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Nonverbal learning disability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538047/auditory-processing-disorder-what-does-it-mean-and-what-can-be-done
#1
Krista Bartlett, Elissa Kelley, Julie Purdy, Martin T Stein
Julian, an 11-year-old boy in the sixth grade with a compliant disposition and a positive attitude, has had a significant decline in his academic performance over the last 2 years. He spends much of his time in the nurse's office with headaches and fatigue. He reports that he cannot concentrate or follow along in class. Vision and hearing screenings were normal.Julian's teachers report that although he has no behavior problem, he is inattentive and does not put forth the effort she feels he is capable of giving...
June 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495044/cognitive-and-academic-outcomes-in-long-term-survivors-of-infantile-onset-pompe-disease-a-longitudinal-follow-up
#2
Gail A Spiridigliozzi, Lori A Keeling, Mihaela Stefanescu, Cindy Li, Stephanie Austin, Priya S Kishnani
This study examines the long-term cognitive and academic outcomes of 11 individuals with infantile onset Pompe disease (IOPD) (median age=11years, 1month, range=5years, 6months through 17years of age) treated with enzyme replacement therapy from an early age. All participants (7 males, 4 females) were administered individual intelligence tests (Wechsler or Leiter scales or both), a measure of their academic skill levels (Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement), and a screening measure of visual-motor integration ability (Beery-Buktenica)...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492417/cognitive-control-in-children-with-learning-disabilities-neuromarker-for-deficient-executive-functions
#3
Nsreen Alahmadi
The neural underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) are still not known. Recent discussions focus over whether domain-specific and/or domain-unspecific reasons might be responsible for LD either alone or in combination with each other. This study applied standard nonverbal Go-NoGo tasks (visual continuous performance test) to LD and healthy control children to examine whether they show deficient executive functions. During this Go-NoGo task, electroencephalogram was measured in addition to reaction times, hits, omissions, and commissions to the Go and NoGo stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431841/cognitive-profile-and-disorders-affecting-higher-brain-functions-in-paediatric-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#4
E Vaucheret Paz, A López Ballent, C Puga, M J García Basalo, F Baliarda, C Ekonen, R Ilari, G Agosta
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406663/neuropsychological-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380399/local-and-global-processing-in-block-design-tasks-in-children-with-dyslexia-or-nonverbal-learning-disability
#6
Ramona Cardillo, Irene C Mammarella, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Cesare Cornoldi
Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure...
April 2, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299557/beyond-a-reading-disability-comments-on-the-need-to-examine-the-full-spectrum-of-abilities-disabilities-of-the-atypical-dyslexic-brain
#7
Jeffrey W Gilger
A panel of practioners and researchers convened to consider how to advance a broader understanding of the neurocognitive profile of people with dyslexia. While a great deal of research has been conducted on the reading process, the panel recognized that the "dyslexia brain" may be unique in other ways as well. In particular, the panel focused on complex nonverbal/spatial skills and correlated attributes such as career choice. The conclusion of the panel was that there is more to be learned about how people with dyslexia reason spatially and how these qualities manifest in academic, personal, and career behaviors...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296527/pragmatics-of-language-and-theory-of-mind-in-children-with-dyslexia-with-associated-language-difficulties-or-nonverbal-learning-disabilities
#8
Ramona Cardillo, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Irene C Mammarella, Cesare Cornoldi
The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161297/signaling-of-noncomprehension-in-communication-breakdowns-in-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#10
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710893/pitch-perception-deficits-in-nonverbal-learning-disability
#11
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
December 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464885/emotion-knowledge-emotion-regulation-and-psychosocial-adjustment-in-children-with-nonverbal-learning-disabilities
#12
Jamie L Metsala, Tanya M Galway, Galit Ishaik, Veronica E Barton
Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children...
July 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119213/stimulus-overselectivity-in-autism-down-syndrome-and-typical-development
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William V Dube, Rachel S Farber, Marlana R Mueller, Eileen Grant, Lucy Lorin, Curtis K Deutsch
Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms...
