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stem cell epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145503/zinc-sulfate-contributes-to-promote-telomere-length-extension-via-increasing-telomerase-gene-expression-telomerase-activity-and-change-in-the-tert-gene-promoter-cpg-island-methylation-status-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Nosratollah Zarghami
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143176/the-treatment-landscape-and-new-opportunities-of-molecular-targeted-therapies-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Fabiola Amair-Pinedo, Ignacio Matos, Tamara Saurí, Jorge Hernando, Jaume Capdevila
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from neuroendocrine stem cells and express both neural and endocrine markers. They are found in almost every organ, and while NENs are mostly associated with slow growth, complications due to the uncontrolled secretion of active peptides, and metastatic disease, may significantly impair the quality of life and can ultimately lead to the death of affected individuals. Expanding knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic landscapes of NENs has led to a better understanding of their molecular pathology and consequently increased treatment options for patients...
November 15, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#3
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141554/insight-into-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-osteogenesis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Sibei Huo, Yachuan Zhou, Xinyu He, Mian Wan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141553/epigenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-epithelial-stem-cells-fate
#5
Hongyu Li, Dixin Cui, Si Wu, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial tissues have the ability to self-renew throughout animal's life due to the presence of the epithelial stem cells. Except for complicated genes regulation, the fate of epithelial stem cells is also regulated by the epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs, which are emerging as vital elements of epigenetic regulation for epithelial stem cells self-renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying these are still poorly understood...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138005/distinct-hypoxic-regulation-of-preadipocyte-factor-1-pref-1-in-preadipocytes-and-mature-adipocytes
#6
Yunwon Moon, Seongyeol Lee, Bongju Park, Hyunsung Park
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secretory soluble protein, which exerts pleiotropic effects on maintenance of cancer stem cell characteristics and commitment of mesenchymal stem cell lineages by inhibiting adipogenesis. Observations that obesity renders the microenvironment of adipose tissues hypoxic and that hypoxia inhibits adipogenesis lead us to investigate whether hypoxia increases the expression of anti-adipogenic Pref-1 in preadipocytes, mature adipocytes, and adipose tissues from obese mouse. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, hypoxia induces Pref-1 by a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-dependent mechanism accompanied by increase in the levels of the active histone mark, acetylated H3K9/14 (H3K9/14Ac)...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137219/functional-characterization-of-lysine-specific-demethylase-2-lsd2-kdm1b-in-breast-cancer-progression
#7
Lin Chen, Shauna N Vasilatos, Ye Qin, Tiffany A Katz, Chunyu Cao, Hao Wu, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin M Levine, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Flavin-dependent histone demethylases govern histone H3K4 methylation and act as important chromatin modulators that are extensively involved in regulation of DNA replication, gene transcription, DNA repair, and heterochromatin gene silencing. While the activities of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) in facilitating breast cancer progression have been well characterized, the roles of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in breast oncogenesis are relatively less understood. In this study, we showed that LSD2 protein level was significantly elevated in malignant breast cell lines compared with normal breast epithelial cell line...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134247/epigenetic-differences-between-na%C3%A3-ve-and-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Saori Takahashi, Shin Kobayashi, Ichiro Hiratani
It has been 8 years since the concept of naïve and primed pluripotent stem cell states was first proposed. Both are states of pluripotency, but exhibit slightly different properties. The naïve state represents the cellular state of the preimplantation mouse blastocyst inner cell mass, while the primed state is representative of the post-implantation epiblast cells. These two cell types exhibit clearly distinct developmental potential, as evidenced by the fact that naïve cells are able to contribute to blastocyst chimeras, while primed cells cannot...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#9
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129488/dna-hypomethylating-agents-as-epigenetic-therapy-before-and-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-juvenile-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Christian Flotho, Sebastian Sommer, Michael Lübbert
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal bone marrow disorder, typically of older adults, which is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias and risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm occurring in young children. The common denominator of these malignant myeloid disorders is the limited benefit of conventional chemotherapy and a particular responsiveness to epigenetic therapy with the DNA-hypomethylating agents 5-azacytidine (azacitidine) or decitabine...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122288/bioprocessing-strategies-for-pluripotent-stem-cells-based-on-waddington-s-epigenetic-landscape
#11
REVIEW
Mee-Hae Kim, Masahiro Kino-Oka
As increasing numbers of cell-based therapies advance through clinical trials towards approval for use in humans, the need for robust and well-characterized cell culturing strategies is becoming increasingly apparent. We discuss here novel stem cell bioprocessing strategies based on the concept of using Waddington's epigenetic landscape to represent the process of cellular decision-making during development. Specifically, we focus on the manner in which cell behavior triggers cell signaling pathways related to the initial cell fate decision...
