human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques but its role in atherogenesis is not fully explored. We therefore investigated the impact of caspase-3 deletion on atherosclerosis by crossbreeding caspase-3 knockout (Casp3(-/-)) mice with apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582559/prevention-of-muscle-wasting-and-osteoporosis-the-value-of-examining-novel-animal-models
#7
REVIEW
Beau D Reilly, Craig E Franklin
Bone mass and skeletal muscle mass are controlled by factors such as genetics, diet and nutrition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. Whereas increased mechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system stimulates an increase in the mass and strength of skeletal muscle and bone, reduced mechanical loading and disuse rapidly promote a decrease in musculoskeletal mass, strength and ultimately performance (i.e. muscle atrophy and osteoporosis). In stark contrast to artificially immobilised laboratory mammals, animals that experience natural, prolonged bouts of disuse and reduced mechanical loading, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in musculoskeletal performance...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556399/preliminary-validation-of-a-high-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-and-linolenic-acid-ala-dietary-oil-blend-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-liver-proteome-response-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-smolts
#8
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420058/niemann-pick-type-c2-protein-mediates-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-by-regulating-free-cholesterol-accumulation
#9
Yuh-Ching Twu, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yun-Lian Lin, Shih-Ming Hsu, Yuan-Hsi Wang, Chia-Yu Liao, Chung-Kwe Wang, Yu-Chih Liang, Yi-Jen Liao
In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189644/effects-of-dietary-octacosanol-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-broiler-chicks
#10
L Long, S G Wu, F Yuan, J Wang, H J Zhang, G H Qi
Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases...
October 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189169/smooth-muscle-fgf-tgf%C3%AE-cross-talk-regulates-atherosclerosis-progression
#11
Pei-Yu Chen, Lingfeng Qin, Guangxin Li, George Tellides, Michael Simons
The conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative phenotype is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of this process to plaque growth has never been fully defined. In this study, we show that activation of SMC TGFβ signaling, achieved by suppression of SMC fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling input, induces their conversion to a contractile phenotype and dramatically reduces atherosclerotic plaque size. The FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk was observed in vitro and in vivo In vitro, inhibition of FGF signaling increased TGFβ activity, thereby promoting smooth muscle differentiation and decreasing proliferation...
July 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122299/low-protein-diets-produce-divergent-effects-on-energy-balance
#12
Adel Pezeshki, Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nicholas J Yee, Prasanth K Chelikani
Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936652/microrna-29a-induces-insulin-resistance-by-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#13
Yuehua Zhou, Pingqing Gu, Weijie Shi, Jingyun Li, Qun Hao, Xiaomei Cao, Qin Lu, Yu Zeng
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces metabolic syndrome, which is often characterized by insulin resistance (IR), in adults. Previous research has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a role in the target genes involved in this process, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined miRNA profiles using samples of skeletal muscles from both IUGR and control rat offspring whose mothers were fed either a protein-restricted diet or a diet which involved normal amounts of protein during pregnancy, respectively...
April 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898329/sialylated-milk-oligosaccharides-promote-microbiota-dependent-growth-in-models-of-infant-undernutrition
#14
Mark R Charbonneau, David O'Donnell, Laura V Blanton, Sarah M Totten, Jasmine C C Davis, Michael J Barratt, Jiye Cheng, Janaki Guruge, Michael Talcott, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga Ilkayeva, Chao Wu, Tedd Struckmeyer, Daniela Barile, Charles Mangani, Josh Jorgensen, Yue-mei Fan, Kenneth Maleta, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn, Christopher B Newgard, Carlito Lebrilla, David A Mills, Jeffrey I Gordon
Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month-old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO)...