May 2016: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081657/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-lovastatin-trial-for-neurobehavioral-function-in-neurofibromatosis-i
#14
Carrie E Bearden, Gerhard S Hellemann, Tena Rosser, Caroline Montojo, Rachel Jonas, Nicole Enrique, Laura Pacheco, Shaun A Hussain, Joyce Y Wu, Jennifer S Ho, James J McGough, Catherine A Sugar, Alcino J Silva
OBJECTIVE: Lovastatin has been shown to reverse learning deficits in a mouse model of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), a common monogenic disorder caused by a mutation in the Ras-MAPK pathway and associated with learning disabilities. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess lovastatin's effects on cognition and behavior in patients with NF1. METHOD: Forty-four NF1 patients (mean age 25.7+/-11.6 years; 64% female) were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of lovastatin (N = 23; maximum dose of 80 mg/day for adult participants and 40 mg/day for children) or placebo (N = 21)...
April 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986198/definition-of-a-visuospatial-dimension-as-a-step-forward-in-the-diagnostic-puzzle-of-nonverbal-learning-disability
#15
REVIEW
Michele Poletti
Although clinically recognized for almost 50 years, the categorical distinction of specific learning disabilities due to an impairment of the nonverbal domain (nonverbal learning disability [NLD]) is still debated and controversial. Unsolved issues involve theoretical models, diagnostic criteria, rehabilitative interventions, and moderator factors. These issues are briefly overviewed to sustain the need for a shift toward dimensional approaches, as suggested by research domain criteria, as a step forward in the diagnostic puzzle of NLD...
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492104/preliminary-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-jeavons-syndrome
#16
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Marsha Gabriel, M Scott Perry
Jeavons syndrome (JS, eyelid myoclonia with absences [EMA]) consists of a triad of symptoms including eyelid myoclonia that may be accompanied by absence seizures, eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms or seizures, and photosensitivity. The age of onset ranges between 2 and 14 years with symptoms peaking between 6 and 8 years of age. Though investigation of the clinical, EEG, and neurological features of JS has occurred, neurocognitive functioning has not been well-delineated despite suggestion that a subtype of the syndrome is characterized in part by cognitive impairment...
November 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246693/processing-sentences-with-literal-versus-figurative-use-of-verbs-an-erp-study-with-children-with-language-impairments-nonverbal-impairments-and-typical-development
#17
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Michele Burigo, Virginia Borsa, Massimo Molteni
Forty native Italian children (age 6-15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26086740/neurodevelopmental-variability-in-three-young-girls-with-a-rare-chromosomal-disorder-48-xxxx
#18
Carole Samango-Sprouse, Colleen Keen, Francie Mitchell, Teresa Sadeghin, Andrea Gropman
Fourty eight, XXXX is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy associated with neurocognitive deficits, speech and language disorders and executive dysfunction but the scarcity and variability of reported cases limit our understanding of the 48, XXXX phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the neurodevelopmental profile of three young females with 48, XXXX. Patient 1 (age = 11.0), Patient 2 (age = 10.9), and Patient 3 (age = 6.4) were evaluated using comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments...
October 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25989505/down-syndrome-cognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-across-the-lifespan
#19
REVIEW
Julie Grieco, Margaret Pulsifer, Karen Seligsohn, Brian Skotko, Alison Schwartz
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge...
June 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711370/social-functioning-using-direct-and-indirect-measures-with-children-with-high-functioning-autism-nonverbal-learning-disability-and-typically-developing-children
#20
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jodene Goldenring Fine, Jesse Bledsoe
Social perception is an important underlying foundation for emotional development and overall adaptation. The majority of studies with children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) evaluating social functioning have used measures of parent and/or teacher ratings. The present study utilized parent and teacher ratings of behavior as well as executive functioning in addition to direct measures of social perception. Three groups participated in this study (control [n = 38] HFA [n = 36], NLD [n = 31])...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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