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Nonverbal learning disability

Jeffrey W Gilger
A panel of practioners and researchers convened to consider how to advance a broader understanding of the neurocognitive profile of people with dyslexia. While a great deal of research has been conducted on the reading process, the panel recognized that the "dyslexia brain" may be unique in other ways as well. In particular, the panel focused on complex nonverbal/spatial skills and correlated attributes such as career choice. The conclusion of the panel was that there is more to be learned about how people with dyslexia reason spatially and how these qualities manifest in academic, personal, and career behaviors...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
Ramona Cardillo, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Irene C Mammarella, Cesare Cornoldi
The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
December 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jamie L Metsala, Tanya M Galway, Galit Ishaik, Veronica E Barton
Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children...
July 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
William V Dube, Rachel S Farber, Marlana R Mueller, Eileen Grant, Lucy Lorin, Curtis K Deutsch
Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms...
May 2016: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Carrie E Bearden, Gerhard S Hellemann, Tena Rosser, Caroline Montojo, Rachel Jonas, Nicole Enrique, Laura Pacheco, Shaun A Hussain, Joyce Y Wu, Jennifer S Ho, James J McGough, Catherine A Sugar, Alcino J Silva
OBJECTIVE: Lovastatin has been shown to reverse learning deficits in a mouse model of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), a common monogenic disorder caused by a mutation in the Ras-MAPK pathway and associated with learning disabilities. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess lovastatin's effects on cognition and behavior in patients with NF1. METHOD: Forty-four NF1 patients (mean age 25.7+/-11.6 years; 64% female) were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of lovastatin (N = 23; maximum dose of 80 mg/day for adult participants and 40 mg/day for children) or placebo (N = 21)...
April 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Michele Poletti
Although clinically recognized for almost 50 years, the categorical distinction of specific learning disabilities due to an impairment of the nonverbal domain (nonverbal learning disability [NLD]) is still debated and controversial. Unsolved issues involve theoretical models, diagnostic criteria, rehabilitative interventions, and moderator factors. These issues are briefly overviewed to sustain the need for a shift toward dimensional approaches, as suggested by research domain criteria, as a step forward in the diagnostic puzzle of NLD...
March 17, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Marsha Gabriel, M Scott Perry
Jeavons syndrome (JS, eyelid myoclonia with absences [EMA]) consists of a triad of symptoms including eyelid myoclonia that may be accompanied by absence seizures, eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms or seizures, and photosensitivity. The age of onset ranges between 2 and 14 years with symptoms peaking between 6 and 8 years of age. Though investigation of the clinical, EEG, and neurological features of JS has occurred, neurocognitive functioning has not been well-delineated despite suggestion that a subtype of the syndrome is characterized in part by cognitive impairment...
November 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Michele Burigo, Virginia Borsa, Massimo Molteni
Forty native Italian children (age 6-15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Carole Samango-Sprouse, Colleen Keen, Francie Mitchell, Teresa Sadeghin, Andrea Gropman
Fourty eight, XXXX is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy associated with neurocognitive deficits, speech and language disorders and executive dysfunction but the scarcity and variability of reported cases limit our understanding of the 48, XXXX phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the neurodevelopmental profile of three young females with 48, XXXX. Patient 1 (age = 11.0), Patient 2 (age = 10.9), and Patient 3 (age = 6.4) were evaluated using comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments...
October 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Julie Grieco, Margaret Pulsifer, Karen Seligsohn, Brian Skotko, Alison Schwartz
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge...
June 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jodene Goldenring Fine, Jesse Bledsoe
Social perception is an important underlying foundation for emotional development and overall adaptation. The majority of studies with children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) evaluating social functioning have used measures of parent and/or teacher ratings. The present study utilized parent and teacher ratings of behavior as well as executive functioning in addition to direct measures of social perception. Three groups participated in this study (control [n = 38] HFA [n = 36], NLD [n = 31])...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Leah Kaye, Marie Kurtz, Cheryl Tierney, Ajay Soni, Marilyn Augustyn
Chase is a 5½-year-old boy whom you have followed in your primary care practice since age 26 months. He was born full-term vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds 15 ounces. His biological mother used heroin, tobacco, and cocaine during pregnancy. From 8 weeks to 18 months, he spent time in a foster home where he was provided limited attention and nurturing. At age 18 months, he entered a loving foster home; at 26 months, he was adopted. There is maternal history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, depression, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse but no history of autism or cognitive disability...
November 2014: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Keith Atkin, Marjorie Perlman Lorch
BACKGROUND: Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. METHOD: We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software...
August 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
B Allyson Phillips, Frances A Conners, Edward Merrill, Mark R Klinger
Rule-based category learning was examined in youths with Down syndrome (DS), youths with intellectual disability (ID), and typically developing (TD) youths. Two tasks measured category learning: the Modified Card Sort task (MCST) and the Concept Formation test of the Woodcock-Johnson-III ( Woodock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001 ). In regression-based analyses, DS and ID groups performed below the level expected for their nonverbal ability. In cross-sectional developmental trajectory analyses, results depended on the task...
May 2014: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Irene C Mammarella, Marta Ghisi, Monica Bomba, Gioia Bottesi, Sara Caviola, Fiorenza Broggi, Renata Nacinovich
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
The present study investigated the linguistic and cognitive predictors of early literacy in 17 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mean age: 7; 6 years) compared to 24 children with normal language acquisition (NLA) (mean age: 6; 0 years), who were all in the so-called partial alphabetic phase of reading (Ehri, 2005). In each group, children's performances in early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) were assessed, as well as their achievement in linguistic and cognitive measures associated to these skills...
July 2014: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Carole A Samango-Sprouse, Emily J Stapleton, Francie L Mitchell, Teresa Sadeghin, Thomas P Donahue, Andrea L Gropman
The aim of the study was to examine the impact of familial learning disabilities (FLD) on the phenotypic profile of 47, XXY males and the possibility that 47, XXY males with more severe cognitive deficits may be partially a consequence of familial dyslexia/reading disorder. We wondered if FLD could pose an additional risk for complex neurodevelopmental differences in 47, XXY. The neurodevelopmental profile of males with 47, XXY has been characterized by developmental dyspraxia, language-based learning disorders, executive dysfunction, reading, and attentional deficits...
June 2014: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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