November 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118915/a-novel-culture-system-robustly-maintained-pluripotency-of-embryonic-stem-cells-and-accelerated-somatic-reprogramming-by-activating-wnt-signaling
#12
Shaojie Li, Xiao Lu, Haipeng He, Rong Cui, Xianxin Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Xia Wu
Wnt signaling is intrinsic to embryonic stem cell self-renewal and mammalian development. However, the effects of wnts on ES cells self-renewal and iPS cells transduction was not clearly understood. In this study, L-Wnt3a cells that secreted activated Wnt3a protein into medium were used to produce Wnt3a condition medium (Wnt3a-CM) or feeder layer for ES cells cultivation and iPS cells transduction. The results showed that L-Wnt3a cells as feeder layer significantly promoted establishment of ES cell lines and generation of iPS cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117561/ronin-governs-early-heart-development-by-controlling-core-gene-expression-programs
#13
Jun Fujita, Pablo Freire, Cristian Coarfa, Ashley L Benham, Preethi Gunaratne, Michael D Schneider, Marion Dejosez, Thomas P Zwaka
Ronin (THAP11), a DNA-binding protein that evolved from a primordial DNA transposon by molecular domestication, recognizes a hyperconserved promoter sequence to control developmentally and metabolically essential genes in pluripotent stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether Ronin or related THAP proteins perform similar functions in development. Here, we present evidence that Ronin functions within the nascent heart as it arises from the mesoderm and forms a four-chambered organ. We show that Ronin is vital for cardiogenesis during midgestation by controlling a set of critical genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113963/gain-of-function-of-asxl1-truncating-protein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myeloid-malignancies
#14
Hui Yang, Stefan Kurtenbach, Ying Guo, Ines Lohse, Michael A Durante, Jianping Li, Zhaomin Li, Hassan Al-Ali, Lingxiao Li, Zizhen Chen, Matthew G Field, Peng Zhang, Shi Chen, Shohei Yamamoto, Zhuo Li, Yuan Zhou, Stephen D Nimer, J William Harbour, Claes Wahlestedt, Mingjiang Xu, Feng-Chun Yang
Additional Sex Combs-Like 1 (ASXL1) is mutated at a high frequency in all forms of myeloid malignancies associated with poor prognosis. We generated a Vav1 promoter driven Flag-Asxl1(Y588X) transgenic mouse model, Asxl1(Y588X) Tg, to express a truncated FLAG-ASXL1(aa1-587) protein in the hematopoietic system. The Asxl1(Y588X) Tg mice had an enlarged hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, shortened survival, and predisposition to a spectrum of myeloid malignancies, thereby recapitulating the characteristics of myeloid malignancy patients with ASXL1 mutations...