February 25, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850224/a-long-term-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-in-bama-minipigs-promotes-lipid-deposition-and-amyotrophy-by-up-regulating-the-myostatin-pathway
#15
Jinxue Ruan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jing Yuan, Leilei Xin, Jihan Xia, Nan Liu, Yulian Mu, Yaoxing Chen, Shulin Yang, Kui Li
Skeletal muscle is as an important regulator of blood glucose and glycolipid metabolism and is closely related to motor ability. The underlying mechanisms by which dietary ectopic lipids in skeletal muscle prevents muscle growth remain elusive. We utilized miniature Bama swine as a model to mimic human obesity using prolonged dietary induction. After 23 months on a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, metabolic disorders were induced in the animals, which exhibited increased body weight, extensive lipid deposition in the skeletal muscle and amyotrophy...
April 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842396/endurance-exercise-ameliorates-low-birthweight-developed-catch-up-growth-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Liping Ju, Wenxin Tong, Miaoyan Qiu, Weili Shen, Jichao Sun, Ying Chen, Zhen Li, Weiqing Wang, Jingyan Tian
Low birthweight is known to predict high risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood, while regular endurance exercises are believed sufficient to improve metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we established a mouse model to determine whether long-term exercise training could ameliorate catch-up growth, and we explored the possible underlying mechanisms. By restricting maternal food intake during the last week of gestation, we successfully produced low birthweight pups. Further, normal birthweight mice and low birthweight mice were randomly distributed into one of three groups receiving either a normal fat diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with exercise training...
2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781278/antiaging-gene-klotho-deficiency-promoted-high-fat-diet-induced-arterial-stiffening-via-inactivation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#17
Yi Lin, Jianglei Chen, Zhongjie Sun
Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The objective of this study is to investigate whether klotho gene deficiency affects high-fat diet (HFD)-induced arterial stiffening. Heterozygous Klotho-deficient (KL(+/-)) mice and WT littermates were fed on HFD or normal diet. HFD increased pulse wave velocity within 5 weeks in KL(+/-) mice but not in wild-type mice, indicating that klotho deficiency accelerates and exacerbates HFD-induced arterial stiffening. A greater increase in blood pressure was found in KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD...
March 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654352/understanding-the-physiology-of-fgf21
#18
Ffolliott Martin Fisher, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone that is synthesized by several organs and regulates energy homeostasis. Excitement surrounding this relatively recently identified hormone is based on the documented metabolic beneficial effects of FGF21, which include weight loss and improved glycemia. The biology of FGF21 is intrinsically complicated owing to its diverse metabolic functions in multiple target organs and its ability to act as an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factor. In the liver, FGF21 plays an important role in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation both in the fasted state and in mice consuming a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet...
2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539241/short-term-high-fat-diet-accelerates-disuse-atrophy-and-protein-degradation-in-a-muscle-specific-manner-in-mice
#19
Steven L Roseno, Patrick R Davis, Lance M Bollinger, Jonathan J S Powell, Carol A Witczak, Jeffrey J Brault
BACKGROUND: A short-term high-fat diet impairs mitochondrial function and the ability of skeletal muscle to respond to growth stimuli, but it is unknown whether such a diet alters the ability to respond to atrophy signals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rapid weigh gain induced by a high-fat (HF) diet accelerates denervation-induced muscle atrophy. METHODS: Adult, male mice (C57BL/6) were fed a control or HF (60 % calories as fat) diet for 3 weeks (3wHF)...
2015: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527363/maternal-betaine-supplementation-during-gestation-enhances-expression-of-mtdna-encoded-genes-through-d-loop-dna-hypomethylation-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-newborn-piglets
#20
Yimin Jia, Haogang Song, Guichao Gao, Demin Cai, Xiaojing Yang, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine has been widely used in animal and human nutrition to promote muscle growth and performance, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation affects the metabolic characteristics of neonatal skeletal muscles. In the present study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets throughout gestation significantly upregulated the expression of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes (p < 0.05), including COX1, COX2, and ND5, in the muscle of newborn piglets, which was associated with enhanced mitochondrial COX enzyme activity (p < 0...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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