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Non-verbal learning disability

Susanna S Yeung
This one-year longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of English reading in Chinese children learning English as a second language (ESL) and identified cognitive profiles of children who are at risk for English reading disability. One hundred and eighty-four Chinese ESL children from eight Hong Kong kindergartens were measured four times during their last year of kindergarten for phonological awareness, letter knowledge, vocabulary and English word reading. Growth mixture modeling was applied to classify the children based on their growth trajectories in English word reading...
May 11, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kate Oulton, Faith Gibson, Lucinda Carr, Angela Hassiotis, Carey Jewitt, Charlotte Kenten, Jessica Russell, Mark Whiting, Irene Tuffrey-Wijne, Jo Wray
BACKGROUND: Children and young people (CYP) with learning disabilities (LD) are a vulnerable population with increased risk of abuse and accidental injury and whose parents have reported concerns about the quality, safety and accessibility of their hospital care. The Care Quality Commission's (CQC) view of best practice for this group of patients includes: access to senior LD nurse provision; a clearly visible flagging system for identifying them; the use of hospital passports; and defined communication strategies (Glasper, Comp Child Adolesc Nurs 40:63-67, 2017)...
March 23, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Chelsea Lowther, Daniele Merico, Gregory Costain, Jack Waserman, Kerry Boyd, Abdul Noor, Marsha Speevak, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, John Wei, Anath C Lionel, Christian R Marshall, Stephen W Scherer, Anne S Bassett
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with IQ deficits. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been established to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several of the large rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia have been shown to negatively affect IQ in population-based controls where no major neuropsychiatric disorder is reported. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic yield of microarray testing and the functional impact of genome-wide rare CNVs in a community ascertained cohort of adults with schizophrenia and low (< 85) or average (≥ 85) IQ...
November 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
Lauretta Luck, Harrison Ng Chok, Lesley Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of participants, as well as response rates, can be challenging in nursing research. This can be because of the questions asked; the choice of methodology; the methods used to collect data; the characteristics of potential participants; the sample size required; and the duration of the study. Additionally, conducting research with nurses as participants presents several issues for them, including the time needed to participate in the research, the competing commitments for clinical practice, the political and environmental climate, and recruitment itself...
September 19, 2017: Nurse Researcher
Christian Peake, Juan E Jiménez, Cristina Rodríguez
Many classifications of heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) have been proposed over the past four decades, however no empirical research has been conducted until recently, and none of the classifications are derived from Triple Code Model (TCM) postulates. The TCM proposes MLD as a heterogeneous disorder, with two distinguishable profiles: a representational subtype and a verbal subtype. A sample of elementary school 3rd to 6th graders was divided into two age cohorts (3rd - 4th grades, and 5th - 6th grades)...
October 13, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yewande O Oshodi, Andrew T Olagunju, Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu, Elizabeth A Campbell, Charles S Umeh, Olatunji F Aina, Wellington Oyibo, Folusho E A Lesi, Joseph D Adeyemi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
March 2018: Developmental Science
(no author information available yet)
My son Conor is an 11-year-old boy with a rare genetic condition called Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and complex needs. We have encountered many medical and nursing staff on our journey, but learning disability community nurse Lisa Harris, who works for the Western Health and Social Care Trust in Derry, Northern Ireland, stands out.
February 1, 2017: Nursing Standard
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Kristen Wigby, Cheryl D'Epagnier, Susan Howell, Amy Reicks, Rebecca Wilson, Lisa Cordeiro, Nicole Tartaglia
Triple X syndrome (47, XXX) occurs in approximately 1:1,000 female births and has a variable phenotype of physical and psychological features. Prenatal diagnosis rates of 47, XXX are increasing due to non-invasive prenatal genetic testing. Previous studies suggest that prenatal diagnosed females have better neurodevelopmental outcomes. This cross-sectional study describes diagnosis, physical features, medical problems, and neurodevelopmental features in a large cohort of females with 47, XXX. Evaluation included review of medical and developmental history, physical exam, cognitive, and adaptive testing...
November 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Mark G Rae, Dervla O'Malley
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X chromosome-linked disease characterized by progressive physical disability, immobility, and premature death in affected boys. Underlying the devastating symptoms of DMD is the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein that connects the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton and provides protection against contraction-induced damage in muscle cells, leading to chronic peripheral inflammation. However, dystrophin is also expressed in neurons within specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, a structure associated with learning and memory formation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Catalina Mourgues, Mei Tan, Sascha Hein, Emma Ojanen, Jodi Reich, Heikki Lyytinen, Elena L Grigorenko
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Erikson Felipe Furtado, Sarah Teófilo de Sá Roriz
This paper aimed to examine prenatal alcohol exposure and neuropsychological parameters and its relationship to impulsivity and inattention. Longitudinal prospective case-control cohort study starting with the risk drinking assessment of 449 third-trimester pregnant women, and a follow-up phase with 56 mother-child pairs (28 alcohol-exposed versus 28 non-exposed), with 11-12 years old children. The cohort study was followed up for 11 years. Quantity-frequency structured questions as well as AUDIT and T-ACE questionnaires were used to assess maternal alcohol consumption...
December 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
A Farooqi, M Adamsson, F Serenius, B Hägglöf
AIMS: To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF) and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT) children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years. METHODS: A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors) EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks) and 103 matched term controls were assessed...
2016: PloS One
Virginie Crollen, Camille Vanderclausen, Florence Allaire, Arnaud Pollaris, Marie-Pascale Noël
Consistently with the idea that numbers and space interact with each other, the present paper aimed to investigate the impact of non-verbal learning disabilities (NVLD) on spatial and numerical processing. In order to do so, 15 NVLD and 15 control children were required to perform different spatial (the line bisection and Simon tasks) and numerical tasks (the number bisection, number-to-position and numerical comparison tasks). In every task, NVLD children presented lower accuracy scores than the control group...
December 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Emily R Revell, Jo C Neill, Michael Harte, Zarshed Khan, Richard J Drake
Neurocognitive impairment predicts disability in schizophrenia, making intervention theoretically attractive as a means to minimise chronic disability. Many trials confirm that cognitive remediation (CR) produces meaningful, durable improvements in cognition and functioning but fewer focus on the early stages. We systematically reviewed CR trials in early schizophrenia to determine its efficacy on global cognition, functioning and symptoms. Two reviewers independently searched electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials investigating CR following a first episode of psychosis...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Ricardo Basso Garcia, Irene C Mammarella, Arianna Pancera, Cesar Galera, Cesare Cornoldi
It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level...
October 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kristine Hermansen Grunewaldt, Jon Skranes, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Gro C C Lähaugen
AIM: Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. METHOD: This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group...
February 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Huma Ali, Janeva Kircher, Christine Meyers, Joseph MacLellan, Samina Ali
BACKGROUND: Under-treatment of children's pain in the emergency department (ED) can have many detrimental effects. Emergency medicine (EM) residents often manage pediatric pain, but their educational needs and perspectives have not been studied. METHODS: A novel online survey was administered from May to June 2013 to 122 EM residents at three Canadian universities using a modified Dillman methodology. The survey instrument captured information on training received in pediatric acute pain management, approach to common painful presentations, level of comfort, perceived facilitators, and barriers and attitudes towards pediatric pain...
September 2015: CJEM
Li Sheng, Courtney T Byrd, Karla K McGregor, Hannah Zimmerman, Kadee Bludau
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). METHOD: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order...
April 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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