November 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112121/the-potential-of-ipscs-for-the-treatment-of-premature-aging-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Claudia Compagnucci, Enrico Bertini
Premature aging disorders including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome, are a group of rare monogenic diseases leading to reduced lifespan of the patients. Importantly, these disorders mimic several features of physiological aging. Despite the interest on the study of these diseases, the underlying biological mechanisms remain unknown and no treatment is available. Recent studies on HGPS (due to mutations of the LMNA gene encoding for the nucleoskeletal proteins lamin A/C) have reported disruptions in cellular and molecular mechanisms modulating genomic stability and stem cell populations, thus giving the nuclear lamina a relevant function in nuclear organization, epigenetic regulation and in the maintenance of the stem cell pool...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109790/aptamer-based-therapeutic-approaches-to-target-cancer-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Gang Zhou, Olivier Latchoumanin, Mary Bagdesar, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be a principal cellular source for tumour progression and therapeutic drug resistance as they are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into cancer cells. Importantly, CSCs acquire the ability to evade the killing effects of cytotoxic agents through changes at the genetic, epigenetic and micro-environment levels. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs hold great potential as an avenue for cancer treatment. Aptamers or "chemical antibodies" are a group of single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) oligonucleotides with distinctive properties such as smaller size, lower toxicity and less immunogenicity compared to conventional antibodies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109788/decrease-in-lymphoid-specific-helicase-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-genome-instability
#17
Jiantao Jia, Ying Shi, Ling Chen, Weiwei Lai, Bin Yan, Yiqun Jiang, Desheng Xiao, Sichuan Xi, Ya Cao, Shuang Liu, Yan Cheng, Yongguang Tao
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change in 5-hmC levels in cancer and associated metastasis is not well defined...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107996/epigenetic-memory-via-concordant-dna-methylation-is-inversely-correlated-to-developmental-potential-of-mammalian-cells
#18
Minseung Choi, Diane P Genereux, Jamie Goodson, Haneen Al-Azzawi, Shannon Q Allain, Noah Simon, Stan Palasek, Carol B Ware, Chris Cavanaugh, Daniel G Miller, Winslow C Johnson, Kevin D Sinclair, Reinhard Stöger, Charles D Laird
In storing and transmitting epigenetic information, organisms must balance the need to maintain information about past conditions with the capacity to respond to information in their current and future environments. Some of this information is encoded by DNA methylation, which can be transmitted with variable fidelity from parent to daughter strand. High fidelity confers strong pattern matching between the strands of individual DNA molecules and thus pattern stability over rounds of DNA replication; lower fidelity confers reduced pattern matching, and thus greater flexibility...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106744/germ-cell-tumor-growth-patterns-originating-from-clear-cell-carcinomas-of-the-ovary-and-endometrium-a-comparative-immunohistochemical-study-favouring-their-origin-from-somatic-stem-cells
#19
F F Nogales, J Prat, M Schuldt, N Cruz-Viruel, B Kau, E D'Angelo, X Matias-Guiu, A Vidal, W G McCluggage, J W Oosterhuis
AIMS: To report a series of 11 ovarian and one endometrial neoplasm in elderly patients with mixed clear cell tumour and germ cell tumour (GCT) components, to compare their immunohistochemical and demonstrate a putative stem cell population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clear cell tumours included 11 clear cell carcinomas (CCC) and 1 borderline clear cell tumour, while the GCT always included glandular yolk sac tumour (YST). In 4 cases, there were also foci of teratoma with immature neuroepithelial and endodermal tissues, and undifferentiated areas showing true embryoids...
November 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103143/dna-hypermethylation-enhanced-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Ken Takasawa, Yoshikazu Arai, Mayu Yamazaki-Inoue, Masashi Toyoda, Hidenori Akutsu, Akihiro Umezawa, Koichiro Nishino
During reprogramming into human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), several stem cell marker genes are induced, such as OCT-4, NANOG, SALL4, and TERT. OCT-4, NANOG, and SALL4 gene expression can be regulated by DNA methylation. Their promoters become hypomethylated in iPSCs during reprogramming, leading to their induced expression. However, epigenetic regulation of the TERT gene remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of the human TERT gene and identified a differentially methylated region (DMR) at a distal region in the TERT promoter between human iPSCs and their parental somatic cells...
November 4, 2017: Human Cell
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